ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT-USE PESTICIDES IN THE SIXAOLA WATERSHED, COSTA RICA. A Dissertation

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT-USE PESTICIDES IN THE SIXAOLA WATERSHED, COSTA RICA. A Dissertation"

Transcription

1 ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT-USE PESTICIDES IN THE SIXAOLA WATERSHED, COSTA RICA A Dissertatin Presented in Partial Fulfillment f the Requirements fr the Degree f Dctr f Philsphy with a Majr in Sil and Land Resurces in the Cllege f Graduate Studies University f Idah and with a Cncentratin in Bidiversity Cnservatin and Agrfrestry in the Graduate Schl Centr Agrnómic Trpical de Investigación y Enseñanza by Beth A. Plidr August 2007 Majr Prfessrs: Matthew J. Mrra, Ph.D. and Eduard Smarriba, Ph.D.

2

3 iii ABSTRACT Amng the mst imprtant research pririties identified in trpical ectxiclgy is the need fr risk assessment mdels specific t pesticide fate and txicity in trpical watersheds. A number f different pesticides are applied in the Sixala watershed, Csta Rica t prduce exprt-quality plantains and bananas. Fllwing an eclgical risk assessment framewrk, the principal expsure pathways, envirnmental fate, and bilgical effect f current-use pesticides are integrated t prvide an estimate f eclgical risk t aquatic resurces in the Sixala watershed. Risk assessment f pesticide use in this regin is essential fr the identificatin f cnservatin r restratin pririty areas, as well as fr the develpment f better land management practices that address reginal agriculture, cnservatin, and public health pririties. As pesticide applicatin practices have nt been previusly dcumented in the Sixala watershed, the different pesticide applicatin regimes used in banana and plantain prductin are presented and principal rutes f human and eclgical expsure are identified. Annual applicatin rates range frm less than 3 kg a.i./ha t mre than 45 kg a.i./ha, and principal rutes f expsure are primarily related t gaps in agrchemical r pest knwledge and the lack f apprpriate infrastructure. A study f sil characteristics, in farms representing the range pesticide applicatin regimes in plantain, suggests that fldplain sil prperties imprtant fr agricultural prductin and agrchemical fate r transprt are primarily driven by clay mineralgy and hydrlgic prcesses. Hwever, these fldplain sils are extremely hetergeneus ver bth large and small tempral and spatial scales, and present a challenge in estimating pesticide mvement t aquatic resurces frm agricultural areas. A number f different pesticides were measured in reginal aquatic resurces using bth water grab samples and passive samplers (SPMDs). Field experiments t calibrate SPMD pesticide uptake rates shwed that bifuling was nt an imprtant factr in SPMD pesticide sequestratin ver time, althugh several different stream characteristics may be imprtant in the interpretatin f SPMD-derived stream pesticide cncentratins. Field-measured pesticide cncentratins are integrated with mdeled pesticide cncentratins, knwledge f

4 iv sil and water prperties, primary rutes f expsure, and available txicity datasets t prvide an assessment f risk fr aquatic resurces in the Sixala watershed based n the hazard qutient methd. Hwever, given the unknwn effects f pesticide mixtures and climatic cnditins n txicity, the lack f extensive trpical species txicity data, and the cmplex species interactins and dynamic hydrlgic regimes present in trpical landscapes, this methd may nt prvide the mst prtective r cnservative apprach fr risk assessment in trpical envirnments.

5 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wuld like t thank my cmmittee fr prviding me with the pprtunity and supprt t design and implement this research prject, frm start t finish. Over the past fur years, my majr prfessr, Matt Mrra, was an unwavering surce f encuragement, guidance, and supprt. Additinally, withut the interest, technical expertise, and dedicatin f Luisa Castill, my advisr at Universidad Nacinal, and Clemens Ruepert at the Institut Reginal de Estudis en Sustancias Tóxicas (IRET), many parts f my research wuld nt have been pssible. Thanks t Eduard Smarriba, my c-advisr at CATIE, fr his cnstant interest, enthusiasm, and remarkable visin. Als t Paul McDaniel, fr his expert knwledge and humr in the field, as well as his respectful supprt f students. A special thank yu t Frank Lpez and Carls Mrales at CATIE fr prviding me with essential strage and lab space, a methd t btain slvents, analytical assistance, and their friendship. Als at CATIE, thanks t Patricia Leandr, directr f the sils lab, fr her efficiency and prfessinalism, and t Yaneth Sanchez fr grinding all my sil samples. At the University f Idah, thanks t Anita Falen and Vladimir Brek, wh welcmed me int their labs and prvided indispensable guidance and assistance, even thugh my nce a year visit was ften a surprise. Thank yu t the hundreds f individuals in the cmmunities f Gandca, Sixala, Margarita, Manzanill, Hne Creek, Cahuita, and the BriBri-Cabecar Indigenus Territries fr their interest and hspitality, fr prviding access t their farms r rivers, and fr sharing their stries. Especially t Lilleth in Sixala fr sharing her knwledge f the river and her rainfall data, t the Aguilas family in Gandca fr dnating their bat, and t the ladies f ACOMUITA fr their lgistical advice and laughter. Special thanks t my hard-wrking field assistants, Eduard Stuart Jacksn and Jeisn Chales Rjas, and t their extrardinary families. T my Talamanca teammates Leigh, Jan, Chris, and Ruth fr sticking tgether and always willing t lend each ther a helping hand, r huse, r a car, r a field assistant. Especially t Leigh fr early mrning runs, keeping my walls clean, and fr being such a gd friend. Finally, thanks t my family and friends fr their cnstant affectin and

6 vi ptimism, especially Jan Schipper wh prvided me with endless encuragement, inspiratin, and supprt. Dissertatin research funding was prvided by a fellwship frm the Natinal Science Fundatin s Integrative Graduate Educatin and Research Traineeship (IGERT) prgram, grant number , and by a Natinal Science Fundatin Experimental Prgram t Stimulate Cmpetitive Research (EPSCR) Fellwship.

7 vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Authrizatin t submit dissertatin... ii Abstract...iii Acknwledgements... v Table f cntents... vii List f tables... ix List f figures... xi List f appendices...xiii Chapter 1: Pesticide applicatin practices, pest knwledge, and cst-benefits f plantain prductin in the BriBri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries, Csta Rica... 1 Abstract... 1 Intrductin... 2 Methds... 5 Results and Discussin... 6 Cnclusin References Tables Figures...30 Chapter 2: Interpreting fldplain sil variability at different scales: Implicatins fr agrchemical mdeling in Csta Rica Abstract Intrductin Methds Results Discussin Cnclusin References Tables Figures Appendices...75

8 viii Chapter 3: Pesticide sequestratin in passive samplers (SPMDs): Bifuling and deplyment time in a trpical watershed Abstract Intrductin Methds Results Discussin Cnclusin References Tables Figures Chapter 4: Aquatic eclgical risk assessment f current-use pesticides: A cmparisn f field measurements vs. risk assessment mdels Abstract Intrductin Methds Results and Discussin Cnclusins References Tables Figures Appendices...177

