1 A New Species of the Genus Melita ( Titlefrom a High Tide Pool at Shirahama, Kii Peninsula, Japan Author(s) Yamato, Shigeyuki Citation PUBLICATIONS OF THE SETO MARINE BIO LABORATORY (1995), 36(5-6): Issue Date URL Right Type Departmental Bulletin Paper Textversion publisher Kyoto University
2 A New Species of the Genus Melita (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from a High Tide Pool at Shirahama, on the West Coast of the Kii Peninsula, Japan SHIGEYUKI YAMATO Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, Kyoto University, Shirahama, Wakayama , Japan With Text-figures 1-4 Abstract A new amphipod crustacean, Melita shiodamari, is described from a high tide rock pool at Shirahama, on the west coast of the Kii Peninsula in Japan. The new species is very different from many Melita species, but resembles M. plumulosa Zeidler, 1989, M. awa Barnard, 1972b and M. matilda Barnard, 1972a from the Southern Hemisphere in the general morphology, and especially in the peculiar morphology of the gnathopods 1 and 2. Tegano seticornis (Bousfield, 1970), Sriha vagabunda (Karaman, 1984) and Fiha schminkei Stock, 1988 are also similar to the new species, and should be transferred to the genus A1elita. All of these species possibly constitute a subgroup, awa-complex, of the genus Melita. Taxonomy of other related genera from the Indo-Pacific, most of which are monotypic, are also considered. The relationship and evolution of these allied species and genera are briefly discussed. Key words: Crustacea, amphipods, Melita, awa-complex, Indo-Pacific, monotypic genera So far, 15 species of the amphipod genus Melita have been reported from Japanese waters (lshimaru, 1994). Amphipods collected from a high tide rock pool at Shirahama on the west coast of the Kii Peninsula were found to belong to a previously undescribed species, which seemed to resemble species of Melita from the Southern Hemisphere more closely than other Japanese species of the genus. Therefore, a detailed morphological study of the newly discovered animals was conducted and comparisons were made with related amphipods. Abbreviations used in the figures. A, antenna; CX, coxa; EPI, epimeral plate; G, gnathopod; H, head; IP, inner plate; L, left; LL, lower lip; MD, mandible; MX, maxilla; MXP, maxilliped; OP, outer plate; OS, oostegite; PA, palp; PL, plcopod; PR, pereopod; R, right; T, tclson; U, uropod; UL, upper lip; d, dorsal vie\v; i, inner surface; v, ventral view. Melita shiodmnari n. sp. (Figs 1-4) (Japanese name: shiodamari-merita yokoebi, new) Material examined. Holotype: male, 5.6 mm (SMBL Type No. 386). Paratypes (SMBL Type No. 387): allotype, ovigerous female, 4.7 mm; male, 5.7 mm, dissected; 3 males and 7 females without dissection. All the specimens were collected on 5 May 1992 at the type locality. The type series is Pub!. Seto Mar. Bioi. Lab., 36(5/6), , (Article 30)
3 380 S. YAMATO deposited in the collection of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory. Type locality: A high tide pool (about 10m in width, lm in depth) on the beach, Nishitani (33 38'N, 'E), near the mouth of the Tonda-gawa River, Shirahama, Wakayama. The pool is a fissure-like depression between two small rock hills, and is connected to the open sea only at high spring tide. The leaves of land plants and stranded algae were accumulating and decaying in the pool, making the water smell slightly of hydrogen sulfide. The salinity of the water in the pool measured on another day was 32 %o, slightly lower than that of the open sea. li1elita nagatai, Corophium sp. and Jassa sp. were collected from the pool. Description of holotype male. Body (Fig. I): Head (Fig. 2-H) with sub-round lateral cephalic lobes; post-antenna! sinus shallow, without notch. Eyes medium in size. Pleosomites 1-2 and urosomite 1 with strong dorsal median tooth on posterior margin; pleosomite 3 with minute median tooth, urosomite 2 with one small spine on each side. Epimeral plates 1-3 (Fig. 3-EPII-3) weakly produced and bearing minute seta at posteroventral corner; epimeral plates 2-3 with one spine on ventral margin. Antenna 1: Peduncular article 1 robust, with two spines ventrally, one bunch of setae on sub-apical part, groups of long setae along ventral margin; article 2 elongate, longer than article 1, with many groups of long setae marginally; article 3 short; main flagellum with 22 + articles; accessory flagellum with 3 articles. Antenna 2: Peduncular article 1 round; article 2 with one small triangular projection on dorsal side of inner surface; article 3 with one spine on dorsodistal corner, round projection on inner surface and triangular process at posteroventral corner; articles 4 and 5 without spines, setose marginally; flagellum setose, with 9 articles. Upper lip (Fig. 2-UL) almost hexagonal, tapered and truncated distally, setulose along ventral margin. Lower lip (Fig. 2-LL) setulose on medial to ventral part, with small inner lobe and paired small accessory lobes medially. Fig. I. Melita shiodamari n. sp. Holotype, male, 5.6 mm
