Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching. Geraldine O Neill, Sarah Moore, Barry McMullin (Eds.)

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1 Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching Geraldine O Neill, Sarah Moore, Barry McMullin (Eds.) AISHE READINGS Number aishe-starburst.jpg (JPEG Image, 176x58 pixels) abouthea_download-logo.jpg (JPEG Image, 250x137 pixels)

2 Editors: O Neill, G., Moore, S., McMullin, B. Publisher: All Ireland Society for Higher Education (AISHE), Office of the Vice President for Learning Innovation Dublin City University Dublin 9 Ireland. Website: c 2005 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence. ISBN No: Recommended citation: O Neill, G., Moore, S. and McMullin, B. (Eds.) (2005) Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching. Dublin: AISHE. Funded by: Higher Education Authority, (HEA) Targeted Initiatives fund. Web edition: Cover design by David Jennings, Centre for Teaching and Learning, UCD.

3 A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S Dr Rowena Murray, University of Strathclyde, for her excellent facilitation of the Writers Week in Delphi, Connemara. The University of Limerick for creating the concept of the Writers Week and allowing the writers the opportunity to avail of their workshop. Dublin City University for their editing and typesetting work, in particular thanks to Karol Kowalik. University College Dublin for their management of the project. The staff of the Delphi Mountain Resort & Spa Finally to the 20 writers who gave generously of their time, creative energy and commitment to writing in the area of teaching and learning. i

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5 F O R E W O R D Foreword The idea for this unique collection was created by the practices and ideas related to learning and teaching in Irish a collaborative effort between Dr Sarah Moore, in the Unive in Dublin City University and myself in University College Du The collection explores a range of the current theory to prac Higher Education in the Republic of Ireland. It is written fo lecturer in Higher Education who is dealing with teaching an The idea for this unique collection was created by the need forthe literature more on experienced the emerging lecturer issues and related to teaching and learning in Irish higher education. TheDiplomas/Certificates project was a collaboration should also between gain some useful insights students on pos Dr Sarah Moore, in the University of Limerick, Dr Barry McMullin the result in Dublin of a Higher City University Education and Authority (HEA) funded myself in University College Dublin. contributions from 20 writers involved in the development The collection explores a range of the current theory to practice learning and teaching issues Education in Ireland. in Higher Education in the Republic of Ireland. It is written for the new to competent Lecturer in Higher Education who is dealing with teaching and learning issues on a daily basis. The more experienced Lecturer and students on postgraduate teachingthe andintroductory learning Diplomas/Certificates chapter describes the collaborative writi should also gain some useful insights from the readings. The included collection a Writers -Week is the result of workshop a Higher in Delphi, Connem Education Authority (HEA) funded collaborative writing project presented with contributions in three sections fromto 20deal writers involved in the development of teaching and learning in education: Higher Education in Ireland. with different aspects The introductory chapter described the collaborative writing process Section in1: this Working project, in which the Changing World of L included a writers-week workshop in Delphi, Connemara, Ireland. The book is Education then presented in three parts to deal with different aspects of learning and teaching Section in higher 2: education: Moving the Focus from Teaching to Lea Part 1: Working in the Changing World of Learning and Teaching Section in Higher 3: Developing Education and Growing as a University Part 2: Moving the Focus from Teaching to Learning The chapters in each section are based on issues that we Part 3: Developing and Growing as a University Teacher. important in the current climate of higher education in Irela scholarship of teaching, theories of teaching and learning The chapters in each section were based on issues that were learning, identified curriculum by the group design, as being feedback on student le important in the current climate of higher education in Ireland development and therefore of the include lecturer areas and resources such for the lecturer. T as, scholarship of teaching, theories of teaching and learning, practical student-centred advice based learning, on the current active literature. learning, curriculum design, feedback on student learning, e-learning, professional development of the lecturer and resources for the lecturer. The emphasis in each chapter is on practical advice The writers were all members of an Irish Educational Develo based on the current literature. The writers were all members of a recently formed Irisha Educational range of units Developers such as Centres group, for and Teaching and Learning were employed in a range of units such as Centres for Teaching Quality andassurance Learning, Centres, Academic Libraries Development Centres, Quality Assurance Centres, Libraries, and Education Departments. and Education Departm This model of collaboration in writing not only links the This oftenmodel divided of collaboration teaching andin research writing not only links the of agendas but also highlights that academic writing need not agendas, necessarily but also be an highlights activitythat done academic in writing need no isolation. In order to support the dissemination of these writings, isolation. thein collection order to support is also the available dissemination of these writi online on the All Ireland Society for Higher Education website online (AISHE): on the All Ireland Society for Higher The energy created and acquaintances made in producing this collaborative piece has drawn together a community of scholars in higher education, which The will energy benefit created the sector and acquaintances the years made in producing to come. together a community of scholars in higher education, which to come. Geraldine O Neill, PhD. Geraldine O Neill, PhD. National University of Ireland, University College Dublin. iii