9 ix LIST OF TABLES Chapter 1 Table 1. Demgraphic and land-hlding characteristics f rapid rural appraisal participants within the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries Table 2. Ranking f agricultural pests by rapid rural assessment participants Table 3. Rapid rural appraisal f participant banana weevil knwledge and methds f cntrl...24 Table 4. Summary f pesticide use regimes in banana and plantain prductin in Talamanca, Csta Rica...25 Table 5. Characteristics f agrchemical use by rapid rural appraisal participants in mnculture plantain farms...26 Table 6. Plantain market ptins in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries in descending rder frm best fruit quality...27 Table 7. Summary f benefits, csts, and agrchemical use in indigenus plantain prductin...28 Table 8. Summary f applied agrchemicals in Talamanca, Csta Rica fr banana and plantain...29 Chapter 2 Table 1. Descriptive statistics fr carse-scale tpsils...63 Table 2. Pearsn's crrelatin cefficients fr carse scale tpsils...63 Table 3. Sil prperty averages and standard deviatins fr carse-scale samples by 250m distance classes...64 Table 4. Cmparisn f first hrizn sil prperties in fine-scale farm sites flded r nt-flded in January Chapter 3 Table 1. A cmparisn f Sixala River and Cana Creek water chemistry characteristics frm a ne-day "snapsht" sample f streams in June Table 2. Cmparisn f suspended slids and bttm sediment characteristics in the Sixala River and the Cana Creek study sites Table 3. Current pesticides used in Csta Rica and their analytical parameters...129

10 x Chapter 4 Table 1. Chlrpyrifs, difencnazle, and terbufs applicatin in fur different banana and plantain prductin regimes in the Sixala watershed Table 2. Predicted Envirnmental Cncentratins (PECs) based n three different pesticide entry fractins (EF) in five study sites Table 3: Lwest calculated acute and chrnic n effect cncentratins (NECs) fr chlrpyrifs, difencnazle, and terbufs...170

11 xi LIST OF FIGURES Chapter 1 Figure 1. Agrchemical use in plantain farms as reprted by participants in the 2004 rapid rural appraisal cmpared t participants in the 2006 plantain cst-benefit study...30 Figure 2. Median values f agrchemical applicatins and quantity applied during each applicatin by exprters vs. natinal market prducers...31 Chapter 2 Figure 1. Map f study area and lcatin f sil sampling sites 65 Figure 2. Bx plts f fine-scale sil samples by measured sil prperty and hrizn...66 Figure 3. Cefficient f variatin fr fine-scale sil prperties by hrizn...69 Figure 4. Representative XRD trace f sil mineralgical prperties...70 Figure 5. Bx Plts f PCA scres by 250m distance class fr first fur principal cmpnents Figure 6. Median fine-scale percent rganic matter, sand and clay values in fine-scale distance classes by median hrizn depth...72 Figure 7. Bx plts f PC values fr first hrizn f fine-scale samples by flded r nt-flded in January Figure 8. Bx plts f first fur principal cmpnents fr all fine-scale samples by hrizn...74 Chapter 3 Figure 1. Lcatin f SPMD experimental sites in the Sixala Watershed Figure 2. Cmparisn f stream characteristics (stream discharge, flw velcity, ttal suspended slids, and disslved xygen) amng study sites and study perids Figure 3. SPMD sequestratin f current-use pesticides, chlrpyrifs, terbufs, and difencnazle Figure 4. Bifilm weight vs. SPMD-chlrpyrifs in Cana Creek Figure 5. Cmparisn f visual bifuling, ttal suspended slids, average bifilm weight as percent f SPMD weight in Cana Creek and Sixala River Figure 6. Predictin f time-weighted chlrpyrifs water cncentratins using different Rs values fr SPMD uptake rates Figure 7. Ptential stratificatin f cmpunds during lw flw cnditins...138

12 xii Chapter 4 Figure 1. Water and SPMD sampling sites in the Sixala Watershed, Csta Rica Figure 2. Cntributin f prductin regime t ttal pesticide lading in Sixala watershed Figure 3. Cntributin f chlrpyrifs, difencnazle, and terbufs t ttal annual pesticide lading in Sixala watershed Figure 4. Maximum 28-d average pesticide cncentratins in streams calculated frm SPMD deplyment in six surface water sites in the Sixala watershed Figure 5. Maximum pesticide cncentratins detected in water grab samples in seven Sixala watershed sites and ne Estrella watershed site Figure 6. Mdeled acute risk based using PECs with 100% entry difencnazle and level 3 fugacity mdels fr chlrpyrifs and terbufs Figure 7. Acute and chrnic risk qutients calculated fr an bserved fish kill in the Cana study site...176

13 xiii LIST OF APPENDICES Chapter 2 Appendix A. Sil Temperature...76 Appendix B. Summary f Fine-Scale Sil Transect Samples...77 Appendix C. Sil Transect Stratigraphy f Fine-Scale Farm Sites...80 Appendix D. Trend Surface Analyses...83 Appendix E. Carse-Scale Bx Plts and Scatter Plts...86 Appendix F. Carse-Scale Principal Cmpnents Analysis (PCA)...90 Appendix G. Relatinship between Fine Scale Exchangeable vs. Extractable Catins...91 Appendix H. Fine-Scale Distance Class Averages and Median Values...92 Appendix I. Fine-Scale Principal Cmpnents Analysis (PCA)...96 Chapter 4 Appendix A: Fugacity Mdel Inputs and Outputs Appendix B: Study Site Stream Characteristics Appendix C: Selected Acute and Chrnic Txicity Values Appendix D: Acute and Chrnic Risk Qutients fr Stream Sites Appendix E: Quebrada Cana Fish Kill Data...188

14 1 Chapter One Pesticide Applicatin Practices, Pest Knwledge, and Cst-Benefits f Plantain Prductin in the BriBri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries, Csta Rica* Abstract The use f pesticides in the cultivatin f cash crps such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Csta Rica and wrldwide. Agrchemical use and ccupatinal and envirnmental expsures in exprt banana prductin have been dcumented in sme parts f Central America. Hwever, the extent f agrchemical use, agricultural pest knwledge, and ecnmic cmpnents in plantain prductin are largely unknwn in Csta Rica, especially in remte, high pverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries. Our bjective was t integrate a rapid rural assessment f indigenus farmer pesticide applicatin practices and pest knwledge with a cst-benefit analysis f plantain prductin in the BriBri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries, fr the develpment f better agricultural management practices and imprved regulatry infrastructure. Interviews cnducted with 75 husehlds in 5 indigenus cmmunities shwed that ver 60% f participants grew plantain with agrchemicals. Of these plantain farmers, ver 97% used the insecticide chlrpyrifs, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with nly 31% f participants reprting the use f sme type f prtective clthing during applicatin. The banana weevil (Csmplites srdidus Germar) was ranked as the mst imprtant agricultural pest by 85% f participants, yet nly 28% culd assciate the adult and larval frm. A cst-benefit analysis cnducted with a subset f 26 plantain farmers identified several natinal markets and ne exprt market fr plantain prductin in the Indigenus Territries. Yearly incme averaged $6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged $1872/ha, with average cst-benefit rati f 3.67 fr plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average f 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr f pesticide prducts and 375 kg/ha/yr f fertilizer, but thse wh sld their fruit t the natinal markets applied mre nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than thse wh sld primarily t exprt markets, suggesting a lack f apprpriate applicatin knwedge. Results indicate that the quantity f agrchemicals applied in plantain cultivatin are less than that