4 MELITA FROM HIGH TIDE POOL 381 L PA H ~ Q.05mm A 2 i rn ~ Fig. 2. Melita shiodamari n. sp. Holotype, male, 5.6 mm Mandible (Fig. 2-MD): Incisor 5-dentate; right lacinia mobilis 3-lobed; left lacinia mobilis 4-dentate; spine row composed of four(left) or three (right) pectinate blades; molar process well developed, with one pinnate seta and longitudinal ridge extending to basal part of palp; cutting surface square, without accessory plates. Palp very short, 3-articulate; first palpar article as long as second; third article very short, with one long apical seta. Maxilla I (Fig. 2-MXI): Inner plate quadrate, with 7 terminal plumose setae. Outer plate (Fig. 2-0P) with 9 multi-dentate spines, without bifurcate spines. Palp biarticulate; first article without setae; second article slightly dilated, with thin subterminal spines on ventral surface and strong terminal spines which are somewhat asymmetrical, i.e., right ones slightly more robust than those on left. Maxilla 2 (Fig. 2-MX2): Both plates with two rows of terminal setae; inner plate with one row of pectinate medial setae, lacking dorsal oblique rows of setae. Maxilliped (Fig. 2-MXP): Inner plate (Fig. 2-IP), with terminal and subterminal robust spines and simple terminal setae on ventral surface, with row of medial and terminal plumose setae on dorsal surface. Outer plate with setae on submedial
5 382 S. YAMATO 1:=::::::::1 0.1 mm I 'ig. 3. Melita shiodamari n. sp. Holotype, male, 5.6 mm margin of ventral surface and row of spatulate spines along medial to terminal margin; these spatulate spines successively increasing in length distally; distal spines pinnate. Palp 4-articulate, with setae on ventral surface and along medial margin; article 3 slightly dilated, setulose anterodistally, with bunch of pectinate spines on dorsal surface and many long setae on apical margin; article 4 setulose on dorsal surface, with short setae along medial margin of sub-apical part. Coxae 1-4 almost same length; ventral margin subround, with minute setae; coxa 4 not concave along posterior margin; coxae 5 and 6 with round anterior lobe; coxa 7 unlobed. Coxal gills 2-6 round, simple.
6 MELITA FROM HIGH TIDE POOL 383 Gnathopod 1 (Fig. 3-G 1): Article 2 with sparse long setae marginally; article 3 short, with bunch of setae at posterodistal margin; article 4 quadrate, with setae on posterodistal margin and dense setules on posterior margin; article 5 long, dilated distally, with several setae on anterior margin, robust pectinate setae on posterior margin and inner surface, pubescent but lacking row of pectinate setae on anterodistal corner; article 6 (Fig. 3-G li) slightly dilated distally, marginally with sparse setae, with hump at middle of anterior margin; palm produced, defined by two spines, with minute setae; posterodistal corner minutely serrate, slightly bending inwards; dactyl with seta on lateral margin and setae at base of nail. Gnathopod 2 (Fig. 3-G2): Article 2 with sparse setae marginally; article 3 short; article 4 short, bluntly pointed at posterodistal corner; article 5 short, cup-shaped, with clusters of setae along posterior margin and at anterodistal corner. Article 6 trapezoid; anterior and posterior margins with clusters of setae; palmar margin concave, not defined by any spines, with two rows of short setae; inner surface with hollow for receiving apex of dactyl. Dactyl fitting into hollow of article 6. Pereopods 3 and 4 similar to each other; article 2 of pereopods 3-4 almost straight, slightly recurved at basal part, article 3 short; articles 4-6 with short setae marginally; article 4 slightly produced anterodistally; articles 5-6 linear; dactyl simple, without process, with simple seta on inner margin, minute subapical seta and plumose seta on outer margin. Pereopods 5-7 similar to each other; pereopods 6-7 larger than pereopod 5. Article 2 of pereopods 5-7, tapered distally, not lobed posterodistally, serrate and bearing minute setae along posterior margin, with spines along anterior margin; article 3 short; article 4 slightly robust, with groups of