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7 C O P Y R I G H T Original Works The separate and original works comprising this collection are subject to copyright by their individual authors. The aggregation of the works into the collection, and all ancillary original works are copyright by the editors. All these original works are made available under the Creative Commons 1 Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence. Informally, this means that you are free: to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work to make derivative works under the following conditions: Attribution. You must give the original author(s) credit. Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. Note: All other rights are reserved by the copyright holders. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of the work(s). Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the relevant copyright holder(s). Your fair dealing and other rights are in no way affected by the above. This is an informal, human-readable summary of the licence terms, which has no force in its own right. The legal terms of the licence are determined solely by the Legal Code (the full license) 2. Third Party Copyright Works All usage of third party copyright works in this collection, by way of quotation or otherwise, is done in good faith under the fair dealing and/or incidental inclusion provisions of the Irish Copyright And Related Rights Act, , sections 51 and 52. Any specific query in relation to such usage should be referred to the individual author(s) v

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9 C O N T E N T S INTRODUCTION CHAPTER: WRITERS WEEK: A VEHICLE FOR COLLABORATIVE WRITING AMONG EDU- CATIONAL DEVELOPERS Sarah Moore, Geraldine O Neill and Barry McMullin PART 1: Working in the changing world of learning and teaching in higher education THE SCHOLARSHIP OF TEACHING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE. 5 Marian MacCarthy and Bettie Higgs IT WORKS IN PRACTICE BUT WILL IT WORK IN THEORY? THE THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF PEDAGOGY Orison Carlile and Anne Jordan PART 2: Moving the focus from teaching to learning STUDENT-CENTRED LEARNING: WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR STUDENTS AND LECTURERS? Geraldine O Neill and Tim McMahon ACTIVE LEARNING - FROM LECTURE THEATRE TO FIELD-WORK Bettie Higgs and Marian McCarthy TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES: EXPANDING THE REPERTOIRE TO SUPPORT STUDENT LEARNING Saranne Magennis and Alison Farrell WHAT IS PROBLEM BASED LEARNING? Terry Barrett PUTTING THE LEARNING BACK INTO LEARNING TECHNOLOGY Barry McMullin DO YOU KNOW WHAT YOUR STUDENTS ARE LEARNING? (AND DO YOU CARE?) Diana Kelly COLLABORATIVE PROJECT BASED LEARNING AND PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A CONSIDERATION OF LEARNER- FOCUSED STRATEGIES Roisin Donnelly and Marian Fitzmaurice vii