15 2 applied in exprt banana, but the absence f apprpriate agrchemical applicatin practices in plantain cultivatin may pse serius risks t human and envirnmental health. Culturally apprpriate farmer educatin and certificatin prgrams are needed as well as the develpment f safe-handling practices, regulatry infrastructure, and adequate agrchemical strage, transprt, and waste dispsal facilities. Intrductin Cash crps prvide natins arund the glbe with imprtant surces f freign exchange, fd security, emplyment, and infrastructure develpment (Barham et al. 1992, Fafchamps 1992, Carvalh 2006). Banana and plantain (Musa spp.) are tw cash crps in Csta Rica that cmprise ver 25% f Csta Rica's freign exchange (Hernandez et al. 2000), cntributing t substantial incme generatin and emplyment pprtunities in bth lcal and natinal ecnmic sectrs. Csta Rica is currently the secnd largest exprter f bananas in the wrld, exprting 95% f ver 2.2 millin metric tns f bananas prduced annually, and the furth largest exprter f plantains in the wrld, exprting ver 40% f 70,000 metric tns f plantain prduced annually (FAO 2007). Agricultural prductin wrldwide has been accmpanied by cntinuus grwth in the number and quantity f agrchemicals applied t crps (Carvalh 2006). This trend is increasingly evident in Central America, where pesticide use has essentially dubled during the past 20 years (Wesseling et al. 2005), frm an estimated 30,000 tns f active ingredients applied annually in the 1980s t ver 57,000 tns by 1999 (Wesseling et al. 2001a). In the year 2000, Csta Rica ranked secnd in the wrld in the amunt f pesticides applied per unit area, with an average f 52 kg a.i./ha, and furth in the wrld in fertilizer use with 385 kg a.i./ha (Wrld Resurces Institute 2007). Currently, an estimated 280 different pesticides are imprted int Csta Rica and sld under mre than 2,000 different brand names (de la Cruz and Castill 2003). In 1998, ver 18,000 metric tns f frmulated agrchemicals were imprted int Csta Rica (de la Cruz and Castill 2003), mre than ne-third f which are used n banana and plantain prductin (Castill et al. 2000). The majrity f imprted chemicals are fungicides, fllwed by herbicides, and less frequently, insecticides and nematicides (de la Cruz and Castill 2003). Pesticide use is assciated with envirnmental

16 3 cntaminatin and human health prblems wrldwide (Lacher and Gldstein 1997, Dinham and Malik 2003, Marni et al. 2006). A number f human and envirnmental pisnings have been dcumented in cmmercial banana plantatins in Csta Rica and Central America (Castill et al. 1997, Castill et al. 2000, Sass 2000, Wesseling et al. 2001b, Wesseling et al. 2005). Althugh increased dcumentatin and research n agrchemical use in banana plantatins are still badly needed, the need is even greater fr such infrmatin relevant t plantain cultivatin. N studies are knwn regarding pesticide use n plantain farms in Csta Rica, despite the fact that exprt quality plantain prductin in Csta Rica rughly fllws the same agrchemical regime as cmmercial banana. Agricultural lands in the Sixala River Valley, lcated in the Talamanca regin f sutheastern Csta Rica, prvide 52% f the plantain, 90% f the rganic banana, and 6% percent f the cmmercial banana prductin in Csta Rica (Municipality f Talamanca 2003). Bth plantain and banana have had a prfund impact n the ecnmy and envirnment f this prest regin f Csta Rica, and currently cnstitute the primary surce f incme fr area residents either as revenue directly generated frm husehld farms r as wage labr n cmmercial plantatins (Brge and Castill 1997, Dahlquist et al. 2007). Cmmercial banana prductin is limited t apprximately 3,000 ha alng the lwer prtins f the Sixala River, where bananas fr exprt are grwn n large-scale plantatins with intensive use f agrchemicals. Cmmercial banana prducers are large landwners wh are required by the transnatinal cmpanies purchasing and marketing their fruit t meet strict quality standards and use prescribed prductin practices, including the use f large quantities f agrchemical inputs (Hernandez et al. 2000). It is estimated that up t 45 kg a.i./ha/yr are applied n these cmmercial banana plantatins (IRET 2000, de la Cruz and Castill 2003). Unlike banana, where the majrity f fruit is exprted, plantain in Csta Rica is grwn fr bth natinal and internatinal markets (FAO 2007). Upstream frm the cmmercial banana plantatins, exprt-quality plantain is grwn with mderate t intensive agrchemical use in rganized cperatives f husehld-plantain farms based n technlgy and knwledge adpted frm cmmercial banana prductin. It has been estimated that between 10 and 15

17 4 kg a.i./ha/yr f pesticides are applied in intensive exprt-plantain prductin (IRET 2000). Farthest upstream in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries, banana and plantain are grwn n small-scale husehld farms in a variety f different agricultural systems ranging frm rganic banana and plantain in mixed agrfrestry systems, t mncultures with mderate agrchemical use (Dahlquist et al. 2007). Plantain has histrically been part f subsistence prductin in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries, and was nt grwn fr exprt until the late 1980s (Villalbs and Brge 1998). With the highest cncentratin f pverty in Talamanca ccurring within the indigenus territries (Municipality f Talamanca 2003), plantain quickly became an imprtant cash crp and much needed surce f incme fr indigenus farmers. In the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries, histrical crpping systems such as the cultivatin f basic grains, caca agrfrestry systems, and traditinal fallws are rapidly being abandned in favr f mnculture plantain cultivatin fr natinal and exprt markets (Dahlquist et al. 2007). During the past 20 years, plantain cultivatin in Talamanca has increased frm 1,270 ha f plantain in prductin in 1981 (Smarriba 1993) t ver 6,600 ha in 2001 (Municipality f Talamanca 2003), representing a significant landuse change in the regin. Little is knwn abut pest management and agrchemical use within the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries. N infrmatin exists n the intensity and frequency f pesticide applicatins, pesticide csts, market ptins, r farmer knwledge f agrchemical alternatives and pest bilgy. Farmers within the territries have few ecnmic resurces and pr access t health and educatinal facilities, including agricultural extensin services. Legislatin regulating pesticide use is absent within the Indigenus Territries. These factrs have been assciated with high incidence f envirnmental and human pisnings in ther areas (Aragn et al. 2001, Hurtig et al. 2003, Knradsen et al. 2003, Karlssn 2004). Our bjectives were t determine the extent f agrchemical use and pest management knwledge in banana and plantain cultivatin as well as the csts and benefits f plantain prductin fr the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus farmers. This infrmatin is essential fr any further research, cnservatin, r rural develpment effrts in the Indigenus Territries as well as fr natinal and reginal public health and agricultural management initiatives.