spines marginally; articles 5-6 linear, with groups of spines marginally; dactyl as in pereopods 3 and 4. Pleopods 1-3 (Fig. 3-PLl) similar to each other; peduncle of pleopods 1-3 with two coupling spines; outer ramus slightly shorter than inner; basal article of each inner ramu-s with some relatively shorter, non-bifurcate plumose setae on medial margin. Basal article of each outer ramus with triangular process. U ropods 1 and 2 (Figs 3-U 1, U2) with spines on dorsal surfaces of peduncles and of both rami and at apices of rami; peduncle of uropod 1 with basofacial spine, and with long distolateral spine. Uropod 3 (Fig. 3-U3): Peduncle much shorter than outer ramus, with spines on outer surface, on dorsal surface, and on apical margin of ventral surface. Inner ramus short, scale-like, pointed apically, with one apical spine. Outer ramus 2-articulate, slender, with groups of spines marginally; distal article short, surrounded by smaller distal spines of proximal article, with minute setule subapically. Telson (Fig. 3-T) incised to base; each lobe short, rather broad, with two spines and one pinnate seta at apex, one spine and two pinnate setae at distolateral corner, some minute setae on dorsal surface. Female. Smaller than male.
7 384 S. YAMATO Fig. 4. Melita shiodamari n. sp. Allotype, female, 4. 7 mm Antennae (Fig. 4-Al): Number of flagellar articles less than in male (in allotype, 2, 17 and 7 articles in accessory, main flagellum of antenna I, and flagellum of antenna 2, respectively), shorter and less setose than in male. Gnathopod I (Fig. 4-G I): Articles 2-5 as in male, but more distinctly pubescent than in male; article 6 without hump on anterior margin. Gnathopod 2 (Fig. 4-G2): Much smaller than in male; article 5 more elongate than in male. Article 6 ovoid, with sparse setae on inner surface and slightly robust setae on anterior and posterior margin; palmar margin oblique, defined by one spine, with two rows of setae; dactyl with seta on anterior margin, minute setae along medial margin, two setae at subapical part. Pereopod 6 (Fig. 4-PR6): Article 2 broad basally, tapered distally; anterior lobe of coxa 6 slightly elongate, not hooked; apical part round, forming shallow hollow on inner surface. Telson: Each lobe with one spine and one pinnate seta each at apex and distolateral corner. Oostegites (Fig. 4-0S2) 2-5 narrow, with long setae.
8 MELITA FROM HIGH TIDE POOL 385 Variation. Some larger specimens with strong dorsal median tooth on pleosomites 1-3 and urosome 1; smaller specimens with tooth only on urosome 1. Etymology. The specific name of this new species means "tide pool" in Japanese; as noun in' apposition. Remarks. This new species IS unique among the Japanese Melita species and is easily distinguishable by the following characteristics: pleosomes 1-3 and urosome 1 with median dorsal tooth; postantennal sinus without notch; antennae setose; coxal plates shallow; posterior margin of coxa 4 not excavated; article 6 of male gnathopod 1 not excavate on inner surface, with hump on anterior margin, its palm produced, its posterodistal margin serrate, bending inwards; gnathopod 2 not setose on inner surface of article 6, with hollow for receiving tip of dactyl; article 2 of pereopods 5-7 not lobed posterodistally; telsonic lobes short, their apex not elongate. Moreover, the mouthpart morphology also shows peculiar characteristics in the short mandible palp with only one seta at the apex, the 3-lobed right lacinia mobilis, the absence of accessory plates on its molar, the inner plate of maxilla 2 with only a single row of setae along medial margin, the small inner lobe of the lower lip. This new species resembles three species from the Southern Hemisphere. Melita plumulosa Zeidler, 1989 from Australia is characteristic in bearing many plumose setae on most of the appendages. Aside from the setosity, few differences distinguish M. plumulosa from M. shiodamari; these include the long palpar article 3 as long as its article 2 and the absence of a dorsal tooth on pleosomes 1-3. Melita awa Barnard, 1972b from New Zealand differs from M. shiodamari in the longer mandible palp and the absence of dorsal tooth on pleosomes 1-3 and urosome 1. Melita matilda Barnard, 1972a from Australia is less similar and is different from M. shiodamari in the absence of a hump on gnathopod 1, the presence of a deeper hollow on gnathopod 2 and long setation on pereopods 5-7. Discussion Melita shiodamari,.m. plumulosa, M. awa and M. matilda are quite distinct from other Melita species. Most of the differences