10 DESIGNING MODULES FOR LEARNING Roisin Donnelly and Marian Fitzmaurice PART 3: Developing and growing as a University teacher NEW TRENDS IN ACADEMIC STAFF DEVELOPMENT: REFLECTIVE JOURNALS, TEACHING PORTFOLIOS, ACCREDITATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOP- MENT Iain MacLaren WHAT INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH CAN DO TO SUPPORT THE INDIVIDUAL ACADEMIC Margaret O Flanagan FINDING INFORMATION FOR YOUR TEACHING AND RESEARCH WORK IN TEACHING AND LEARNING Helen Fallon A PUNITIVE BUREAUCRATIC TOOL OR A VALUABLE RESOURCE? USING STUDENT EVALUATIONS TO ENHANCE YOUR TEACHING Sarah Moore and Nyiel Kuol THE WRITE APPROACH: INTEGRATING WRITING ACTIVITIES INTO YOUR TEACHING Ciara O Farrell VIRTUALLY EFFECTIVE: THE MEASURE OF A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT David Jennings BIOGRAPHIES OF AUTHORS viii

11 WRITERS WEEK: A VEHICLE FOR COLLABORATIVE WRITING AMONG EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPERS Sarah Moore University of Limerick Geraldine O Neill University College Dublin Barry McMullin Dublin City University Background The original idea for producing this series of papers came about (as many ideas do) as the result of a conversation. The conversation focused on the difficulties, obstacles, problems and challenges associated with academic writing, as well as the importance of many of the interconnected themes in the area of educational development. All of us in the Irish educational developers group had witnessed the struggles associated with the role that academic writing plays within the walls of higher education institutions. In addition, we all had ideas to share about the practice of educational development, and were eager to find ways of disseminating these insights in ways that could be accessed in a coherent way by more than just the relatively small group of professionals we encountered at our inter university meetings. It was the combined motivation to explore and participate in the writing process more fully, and that associated with our collective sense of having something important to say, that fuelled the impetus for this project. The proposal was supported through funding by Ireland s Higher Education Authority, whose commitment to this kind of dialogue and output continues to be crucial as a supporter of change, development and collaboration in Higher Educational Institutions. The educational developers writers week Based on a professional development template that has been used at the University of Limerick for several years now (Moore 2003; Murray 2005), a writers week experience was planned and subsequently took place in September of The planned project drew heavily from, but was also significantly different to the writers retreats that have been part of the University of Limerick s professional development landscape since early While the features of the retreat experience were very similar to those run at UL, this was the first time that colleagues had met together in the same dedicated space and time to produce a series of writings on similar and interconnected themes, with the aim of producing a single cohesive written output for dissemination. Thus, the pressures on the group may have been more intense, but also the levels of possible collaboration and peer support were also stronger and more relevant than was the case with previous writers weeks where academics came from a wide range of diverse fields of expertise. Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching. O Neill, G., Moore, S., McMullin, B. (Eds). Dublin:AISHE, Released under Creative Commons licence: Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0. Some rights reserved.