18 5 Methds Our wrk integrates tw different studies cnducted within the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries frm 2004 t 2006: a rapid rural appraisal f plantain and rganic banana prductin and integrated pest management practices, and a cst-benefit analysis f plantain prductin. Bth studies were based n participatry methds (Mikkelsen 1995) fr integratin int larger biphysical research prjects n integrated pest management and eclgical risk assessments fr pesticide use Rapid Rural Appraisal A rapid rural appraisal (RRA) f 75 husehlds was cnducted in five banana- and plantaingrwing cmmunities (Shirles, Amubri/Tsuidi, Sepéque, Gavilan Canta, and Bca Urén) within the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries frm June-August Methds included semi-structured interviews, participant bservatin, transect walks, and infrmal discussins with key infrmants and farmers (Mikkelsen 1995). Organic banana farmers were included since rganic banana is ften grwn in agrfrestry systems that include plantain. In each f the five cmmunities, 15 families that cultivated banana, plantain, r bth were randmly selected and interviewed with the assistance f tw lcal indigenus prmters. Interview questins cvered subjects such as plantain and banana management and pest cntrl techniques, farmers' knwledge and attitudes regarding the pest status f the banana weevil and the effectiveness f cntrl methds, the amunt, type, and frequency f pesticides used fr plantain prductin, methds f pesticide handling and strage, prtectin used during applicatin, health effects experienced, and why farmers chse t use r nt use pesticides Plantain Cst-Benefit Analysis Twenty-six mnculture plantain farmers frm the primary plantain-prducing cmmunities f Shirles and Sepéque, wh had been invlved in an nging sil quality research prject, participated in an intensive study f the csts and benefits f plantain prductin within the Indigenus Territries. With the aid f lcal agricultural extensinists, farmers were asked t reprt all surces f incme frm their plantain prductin, including the different natinal and exprt markets that they sell their fruit t each week. Farmers were then asked t list all csts assciated with their plantain farms including the type and quantity f agrchemicals

19 6 used, equipment rented, wrkers paid, and transprtatin csts. Cmparisns f ttal incme generated and ttal csts expended per hectare per year were then calculated with farmers t help them determine the financial status f their plantain prductin. Data Analysis and Triangulatin Fr bth datasets, interview data were cded and descriptive statistics were calculated. Where pen-ended questins were used, respnses were aggregated by tpic and the percentage f participants mentining each tpic was calculated. A Kruskal-Wallis test f variance and simple linear regressin were cnducted t determine significant relatinships and crrelatins amng farmer demgraphics and pesticide use. One-way analyses f variance (ANOVA) at the 95% cnfidence level were used t test fr significant differences amng different farmer grups in the cst-benefit analysis. Amunt f fertilizer was calculated based n the cmbined elemental cmpsitin f the tw mst widely used prducts, urea (46% N) and a cmplete N-P-K frmula ( % respectively). Active ingredients fr pesticides were calculated based n thse prduct frmulatins available in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenus Territries. The active ingredient value fr insecticideimpregnated plastic bags was btained frm IRET (2000), and represents the amunt f chlrpyrifs per hectare calculated by weight frm the number f impregnated plastic bags n banana plants spaced at 2 m x 2 m per hectare. All data gained thrugh literature review and interviews were triangulated thrugh bth participant bservatin and grup discussins (Mikkelsen 1995). Participant bservatin included living with cmmunity members, infrmal cnversatins with indigenus farmers and ther husehld members, participating in husehld and farming activities, and bservatins frm persnal experience thrugh wrking in the indigenus territries (Dahlquist et al. 2007). Several grup discussins fr feedback were held after each study fr reiteratin and cnfirmatin f gathered datasets. Results and Discussin Participant Demgraphics Demgraphics fr participants in the 2004 RRA are presented in Table 1. The average participant was 40 years ld and pssessed a US-equivalent educatin f 4th grade. Over half (53%) f participants had lived their entire life within the cmmunity where they were

20 7 interviewed. Sixty percent f participants interviewed grew plantain in mnculture, with an average hlding f 2.75 ha. The remaining 40% did nt grw plantain r grew it in cmbinatin with certified rganic banana in mixed agrfrestry systems (averaging 1.5 ha), in which agrchemical use is technically nt allwed. Plantain in these rganic agrfrestry systems is generally grwn fr lcal r husehld use as n market currently exists fr rganic plantain in Csta Rica. Twenty-fur percent f respndents had bth mnculture plantain farms as well as separate rganic agrfrestry banana r plantain farms. All participants cmbined represented a ttal f 123 ha in mnculture plantain and 70 ha in rganic banana r mixed rganic banana and plantain agrfrestry systems, with verall farmer hldings in banana r plantain averaging 2.5 ha. Thirty-nine percent f participants were female landwners wh cultivated an average f 2.10 ha f plantain r banana, cmpared t an average f 2.95 ha cultivated by male landwners. In a fllw-up cst-benefit study f BriBri-Cabécar farmers with mnculture plantain hldings, farm hldings were similar t thse bserved in the RRA study cnducted twyears earlier, with participants reprting mnculture plantain farms ranging frm 1 t 5 ha in size with an average farm size f 2.8 ha. This number and all f the infrmatin gained in the cst-benefit study are based n a specific "parcel" belnging t each farmer participant. Hwever, it is imprtant t nte that this number des nt always represent the ttal land hldings f participants, as many farmers have several different parcels f land under varius crpping systems, including additinal plantain, n different farms spread ut acrss the indigenus territries. In the indigenus territries, individuals and families can have many parcels f land hldings scattered acrss the territries based n inherited land, r entire cllective hldings, which if cmbined can be as much as 20 t 50 ha (Whelan 2005). Agricultural Pest Knwledge When asked t name the mst imprtant pest n their farm, ver 85% f RRA participants placed the banana weevil (Csmplites srdidus Germar) as the first r secnd mst imprtant pest, and 57% f respndents ranked black sigatka (Mycsphaerella fijiensis) as the first r secnd mst imprtant agricultural pest (Table 2). The banana weevil is als cnsidered t be the mst imprtant insect pest f bananas and plantain thrughut the

21 8 trpics (Gld et al. 2001). Damage is caused by the larva, which tunnels within the crm and interferes with nutrient uptake. Banana weevil damage can reduce yield and plantatin life, and heavy infestatin can lead t crp failure in newly planted fields (Gld et al. 2001). Plants infected with the black sigatka fungal pathgen develp necrtic lesins n leaf tissue that can cause immature ripening and crp lsses f up t 50% (Stver and Simmnds 1987; Rbinsn 1996). Other pests that affect banana and plantain were described less frequently by participants, including Panama disease (causal agent Fusarium xisprum), nematdes, palm weevils (Rhynchphrus palmarum), parrts, and thrips (C. rchidii, C. signipennis). The burrwing nematde (Radphlus similis) is cnsidered the mst damaging nematde pest f banana and plantain wrldwide, causing annual yield lsses f apprximately 20% thrugh destructin f the rt system and subsequent tppling f infected plants (Marín et al. 2002), althugh ther nematde pests can include rt-knt nematdes (Melidgyne spp.), lesin nematdes (Pratylenchus spp.), and the spiral nematde (Helitylenchus multicinctus) (Rbinsn 1996). In general, farmers mentined larger, mre visible pests mre frequently and gave them a higher ranking cmpared t agricultural pests that are less visible, a phenmenn that has been bserved in ther pest knwledge studies (Jshi et al. 2000, Mrales and Perfect 2000). Fr example, nly 10.7% f RRA participants mentined nematdes and nly 4% mentined thrips, whereas almst all participants (94.7%) mentined the banana weevil (Table 2). Hwever, althugh the banana weevil was mentined mst frequently as the mst imprtant pest, nly 28% f respndents assciated the adult weevil with the larva (Table 3). T cntrl fr banana weevil, the mst cmmnly used methd, mentined by 46.6% f participants, was applicatin f nematicide/insecticides (Table 3). Cultural cntrl methds were used by 16% f participants. Cultural cntrl methds include the remval f debris and weeds frm the base f the mat, deleafing and desuckering, remval f rtted stems, and weeding by machete. Pseudstem traps were used by 9.3% f participants and mentined by anther 22.6% (Table 3). These traps are cnstructed f tw pieces f fresh banana r plantain stem cut lengthwise and then placed n tp f each ther in the field t attract weevils away frm nearby plants (Gld et al. 2002). Phermne traps were mentined by 12% f participants. These traps cntain a lure with the aggregatin phermne f the banana