between M. shiodamari and other Japanese Melita species are also pertinent to the other three species. It is possible that M. shiodamari and the three southern species constitute a closely related subgroup in the genus Melita, and I call it tentatively the awa-complex hereafter. The strong affinity between awa-complex and species of other related genera is noticeable. They are Tegano seticornis (Bousfield, 1970) and Sriha vagabunda (Karaman, 1984). The former species was reported at first as Melita seticornis from the Solomon Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago (also see Bousfield, 1971), and then moved to a monotypic new genus Tegano by Barnard & Karaman ( 1982). The latter species was first reported as Q_uadrus vagabundus from Sri Lanka, but its generic name was replaced by the new name Sriha by Stock ( 1988), due to junior homonymy. These two genera are diagnosed mainly by the reduced condition of the mandible palp:
9 386 S. YAMATO 2-articulate in Tegano;!-articulate in Sriha. However, these two genera share many common characteristics with the awa-compiex, such as the setose antennae and the morphology of the gnathopods and pereopods. Fiha schminkei Stock, 1988 from Fiji, which bears a vestigial,!-articulate mandible palp, also resembles the awa-complex, though only females are known for this species. If the reduced condition of the mandible palp were not emphasized as a taxonomic character, these three genera would be recognized as lvlelita. It is true that the mouthpart morphology has traditionally been emphasized for the higher taxonomy of amphipods, but dividing genera only by the reduced articulation of the mandible palp is too simplistic. I think that all three species constituting the monotypic genera Tegano, Sriha and Fiha should be transferred to the genus Melita and placed in the awa-compiex at the present stage. In addition to these genera, there are several genera that show a general resemblance to the awa-complex, but differ in a few features by which they are placed in separate genera. Two genera, Rotomelita Barnard, 1977 which includes two species from Hawaii and Nainaloa Karaman & Barnard, 1979 (for Melita latimerus Bousfield, 1971) from the Bismarck Archipelago, are possibly related to the awa-complex, particularly in the distally dilated and minutely serrate palm of gnathopod 1. Nainaloa differs from all other species compared above in the broad and posterodistally lobed article 2 of pereopods 5-7. Both genera are diagnosed chiefly by the quadrate telsonic lobe. However, this characteristic is not so unusual, because the telsonic lobe of the awa-complex is shorter than that of other Melita species. Moreover, Psammoniphargus Ruffo, 1956 from Madagascar, Phreatomelita Ruffo, 1979 from Iran and Spiniferopisella Karam an, 1984 (for Eriopisella spinosa Ledoyer, 1979 from Java) also resemble the awa-complex in the morphology of gnathopod 1 and mouthparts, but differ in the broad article 2 of pereopods 5-7. Although the relationship between these genera has been discussed by several authors (e.g. Karaman, 1984; Stock, 1988), the affinity to Melita has been rarely considered. No ten boom ( 1988) applied numerical phylogenetic methods to Pseudoniphargus and related genera of the Hadzioidea, in which only three European species of Melita were investigated. The analyses supported a close relationship among the genera mentioned above, but did not arrive at a complete solution of the phylogenetic relationships. Among these genera, only Melita (sensu lato) includes more than 80 species, which are possibly divided into subgroups; however, their relationships within the genus still remain to be studied. On the other hand, many monotypic genera have been created, based on a few characters. These small taxa seemingly obscure the relationship among the species. In this circumstance, it is rather better to treat most of them together within the genus A1elita for further consideration, and not to make hasty election of a new taxon for the awa-compiex at the present stage. It is instructive that almost all of these genera, except Phreatomelita, have a 2-articulate uropod 3 which is one of the two major diagnoses for separating Abludomelita from Melita by Kara.man (1981); thus, M. awa and M. matilda were