12 WRITERS WEEK: A VEHICLE FOR COLLABORATIVE WRITING AMONG EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPERS Rationale for a writers retreat The rationale for a writers week is based on previous evidence that people and the quality of their ideas can derive enormous benefits from a short-term intensive writing environment (Grant and Knowles 2000). Writers retreats have already been found to facilitate the achievement of an exclusive focus on writing by creating an arena in which the normal distractions of work and life are temporarily removed (Moore 1995). This can serve to initiate, to nourish or to accelerate writing, even if standard writing habits need to be sustained in different ways during the normal course of professional daily life. Despite operating in educational environments, university faculty (including educational developers) report that it is often difficult to achieve an exclusive focus on writing in a way that can be facilitated by a retreat environment (Cameron 1998). Furthermore, given the dispersed nature of Ireland s educational developers network, we hoped that the logistics of collaboration, interaction and peer support would be much more easily achieved on this five day, residential programme. Essentially, the retreat environment was seen as a context within which a community of practice could be created and enhanced, a set of concrete outcomes could be achieved, and a precedent for collaborative dialogue (both written and spoken) could be set. This rationale echoes the objectives originally associated with the UL writers retreats i.e.: to create an atmosphere of trust and safety for productive writing; to help participants to learn from each other about the process of writing; to create a multidisciplinary community of writers who would provide support and advice to one another both during the retreat and beyond; to explore the important links between teaching, research, writing and scholarship; and to have a productive working experience in which each participant would commit to a specific writing goal and try to achieve it [within the time frame of the retreat] (Moore 2003:335). The format of the week Writers retreats have been designed then to operate as temporary writing sanctuaries away from the normal rhythms of professional life. Because it is still an unusual and unconventional way of working and collaborating, it often feels like a daring and somewhat complicated experiment and one that requires much planning and preparation both on a personal and a professional level. Despite these complexities, the format tends to be simple: Participants gather in a remote location equipped with ideas, data and literature they have gathered in order to be prepared to complete a piece of academic writing. Each of the five days is devoted to individual writing time, punctuated with opportunities for feedback from colleagues, group or paired meetings to discuss progress and opportunities to exchange shared writing experiences. Every day begins with a facilitated session that provides structured advice on writing. Participants gather in the evenings for social interaction and dinner in a central location, and for further discussion on the writing projects in which each of them is engaged. All of these features were part of the educational developers writers week that gave rise to this document. In order to gauge participants expectations and goals and to ascertain their perceptions about the extent to which these were met, views were sought at the beginning and the end of the experience. These views were captured on pre and post writers week questionnaires, which contain qualitative insights about the value and the impact of the experience. Positive expectations While existing research on the writers retreat format shows that participants tend express the need to get started, to hit the ground running and to initiate a writing project (Moore 2003; Grant and Knowles 2000), the motives of the participants in this instance seemed to focus more on completing, on finishing and on pulling together many ideas in the form of a series of written pieces. This can be attributed at least in part to the pre-work and preparation in which members had participated in the months leading up to the writers week. It may also be the case that the educational developers group is one that is characterised by a particularly strong need for space 2

13 Sarah Moore, Geraldine O Neill and Barry McMullin and time in which to contain and articulate the many ideas and experiences that they encounter in the course of their professional lives. Indeed, the majority of participants specifically highlighted the importance of creating space and time in which to write, a function of the week to which they seemed to attribute the most value. In articulating their expectations, they talked about the importance of sharing wisdom, of getting feedback from their peers, of forging new links, of enhancing serious writing, and of the opportunities for creativity, collegiality, collaboration and enhanced commitment. In terms of more tangible outcomes, they highlighted the importance of producing a useful, experience based set of papers/chapters that could be disseminated beyond the group and that could generally inform educational development and academic practice in meaningful ways. Concerns Like almost any new endeavour, the participants did not come without at least some concerns. They wondered if they would be able to write effectively without the normal framework of information access that they could avail of in their educational settings, they had concerns about building and maintaining project momentum, they worried that they might get side tracked by distractions, be unable to co-ordinate and integrate their writing and they had some concerns about the consistency of writing styles among the group. These concerns were subsequently discussed during the course of the week. This final product represents a negotiation of the different voices of the members and may also echo some of those concerns. Outcomes In addition to the tangible output, participants also expressed some behavioural and attitudinal changes in their approach both to academic writing and to educational development. They felt that the experience had reinforced the principles of inter institutional co-operation, a dynamic that they felt needed nourishment and support. They sensed that they had developed new strategies for producing important written work within the field of educational development. They mentioned that the week had helped them to refine, to structure, to express and to display ideas in a way that was personally empowering. Several participants highlighted that the dialogue and writing that had occurred during the week had the potential to have a strong impact both within the educational institutions that were represented and beyond. Generally, a sense of group cohesiveness among educational developers was seen as an important by-product of the week. Conclusions Recently, Grant and Knowles (2000) have argued that writing in academia needs to be reframed. It may be much more constructive to position writing as a community based, collaborative, even social act, dynamics that stand in sharp contrast to private, isolated, individualistic processes that often prevail (Haines et al. 1997). Certainly, the educational developers writers week, of which this document is the first concrete output, demonstrated again the power and the momentum that can be derived from the creation of a collaborative community of practice. We believe that despite the temporary nature of the intervention, its impact has traveled back into the educational organisations that it represented, and there is a greater likelihood that dynamics to which it gave rise can in some way become embedded in academic practice across a range of different institutions. This project has reinforced the importance for educational developers to be part of the dialogue of academic writing, to bring scholarship to their own work and to share that scholarship with others. Overall, we believe that the voice of the Irish inter-university educational developers group has become stronger as a result of this endeavour and we continue to endorse the collegiality and collaboration that it has strengthened. 3