Factsheet on 2014-2020 Rural Development Programme for Sicily

Factsheet on 2014-2020 Rural Development Programme for Sicily Factsheet n 2014-2020 Rural Develpment Prgramme fr Sicily The Rural Develpment Prgramme (RDP) fr Sicily was frmally adpted by the Eurpean Cmmissin n 24 Nvember 2015, utlining Sicily's pririties fr using

More information

POLISH STANDARDS ON HEALTH AND SAFETY AS A TOOL FOR IMPLEMENTING REQUIREMENTS OF THE EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES INTO THE PRACTICE OF ENTERPRISES

POLISH STANDARDS ON HEALTH AND SAFETY AS A TOOL FOR IMPLEMENTING REQUIREMENTS OF THE EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES INTO THE PRACTICE OF ENTERPRISES POLISH STANDARDS ON HEALTH AND SAFETY AS A TOOL FOR IMPLEMENTING REQUIREMENTS OF THE EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES INTO THE PRACTICE OF ENTERPRISES M. PĘCIŁŁO Central Institute fr Labur Prtectin ul. Czerniakwska

More information

Marketing Consultancy Division (MCD) Export Consultancy Unit (ECU) Export in Focus. Export Market Expansion Strategies. Rabi-I, 1427 (April, 2006)

Marketing Consultancy Division (MCD) Export Consultancy Unit (ECU) Export in Focus. Export Market Expansion Strategies. Rabi-I, 1427 (April, 2006) Marketing Cnsultancy Divisin (MCD) Exprt Cnsultancy Unit (ECU) Exprt in Fcus Exprt Market Expansin Strategies Rabi-I, 1427 (April, 2006) 1 Exprt Market Expansin Strategies Intrductin It is clear that glbalizatin

More information

Research Report. Abstract: The Emerging Intersection Between Big Data and Security Analytics. November 2012

Research Report. Abstract: The Emerging Intersection Between Big Data and Security Analytics. November 2012 Research Reprt Abstract: The Emerging Intersectin Between Big Data and Security Analytics By Jn Oltsik, Senir Principal Analyst With Jennifer Gahm Nvember 2012 2012 by The Enterprise Strategy Grup, Inc.

More information

Phi Kappa Sigma International Fraternity Insurance Billing Methodology

Phi Kappa Sigma International Fraternity Insurance Billing Methodology Phi Kappa Sigma Internatinal Fraternity Insurance Billing Methdlgy The Phi Kappa Sigma Internatinal Fraternity Executive Bard implres each chapter t thrughly review the attached methdlgy and plan nw t

More information

Internal Audit Charter and operating standards

Internal Audit Charter and operating standards Internal Audit Charter and perating standards 2 1 verview This dcument sets ut the basis fr internal audit: (i) the Internal Audit charter, which establishes the framewrk fr Internal Audit; and (ii) hw

More information

CONTENTS UNDERSTANDING PPACA. Implications of PPACA Relative to Student Athletes. Institution Level Discussion/Decisions.

CONTENTS UNDERSTANDING PPACA. Implications of PPACA Relative to Student Athletes. Institution Level Discussion/Decisions. This dcument is intended t prvide NCAA member institutins with an infrmatinal guide regarding the ptential implicatins f the Patient Prtectin and Affrdable Care Act f 2010 (PPACA) when fully implemented

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES fr PEST MANAGEMENT Pesticides can be classified int tw brad categries: insecticides and herbicides. In rder t effectively cntrl any pest, prper identificatin and understanding

More information

SALARY CONSIDERATIONS FOR CANCER REGISTRARS

SALARY CONSIDERATIONS FOR CANCER REGISTRARS SALARY CONSIDERATIONS FOR CANCER REGISTRARS UPDATED 2012 SURVEY DATA SALARY CONSIDERATIONS FOR CANCER REGISTRARS UPDATED 2012 SURVEY DATA Natinal Cancer Registrars Assciatin 1340 Braddck Place, Suite 203

More information

CMS Eligibility Requirements Checklist for MSSP ACO Participation

CMS Eligibility Requirements Checklist for MSSP ACO Participation ATTACHMENT 1 CMS Eligibility Requirements Checklist fr MSSP ACO Participatin 1. General Eligibility Requirements ACO participants wrk tgether t manage and crdinate care fr Medicare fee-fr-service beneficiaries.

More information

AN ROINN OIDEACHAIS THE LEAVING CERTIFICATE

AN ROINN OIDEACHAIS THE LEAVING CERTIFICATE AN ROINN OIDEACHAIS THE LEAVING CERTIFICATE BUSINESS SYLLABUS (HIGHER LEVEL and ORDINARY LEVEL 1 Cntents Preamble (ii) 1. Intrductin 1 2. Structure f the syllabus 3 3. Business syllabus Peple in business

More information

Change Management Process

Change Management Process Change Management Prcess B1.10 Change Management Prcess 1. Intrductin This plicy utlines [Yur Cmpany] s apprach t managing change within the rganisatin. All changes in strategy, activities and prcesses

More information

High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP) CICG, Geneva 11-15 March 2013

High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP) CICG, Geneva 11-15 March 2013 High Level Meeting n Natinal Drught Plicy (HMNDP) CICG, Geneva 11-15 March 2013 Plicy Dcument: Natinal Drught Management Plicy United Natins Cnventin t Cmbat Desertificatin (UNCCD) Fd and Agriculture Organizatin

More information

Trends and Considerations in Currency Recycle Devices. What is a Currency Recycle Device? November 2003

Trends and Considerations in Currency Recycle Devices. What is a Currency Recycle Device? November 2003 Trends and Cnsideratins in Currency Recycle Devices Nvember 2003 This white paper prvides basic backgrund n currency recycle devices as cmpared t the cmbined features f a currency acceptr device and a

More information

WHITE PAPER. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) is Not Just for A Items

WHITE PAPER. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) is Not Just for A Items WHITE PAPER Vendr Managed Inventry (VMI) is Nt Just fr A Items Why it s Critical fr Plumbing Manufacturers t als Manage Whlesalers B & C Items Executive Summary Prven Results fr VMI-managed SKUs*: Stck-uts