10 MELITA FROM HIGH TIDE POOL 387 placed in the Abludomelita in his paper. I have indicated that both I- and 2-articulate uropods 3 are encountered in Melita (sensu Karaman, 1981) (Yamato, 1987, 1990). Zeidler ( 1989) rightly pointed out that the 2-articu1ate uropods 3 is plesiomorphic. The common possession of a 2-articulate uropod 3 among the awa-complex is just symplesiomorphy. If the awa-complex is really it group of closely related species, it is very interesting that they are reported mostly from more or less brackish water habitats, such as pools, rivers, lakes, springs; in the cases that their habitats were reported to be almost freshwater, the authors suspected the some influence of the sea or the anchialine water. While these kinds of habitat are separated by open sea water, these related species are distributed over the Indo-Pacific. Stock & Vonk (1992) presented a scenario for the evolution of the freshwater species, Melita cognata and M. dulcicola, in different mid-atlantic islands. They presumed that these two species evolved independently and recently from different marine ancestors. This scenario seems to be inapplicable to the case of the awa-complex, because it is difficult to find marine relatives for the awa-complex. Perhaps the species of the awa-complex were derived from a wide-ranging Tethyan group and subsequent radiation over a short distance or recent invasion of less saline habitats might have happened. Acknowledgment I would like to express my thanks to Professor E. Harada for his critical reading of the manuscript and helpful discussion. My thanks are due to Dr. G.C. Kearn of the University of East Anglia for valuable advice and improving the English. References Barnard,]. L. 1972a. Gammaridean Amphipoda of Australia, Part I. Smiths. Contr. Zoo!., 103: b. The Marine fauna of New Zealand: Algae-living littoral Gammaridea (Crustacea Amphipoda). New Zealand Oceanogr. Inst. Mem., 62: The cavernicolous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes 9. Amphipoda (Crustacea) from brackish lava ponds on Hawaii and Maui. Pacific Insects, 17: & Karaman, G.S Classificatory revisions in gammaridean Amphipoda (Crustacea), Part 2. Proc. Bioi. Soc. Wash., 95: Bousfield, E.L Terrestrial and aquatic amphipod Crustacea from Renne! Island. The Natural History of Renne! Island, British Solomon Islands, 6: Amphipoda of the Bismarck Archipelago and adjacent Indo-Pacific Islands (Crustacea). Steenstrupia, I: Ishimaru, S A catalogue of Gammaridean and Ingolfiellidean Amphipoda recorded from the vicinity of Japan. Rep. Sado Mar. Bioi. Stat., Niigata Univ., 24: Karaman, G.S Redescription of Melita planaterga Kunkel 1910 from Bermuda Islands with revision of genera Melita Leach and Abludomelita n. gen. (Contribution to the knowledge of the Amphipoda 119). Poljopriv. Sumarst., 27: Contribution to the knowledge of the Amphipoda 141. Q_uadrus vagabundus, new genus and species, and revision of genus Eriopisella Chevr. (Gammaridea). Studia Marina, 15/16: & Barnard, J.L Classificatory revisions in gammaridean Amphipoda (Crustacea), Part 1. Proc. Bioi. Soc. Wash., 92: Ledoyer, M Expedition Rumphius II (1975) Crustaces parasites, commensaux, etc. (Th. Monad et R. Serene, ed.) VI. Custaces Amphipodes Gammariens. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris, 4e ser., I, section A, no!:
11 388 S. YAMATO Notenboom,J Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the groundwater-dwelling amphipod genus Pseudoniphargus (Crustacea), with emphasis on the Iberian species. Bijdr. Dierk., 58: Ruffo, S Psammoniphargus pauliani n. g. n. sp. nouveau gammaride des eaux interstitielles de l'ile de Ia Reunion. Mem. Inst. Scient. Madagscar, Ser. A, II: ~~ Descrizione di due nuovi anfipodi anoftalmi dell'iran e del Madagascar (Phreatomelita paceae n. gen. n. sp., Dussartiella madegassa n. gen. n. sp.). Boll. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Verona, 6: Stock,J.H Two new stygobiont Amphipoda (Crustacea) from Polynesia. Stygologia, 4: ~~-. & Vonk, R The first freshwater amphipod (Crustacea) from the Cape Verde Islands: Melita cognata n. sp., with notes on its evolutionary scenario. J. Afr. Zoo!., 106: Yamato, S Four intertidal species of the genus Melita (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from Japanese waters, including descriptions of two new species. Pub!. Seta Mar. Bioi. Lab., 32: ~~ Two new species of the genus Melita (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from shallow waters of the Seta Inland Sea of Japan. Ibid., 34: Zeidler, W A new species of Melita (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Melitidae) from northern New South Wales with a note on the genus Abludomelita Karam an, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1 I 0:
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