14 WRITERS WEEK: A VEHICLE FOR COLLABORATIVE WRITING AMONG EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPERS References Cameron, J. (1998). The right to write: an invitation and initiation into the writing life. London: Macmillan. Grant, B. and S. Knowles (2000). Flights of imagination: academic women becoming writers. International Journal of Educational Development 5(1), Haines, D., S. Newcomer, and J. Raphael (1997). Writing together: How to transform your writing in a writing group. New York: Pedigree. Moore, S. (1995). Intensive writing program, progress reports. Melbourne: Victoria University of Technology Collaborative Research Group Scheme. Moore, S. (2003). Writers retreats for academics: exploring and increasing the motivation to write. Journal of further and higher education 27(3), Murray, R. (2005). Writing for academic journals. Berkshire: Open University Press. 4

15 THE SCHOLARSHIP OF TEACHING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Marian McCarthy and Bettie Higgs National University of Ireland, Cork / Poised on the cusp of a new century in a world that wrestles with a multitude of difficulties, the university must fulfil a more well- rounded mission. New generations of college- goers need scholarly teachers to help them prepare for a time when global interdependency is much more than a slogan. Knowledge, for all the glory and splendour of the act of pure discovery, remains incomplete without the insights of those who can best show how to integrate and apply it. (Glassick, Huber, and Maeroff 1997:10) Introduction In the context of the changing role of the university teacher, this chapter sets out to explore how Ernest Boyer s (1990; 1997) four scholarships (of discovery, application, integration and teaching) have made it possible to bridge the traditional gap between teaching and research. By providing us with a new paradigm for thinking about research in all its complexity, he has shown us a way forward which has begun to redefine how we now look at research, teaching and learning. This chapter is an attempt to chart and define the pathways of this new route. It is our experience that the process of reflective practice and the documentation of that in various portfolio formats appropriate to harnessing teaching and learning, have provided ways of acquiring and developing a scholarship of teaching and learning in keeping with the changing face of third level education. The following questions are kept in mind as the chapter progresses: 1. How is scholarship defined in the context of higher education? 2. What is the scholarship of teaching and how does it define research into teaching and learning? 3. What are the implications of the scholarship of teaching for practice? 4. How can the portfolio process advance the scholarship of teaching and learning? 5. What general lessons have we learned in UCC from our experience of the portfolio model and portfolio seminars as a way of documenting scholarship? Overview The chapter begins with an overview of Boyer s perspective, synthesising his thinking as it emerged in Scholarship Reconsidered and Scholarship Assessed. We then develop his thinking further, by focusing on the distinction between scholarly teaching and the scholarship of teaching, as defined by Shulman (2004:158) and by focusing on the idea of learning as part of the scholarship of teaching. The chapter will then tease out some implications of scholarship for current practice, focusing on how such teaching is to be documented and developed. Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching. O Neill, G., Moore, S., McMullin, B. (Eds). Dublin:AISHE, Released under Creative Commons licence: Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0. Some rights reserved.