More information

FundingEdge. Guide to Business Cash Advance & Bank Statement Loan Programs

FundingEdge. Guide to Business Cash Advance & Bank Statement Loan Programs Guide t Business Cash Advance & Bank Statement Lan Prgrams Cash Advances: $2,500 - $1,000,000 Business Bank Statement Lans: $5,000 - $500,000 Canada Cash Advances: $5,000 - $500,000 (must have 9 mnths

More information

Communal Property Institution Capacity Assessment Tool

Communal Property Institution Capacity Assessment Tool Cmmunal Prperty Institutin Capacity Assessment Tl Intrductin t cmmunal prperty institutins Cmmunal prperty institutins (CPIs) Participants in the land refrm prgramme can hld prperty thrugh different frms

More information

Business Plan Overview

Business Plan Overview Business Plan Overview Organizatin and Cntent Summary A business plan is a descriptin f yur business, including yur prduct yur market, yur peple and yur financing needs. Yu shuld cnsider that a well prepared

More information

OECD-NEA Study Cost of Nuclear Accidents-liabilities Issues and their Impact on Electricity Costs

OECD-NEA Study Cost of Nuclear Accidents-liabilities Issues and their Impact on Electricity Costs OECD-NEA Study Cst f Nuclear Accidents-liabilities Issues and their Impact n Electricity Csts Wrkshp Appraches t estimatin f the csts f nuclear accidents May 28-29, 2013 OECD/NEA Headquarters, Issy-les-Mulineaux,

More information

A Quick Read on the State of Small Business and the Small Business Success Index 2009 Baseline Study of Small Business Success

A Quick Read on the State of Small Business and the Small Business Success Index 2009 Baseline Study of Small Business Success A Quick Read n the State f Small Business and the Small Business Success Index 2009 Baseline Study f Small Business Success March 12, 2009 Spnsred by: Netwrk Slutins, LLC and Rbert H. Smith Schl f Business,

More information

Watlington and Chalgrove GP Practice - Patient Satisfaction Survey 2011

Watlington and Chalgrove GP Practice - Patient Satisfaction Survey 2011 Watlingtn and Chalgrve GP - Patient Satisfactin Survey 2011 Backgrund During ne week in Nvember last year patients attending either the Chalgrve r the Watlingtn surgeries were asked t cmplete a survey

More information

Corporate Standards for data quality and the collation of data for external presentation

Corporate Standards for data quality and the collation of data for external presentation The University f Kent Crprate Standards fr data quality and the cllatin f data fr external presentatin This paper intrduces a set f standards with the aim f safeguarding the University s psitin in published

More information

IFRS Discussion Group

IFRS Discussion Group IFRS Discussin Grup Reprt n the Public Meeting February 26, 2014 The IFRS Discussin Grup is a discussin frum nly. The Grup s purpse is t assist the Accunting Standards Bard (AcSB) regarding issues arising

More information

The Importance of Market Research

The Importance of Market Research The Imprtance f Market Research 1. What is market research? Successful businesses have extensive knwledge f their custmers and their cmpetitrs. Market research is the prcess f gathering infrmatin which

More information

Guidelines on Data Management in Horizon 2020

Guidelines on Data Management in Horizon 2020 Guidelines n Data Management in Hrizn 2020 Versin 1.0 11 December 2013 Guidelines n Data Management in Hrizn 2020 Versin 16 December 2013 Intrductin In Hrizn 2020 a limited pilt actin n pen access t research

More information

COE: Hybrid Course Request for Proposals. The goals of the College of Education Hybrid Course Funding Program are:

COE: Hybrid Course Request for Proposals. The goals of the College of Education Hybrid Course Funding Program are: COE: Hybrid Curse Request fr Prpsals The gals f the Cllege f Educatin Hybrid Curse Funding Prgram are: T supprt the develpment f effective, high-quality instructin that meets the needs and expectatins

More information

IRCA Briefing note: ISO/FDIS 19011:2011 Guidelines for auditing management systems

IRCA Briefing note: ISO/FDIS 19011:2011 Guidelines for auditing management systems IRCA Briefing nte: ISO/FDIS 19011:2011 Guidelines fr auditing management systems Intrductin The Internatinal Register f Certificated Auditrs (IRCA) has prepared this briefing nte t cmmunicate t IRCA Certificated

More information

Sources of Federal Government and Employee Information

Sources of Federal Government and Employee Information Inf Surce Surces f Federal Gvernment and Emplyee Infrmatin Ridley Terminals Inc. TABLE OF CONTENTS General Infrmatin Intrductin t Inf Surce Backgrund Respnsibilities Institutinal Functins, Prgram and Activities

More information

Equal Pay Audit 2014 Summary

Equal Pay Audit 2014 Summary Equal Pay Audit 2014 Summary Abut the dcument The fllwing summary is an abridged versin f Ofcm s equal pay audit 2014. In the full versin f the reprt we set ut ur key findings, cmment n any issues arising

More information

Patient Participation Report

Patient Participation Report Patient Participatin Reprt In 2011, Westngrve Partnership decided t establish a PPG (Patient Participatin Grup) that wuld allw us t engage with ur patients, receive feedback frm them and ensure that they

More information

Municipal Advisor Registration

Municipal Advisor Registration FACT SHEET Municipal Advisr Registratin SEC Open Meeting Sept. 18, 2013 The Securities and Exchange Cmmissin tday will cnsider whether t adpt a rule that wuld establish a permanent registratin regime fr

More information

TOWARDS OF AN INFORMATION SERVICE TO EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIPS: BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE AS ANALYTICAL ENGINE OF SERVICE

TOWARDS OF AN INFORMATION SERVICE TO EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIPS: BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE AS ANALYTICAL ENGINE OF SERVICE TOWARDS OF AN INFORMATION SERVICE TO EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIPS: BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE AS ANALYTICAL ENGINE OF SERVICE A N D R E I A F E R R E I R A, A N T Ó N I O C A S T R O, D E L F I N A S Á S O A R E

More information

This report provides Members with an update on of the financial performance of the Corporation s managed IS service contract with Agilisys Ltd.

This report provides Members with an update on of the financial performance of the Corporation s managed IS service contract with Agilisys Ltd. Cmmittee: Date(s): Infrmatin Systems Sub Cmmittee 11 th March 2015 Subject: Agilisys Managed Service Financial Reprt Reprt f: Chamberlain Summary Public Fr Infrmatin This reprt prvides Members with an

More information

Basics of Supply Chain Management

Basics of Supply Chain Management The Champlain Valley APICS Chapter is a premier prfessinal assciatin fr supply chain and peratins management and wrking tgether with the APICS rganizatin the leading prvider f research, educatin and certificatin

More information

Data Warehouse Scope Recommendations

Data Warehouse Scope Recommendations Rensselaer Data Warehuse Prject http://www.rpi.edu/datawarehuse Financial Analysis Scpe and Data Audits This dcument describes the scpe f the Financial Analysis data mart scheduled fr delivery in July

More information

Research Findings from the West Virginia Virtual School Spanish Program

Research Findings from the West Virginia Virtual School Spanish Program Research Findings frm the West Virginia Virtual Schl Spanish Prgram Funded by the U.S. Department f Educatin Cnducted by R0cKMAN ETAL San Francisc, CA, Chicag, IL, and Blmingtn, IN Octber 4, 2006 R0cKMAN

More information

Succession Planning & Leadership Development: Your Utility s Bridge to the Future

Succession Planning & Leadership Development: Your Utility s Bridge to the Future Successin Planning & Leadership Develpment: Yur Utility s Bridge t the Future Richard L. Gerstberger, P.E. TAP Resurce Develpment Grup, Inc. 4625 West 32 nd Ave Denver, CO 80212 ABSTRACT A few years ag,

More information

Network Security Trends in the Era of Cloud and Mobile Computing

Network Security Trends in the Era of Cloud and Mobile Computing Research Reprt Abstract: Netwrk Security Trends in the Era f Clud and Mbile Cmputing By Jn Oltsik, Senir Principal Analyst and Bill Lundell, Senir Research Analyst With Jennifer Gahm, Senir Prject Manager

More information

FTE is defined as an employee who is employed on average at least 30 hours of service per week.

FTE is defined as an employee who is employed on average at least 30 hours of service per week. On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed int law cmprehensive health care refrm legislatin, the Patient Prtectin and Affrdable Care Act (H.R. 3590) passed in the Senate. The Health Care and Educatin

More information

Findings on Health Care Cost, Pricing and Reimbursement in Alaska 1 Excerpted from Annual Reports of the Alaska Health Care Commission

Findings on Health Care Cost, Pricing and Reimbursement in Alaska 1 Excerpted from Annual Reports of the Alaska Health Care Commission Findings n Health Care Cst, Pricing and Reimbursement in Alaska 1 Excerpted frm Annual Reprts f the Alaska Health Care Cmmissin 2011 Findings n Cst f Health Care in Alaska (2011 Annual Reprt) i Health

More information

Health and Safety Training and Supervision

Health and Safety Training and Supervision Intrductin: Health and Safety Training and Supervisin University f Nttingham is cmmitted t maintaining and develping standards f excellence in all aspects f its business. T that end, the University aspires

More information

HOW TO SELECT A LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY

HOW TO SELECT A LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY HOW TO SELECT A LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY There will prbably be hundreds f life insurance cmpanies t chse frm when yu decide t purchase a life insurance plicy. Hw d yu decide which ne? Mst cmpanies are quite

More information

Research Report. Abstract: Advanced Malware Detection and Protection Trends. September 2013

Research Report. Abstract: Advanced Malware Detection and Protection Trends. September 2013 Research Reprt Abstract: Advanced Malware Detectin and Prtectin Trends By Jn Oltsik, Senir Principal Analyst With Jennifer Gahm, Senir Prject Manager September 2013 2013 by The Enterprise Strategy Grup,

More information

Listening to Students: Sample Focus Group and Survey Materials

Listening to Students: Sample Focus Group and Survey Materials Listening t Students: Sample Fcus Grup and Survey Materials Overview The Student Assessment Inventry fr Schl Districts supprts a prcess t evaluate the assessments students currently take and then determine

More information

Graduate Faculty Committee Doc. No. 1127 Approved January 26, 2009

Graduate Faculty Committee Doc. No. 1127 Approved January 26, 2009 Graduate Faculty Cmmittee Dc. N. 1127 Apprved January 26, 2009 RECOMMENDATION OF THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON GRADUATE COURSE AND CURRICULUM AND THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION FOR AN ENTITLEMENT TO PLAN

More information

Key Steps for Organizations in Responding to Privacy Breaches

Key Steps for Organizations in Responding to Privacy Breaches Key Steps fr Organizatins in Respnding t Privacy Breaches Purpse The purpse f this dcument is t prvide guidance t private sectr rganizatins, bth small and large, when a privacy breach ccurs. Organizatins

More information

Please provide a 2-3 sentence summary of your proposal: Financial Profile of Organization:

Please provide a 2-3 sentence summary of your proposal: Financial Profile of Organization: Name f Applicant Organizatin: Address: City, State, Zip: Phne: Fax: Email: Primary Cntact & Title: Federal EIN Number: Website: Age f Organizatin: Please prvide a 2-3 sentence summary f yur prpsal: Financial

More information

Occupational Therapy

Occupational Therapy Health Prfessins: Occupatinal Therapy Overview f Prfessin Pre-Requisites Applicatin Prcess Timeline Admissin Exam- GRE Additinal Requirements Overview f OT Schl Imprtant Websites Overview f Prfessin: (surce:

More information

DTO Advice Note. Mobility Management Plans

DTO Advice Note. Mobility Management Plans DUBLIN TRANSPORTATION OFFICE PREAMBLE s what and why are they? The s are intended as guidance fr Lcal Authrities and thers invlved in land use planning and develpment in the Greater Dublin Area. The need

More information

their needs. customer, and suggest alternative products when a customer requested product is not available.

their needs. customer, and suggest alternative products when a customer requested product is not available. Crescent Electrical Supply Cmpany (Denver, CO) - Crescent Electric Supply Cmpany (CESCO) was funded in 1919. Tday, it is ne f the largest electrical distributrs in the United States with ver 140 lcatins

More information

Bakersfield College Program Review Annual Update

Bakersfield College Program Review Annual Update Bakersfield Cllege Prgram Review Annual Update I. Prgram Infrmatin: Prgram Name: Prgram Type: Instructinal Nn Instructinal Prgram Missin Statement: The missin f the Bakersfield Cllege Human Services Prgram

More information

Writing a Compare/Contrast Essay

Writing a Compare/Contrast Essay Writing a Cmpare/Cntrast Essay As always, the instructr and the assignment sheet prvide the definitive expectatins and requirements fr any essay. Here is sme general infrmatin abut the rganizatin fr this

More information

PART D. REVIEW OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS

PART D. REVIEW OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS PART D. REVIEW OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS I. GUIDELINES FOR GRADUATE PROGRAM REVIEW The peridic review f graduate prgrams is necessary t ensure that graduate prgrams maintain quality and currency. The Chancellr

More information

March 2016 Group A Payment Issues: Missing Information-Loss Calculation letters ( MILC ) - deficiency resolutions: Outstanding appeals:

March 2016 Group A Payment Issues: Missing Information-Loss Calculation letters ( MILC ) - deficiency resolutions: Outstanding appeals: The fllwing tpics were discussed in the March 24, 2016 meeting with law firms representing VCF claimants. Grup A Payment Issues: We cntinue t fcus n paying Grup A claims in full and are meeting the schedule

More information

ITIL V3 Service Offerings and Agreements (SOA) Certification Program - 5 Days

ITIL V3 Service Offerings and Agreements (SOA) Certification Program - 5 Days ITIL V3 Service Offerings and Agreements (SOA) Certificatin Prgram - 5 Days Prgram Overview The ITIL Intermediate Qualificatin: Service Offerings and Agreements (SOA) Certificate, althugh a stand alne

More information

The Cost Benefits of the Cloud are More About Real Estate Than IT

The Cost Benefits of the Cloud are More About Real Estate Than IT y The Cst Benefits f the Clud are Mre Abut Real Estate Than IT #$#%&'()*( An Osterman Research Executive Brief Published December 2010 "#$#%&'()*( Osterman Research, Inc. P.O. Bx 1058 Black Diamnd, Washingtn