16 THE SCHOLARSHIP OF TEACHING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Scholarship Revisited In giving us perspective on the concept of scholarship, and on the false dichotomy between teaching and research, Boyer (1990:15) reminds us that the word research is only a recent addition to the language of higher education, the term being used in England in 1870 s for the first time to mark Oxford and Cambridge out as places of learning (research), as well as teaching. The term research began to emerge in American education only in Boyer further adds that scholarship originally referred to a variety of creative work, whose integrity was measured by the ability to think, communicate and learn (1990:15) not, therefore, by the number of publications a scholar produced, as has become the norm: Scholars are academics who conduct research, publish, and then perhaps convey their knowledge to students or apply what they have learned. The latter functions grow out of scholarship, they are not to be considered part of it. But knowledge is not necessarily developed in such a linear manner. The arrow of causality, can, and frequently does, point in both directions. Theory surely leads to practice. But practice also leads to theory. And teaching, at its best, shapes both research and practice. (1990:15 16) Boyer s point is that a more inclusive view of what it means to be a scholar is needed: a recognition that knowledge is acquired through research, through synthesis, through practice and through teaching (1990:24). Hence the necessity of positing four dynamically interrelated scholarships, pure research being co-dependent on the other forms of scholarship. Such a repositioning of the traditional view of research is even more pertinent in 2004, where huge funding can make research attractive as an end in itself and as the chief means of promotion. Such dislocation of research is short sighted, since research has to be communicated, synthesised and tested in the real world and be of value to the discipline, the students and the community. It is not an end in itself. As Shulman (2004:16) points out: The intellectual and political message of Scholarship Reconsidered is that we need a broader conception of scholarship one that points to the power of scholarship to discover and invent, to make sense and connect, to engage with the world and to teach what we have learned to others. Boyer and his colleagues wanted these different scholarly activities to be seen as of equal value to the broader community. If we are to take Boyer s challenge seriously, we need to look closely at each scholarship and tease out its implications for lecturers in the 21 st Century. The Scholarship of discovery This type of investigative scholarship comes closest to what is traditionally understood by research and its focus on publication. However, The scholarship of discovery at its best contributes not only to the stock of human knowledge but also to the intellectual climate of a college or university. Not just the outcomes, but the process, and especially the passion, give meaning to the effort (1990:17). In the new order, such scholarship also includes the creative work of scholars in the literary, visual and performing arts hence the inclusion of all disciplines. Boyer s focus on the words process and passion are pertinent, already signalling other embedded forms of scholarship within this one. The question behind this kind of research as Huber points out is, What do I know and how do I know it?. An answer to this question surely points in the direction of other forms of scholarship for the how of knowing is dependent on making connections (integration) and on application of what is known; equally teaching others is one valid way of knowing what I know. Hence, the dynamic nature of the research even as it is conceived. Our own experience of meeting regularly together in the university and discussing our disciplines and the challenges of trying to teach them, bears this out. The scholarship of discovery is linked with so many more pedagogical and practical discoveries once the area of expertise and 6

17 Marian MacCarthy and Bettie Higgs original scholarship has to be taught. Once the student enters the picture, the scholarship of discovery has to become interactive and dynamic, or remain inert and inaccessible to all but the few students whose intelligence profile is on the same plane as that of the lecturer. If the lecturer is to become a teacher, who transforms rather than informs, and who is inclusive and interactive, then the scholarship of discovery has to leave the traditional realm of research and find new directions. Indeed, Boyer s four scholarships can be seen as the new directions that guide the compass of learning. To extend the metaphor, they are our north, our south, our east, our west. To neglect one would be to cancel all - for the centre would not hold; the compass could not function. The Scholarship of Integration In proposing the scholarship of integration, Boyer highlights the need for scholars to give meaning to isolated facts, putting them in perspective and making connections within and between disciplines. This form of scholarship has much to do with purpose and with the goals of a general education, as Boyer realised in his own experience (Boyer 1997:2) and is therefore asking the question: What do the findings mean? Such a question calls for critical analysis and interpretation. Thus, the specialised knowledge of research is placed in a larger context, illuminating data in a revealing way, often educating non-specialists too (1990:18). Boyer goes on to point out that the scholarship of integration is closely related to discovery. It involves, first, doing research at the boundaries where fields converge (1990:19). Such work, he continues is increasingly important as traditional disciplinary categories prove confining, forcing new categories of knowledge: Today, interdisciplinary and integrative studies, long on the edges of academic life, are moving towards the centre, responding both to new intellectual questions and to pressing human problems. As the boundaries of human knowledge are being dramatically reshaped, the academy surely must give increased attention to the scholarship of integration. (1990:21) It is our contention that unless lecturers start sitting together, sharing the same space as well as their research areas, such scholarship will find it difficult to thrive. This process of sharing does not happen over night, as is well documented in our research to date (Lyons et al. 2002; Hyland 2004). Here in UCC, as part of the Teaching and Learning Support programme, we have spent the past three years learning to build sense of community, of trust and have struggled with working out a common language. Before this time, a smaller group of lecturers met regularly to discuss, develop and represent their practice. Integration is, then, as much attitudinal and habitual, as it is aspirational; it will only happen in the doing, when there is an audience to whom one must account and whose very presence demands their inclusion. The scholarship of integration, therefore, also includes interpretation, fitting one s own research or the research of others into larger intellectual patterns. Boyer points out that such efforts are increasingly essential since specialisation, without broader perspective, risks pedantry (1990:19). In an age of increasing specialism, such a caution is worthy, especially for the young lecturer who can find herself isolated. Hence, again, the importance of sharing practice and research with others and of creating the culture and climate where this is possible. Our own experience of the portfolio seminars at UCC is indicative of the effort necessary over time to make the scholarship of integration possible in practice: The scholarship of integration is serious, disciplined work that seeks to interpret, draw together and bring new insight to bear on original research (1997:9). Part of this drawing together has to do with making time for lecturers to share and investigate their work. We found, for example, that lunchtimes were productive meeting times if lunch were provided a case, indeed, of providing food for thought! The scholarship of Application The third element, the application of knowledge, moves, in Boyer s words towards engagement, as the scholar asks, How can knowledge be responsibly applied to consequential problems? 7

18 THE SCHOLARSHIP OF TEACHING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE How can it be helpful to individuals as well as institutions? (1990:21). This is where theory meets practice and one informs and reforms the other. Boyer provides us with some interesting perspectives on the idea of service, which permeates this form of scholarship. He cautions that colleges and universities have recently rejected service as serious scholarship because of its vague definition and disconnected nature: Too often, Service means not doing scholarship but doing good (1990:22). To be considered scholarship, Boyer continues: (1990:22 23) service activities must be tied directly to one s special field of knowledge and relate to, and flow directly out of, this professional activity. Such service is serious, demanding work, requiring the rigor and the accountability traditionally associated with research activities.... The scholarship of application, as we define it here, is not a one way street. Indeed, the term itself may be misleading if it suggests that knowledge is first discovered and then applied. The process we have in mind is far more dynamic. New intellectual understandings can arise out of the very act of application whether in medical diagnosis... shaping public policy or working with public schools... In activities such as these, theory and practice vitally interact, and one renews the other. A key point of learning for us in this university, is to hear, in our regular seminars, how our colleagues have applied their expertise in various settings and how these, in turn, have impacted on the discipline itself how, indeed, practice has transformed theory. Dr. Anthony Ryan s article on Teaching Resuscitation and Stabilization of NewBorn Infants in Ireland (Lyons et al. 2002:Chapter 7) is an excellent example of this and of how the scholarships of application and teaching collide and sustain each other. The Scholarship of Teaching In relation to the scholarship of teaching, Boyer cautions that the work of the professor becomes consequential only as it is understood by others (1990:23). He, therefore, underlines the point that teaching is about learning. Teaching in his terms, is not some routine function, tacked on, something almost anyone can do. When defined as scholarship, teaching both educates and entices future scholars (ibid). Throughout his discussion of a scholarship of teaching, Boyer s (1990:23 24) weaving of the many strands that are intertwined in its web speaks for itself, issuing us with many challenges and resetting the compass once again for us: Teaching is also a dynamic endeavour involving all the analogies, metaphors, and images that build bridges between the teacher s understanding and the student s learning. Pedagogical procedures must be carefully planned, continuously examined, and relate directly to the subject taught... knowing and learning are communal acts. With this vision, great teachers create a common ground of intellectual commitment. They stimulate active, not passive, learning and encourage students to be critical, creative thinkers, with the capacity to go on learning after their college days are over. Note Boyer s commitment to life-long learning here and his pointing to the idea that it is the lecturer s job to teach students how to learn, not what to say or regurgitate. He also foregrounds the idea of Teaching for Understanding here, central to our work in scaffolding teaching and learning in UCC, by highlighting the process of planning, of making connections, of active learning and ongoing assessment that underline a scholarship of teaching. Of equal importance then, is the idea of seeing the teacher as a learner: (Boyer 1990:24) Further, good teaching means that faculty, as scholars, are also learners. All too often, teachers transmit information that students are expected to memorise and then perhaps, recall. While well prepared lectures surely have a place, teaching, at its best, means not only transmitting knowledge, but transforming and extending it as well... In the end, inspired teaching keeps the flame of scholarship alive. 8

19 Marian MacCarthy and Bettie Higgs In terms of this publication, it is this form of scholarship that is our catalyst, our calling and our constant challenge. Shulman s challenge In his latest work, Teaching as Community Property, which is a collection of his many essays on higher education, Lee Shulman, who has now filled Boyer s shoes as president of the Carnegie foundation, critiques and develops Boyer s work and raises the bar for all of us in making real the following distinctions in terms of the work of CASTL (Carnegie Academy for the scholarship of Teaching and Learning): Scholarly teaching is what everyone of us should be engaged in every day we are with students in a classroom or in our office- tutoring, lecturing, conducing discussions, all the roles we play pedagogically. Our work as teachers should meet the highest scholarly standards of groundedness, of openness, of clarity and of complexity. But the scholarship of teaching requires that we step back and reflect systematically on the teaching we have done, recounting what we ve done in a form that can be publicly reviewed and built upon by our peers. It is this difference that moves scholarly teaching to a scholarship of teaching (Shulman 2004:166). In another article in this collection, on the distinction between scholarly teaching and scholarship of teaching, Shulman (2004:149) elaborates on this concept by highlighting that scholarship has three additional central features of being public, open to critique and evaluation, and in a form others can build on. He builds his case here by quoting from himself in The Course Portfolio: (Hutchings 1998:6) A scholarship of teaching will entail a pubic account of some or all of the full act of teaching vision, design, enactment, outcomes and analysis in a manner susceptible to critical review by the teacher s professional peers and amenable to productive employment in future work by members of the same community. It is this concept of the course portfolio and that of its sister, the teaching portfolio, which has provided the scaffolding for our collegial work together over the past three years, the adventures of which can be read as already cited. References Boyer, E. (1990). Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Boyer, E. (1997). Scholarship a Personal Journey. In C. Glassick, M. Huber, and G. Maeroff (Eds.), Scholarship Assessed: Evaluation of the Professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. An Ernerst Boyer Project of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Glassick, C., M. Huber, and G. Maeroff (1997). Scholarship Assessed: Evaluation of the Professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. An Ernest Boyer Project of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hutchings, P. (Ed.) (1998). The Course Portfolio: How Faculty Can Examine Their Teaching to Advance Practice and Improve Student Learning. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education (AAHE). Hyland, A. (2004). University College Cork as a Learning Organisation. Cork: UCC. Lyons, N., A. Hyland, and N. Ryan (2002). Advancing the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Through a Reflective Portfolio Process: The University College Cork Experience. Cork: UCC. 9

20 THE SCHOLARSHIP OF TEACHING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Shulman, L. (2004). Teaching as Community Property: Essays on Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. 10

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