More information

australian nursing federation

australian nursing federation australian nursing federatin Submissin t the public cnsultatin n the Nursing and Midwifery Bard f Australia draft Guidelines fr prfessinal indemnity insurance arrangements fr nurses and nurse practitiners

More information

Refinancing Section 95 & 61 co-ops CHF Canada s Refinancing Program

Refinancing Section 95 & 61 co-ops CHF Canada s Refinancing Program Refinancing Sectin 95 & 61 c-ps CHF Canada s Refinancing Prgram Lndn Educatin Event 2015 0 CHF Canada s Refinancing Prgram Intrductins Sectin 95 & Sectin 61 Purpse f the Refinancing Prgram Hw the new mrtgage

More information

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 7. Statistics: The Null and Alternate Hypotheses. A Student Academic Learning Services Guide

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 7. Statistics: The Null and Alternate Hypotheses. A Student Academic Learning Services Guide Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 f 7 Statistics: The Null and Alternate Hyptheses A Student Academic Learning Services Guide www.durhamcllege.ca/sals Student Services Building (SSB), Rm 204 This

More information

Connecticut State Department of Education 2014-15 School Health Services Information Survey

Connecticut State Department of Education 2014-15 School Health Services Information Survey Cnnecticut State Department f Educatin 2014-15 Schl Health Services Infrmatin Survey General Directins fr Cmpletin by Schl Nurse Crdinatr/Supervisr This Schl Health Services Infrmatin Survey was designed

More information

Request for Proposal (RFP) RFP HQ2015-01 Training Session and Leadership Program Development Consulting Services

Request for Proposal (RFP) RFP HQ2015-01 Training Session and Leadership Program Development Consulting Services technserve.rg Date: January 5, 2014 Request fr Prpsal (RFP) RFP HQ2015-01 Training Sessin and Leadership Prgram Develpment Cnsulting Services Subject: Request fr Prpsal TechnServe Inc. (TNS) invites yu

More information

Serving ELLs with Disabilities: Perspectives of Illinois Educators. Rita Brusca-Vega. Purdue University Calumet. Cristina Sanchez-Lopez

Serving ELLs with Disabilities: Perspectives of Illinois Educators. Rita Brusca-Vega. Purdue University Calumet. Cristina Sanchez-Lopez Serving ELLs with Disabilities: Perspectives f Illinis Educatrs Rita Brusca-Vega Purdue University Calumet Cristina Sanchez-Lpez Illinis Resurce Center Cntact Inf: Rita Brusca-Vega, Ed.D. Schl f Educatin

More information

ITIL V3 Planning, Protection and Optimization (PPO) Certification Program - 5 Days

ITIL V3 Planning, Protection and Optimization (PPO) Certification Program - 5 Days ITIL V3 Planning, Prtectin and Optimizatin (PPO) Certificatin Prgram - 5 Days Prgram Overview The ITIL Intermediate Qualificatin: Planning, Prtectin and Optimizatin (PPO) Certificate is a free-standing

More information

Environmental Science

Environmental Science Envirnmental Science Rbert Fuhrman rfuhrman@cvenantschl.rg 434.220.7335 Curse Descriptin: This curse is an interdisciplinary apprach t the study f Earth s ecsystems and the interactins f man with the natural

More information

IEMA Practitioner Volume 14 Supporting Information www.iema.net/practitioner/14

IEMA Practitioner Volume 14 Supporting Information www.iema.net/practitioner/14 IEMA Practitiner Vlume 14 Supprting Infrmatin www.iema.net/practitiner/14 Title: Engaging and Re-engineering the Supply Chain Authr: Sam Balch Organisatin: Glbal Actin Plan There are a number f reasns

More information

Pay Strategy for Country- Appointed Staff

Pay Strategy for Country- Appointed Staff Pay Strategy fr Cuntry- Appinted Staff Cntents Overview...3 Audience...3 Respnsibilities...3 Glssary...3 Crprate pay philsphy...3 Plicy...4 Perfrmance-related pay...5 Cmmunicating pay infrmatin t staff...5

More information

SELECTED DATA AND TOOLS FOR UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENTS

SELECTED DATA AND TOOLS FOR UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENTS SELECTED DATA AND TOOLS FOR UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENTS SCORECARD GUIDE Selected Data and Tls fr Ecnmic Impact Analysis (The Screcard) is a decisin supprt matrix that summarizes

More information

Please rate the statements below from 1 5 based on whether you agree or disagree.

Please rate the statements below from 1 5 based on whether you agree or disagree. Academics Please rate the statements belw frm 1 5 based n whether yu agree r disagree. 1. I believe Niagara Falls public schls d a gd jb preparing students t be successful. 2. During the past 3 years,

More information

AuditNet Survey of Bring your own Device (BYOD) - Control, Risk and Audit

AuditNet Survey of Bring your own Device (BYOD) - Control, Risk and Audit AuditNet Survey f Bring yur wn Device (BYOD) - Cntrl, Risk and Audit The pace f technlgy mves much faster than managers and auditrs can understand and react, with updated plicies, prcedures and cntrls.

More information

The Importance Advanced Data Collection System Maintenance. Berry Drijsen Global Service Business Manager. knowledge to shape your future

The Importance Advanced Data Collection System Maintenance. Berry Drijsen Global Service Business Manager. knowledge to shape your future The Imprtance Advanced Data Cllectin System Maintenance Berry Drijsen Glbal Service Business Manager WHITE PAPER knwledge t shape yur future The Imprtance Advanced Data Cllectin System Maintenance Cntents

More information

FINANCE SCRUTINY SUB-COMMITTEE

FINANCE SCRUTINY SUB-COMMITTEE REPORT FOR: PERFORMANCE AND FINANCE SCRUTINY SUB-COMMITTEE Date f Meeting: 6 January 2015 Subject: Staff Survey and Sickness Absence Mnitring Results and Actin plans Respnsible Officer: Scrutiny Lead Member

More information

RI Student Loan Authority

RI Student Loan Authority RI Student Lan Authrity Executive Summary f Strategic Plan Apprved by RISLA Bard f Directrs Octber 17, 2014 Missin Statement: Cnsistent with the authrity granted by the General Assembly f the State f Rhde

More information

franchising your business?

franchising your business? thinking abut franchising yur business? Lk n further than Hw2Franchise - experts with ver 20 years experience f franchising. Serving the franchise industry fr 20 years Blxham Mill Business Centre, Barfrd

More information

How much life insurance do I need? Wrong question!

How much life insurance do I need? Wrong question! Hw much life insurance d I need? Wrng questin! We are ften asked this questin r sme variatin f it. We believe it is NOT the right questin t ask. What yu REALLY need is mney, cash. S the questin shuld be

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MERCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MERCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MERCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES REFERENCES AND RELATED POLICIES A. UC PPSM 2 -Definitin f Terms B. UC PPSM 12 -Nndiscriminatin in Emplyment C. UC PPSM 14 -Affirmative

More information

THE MAKE IT WORK CAMPAIGN S POLICY PROPOSAL ON CAREGIVING: CHILD CARE, EARLY EDUCATION, AFTER SCHOOL CARE AND LONG-TERM CARE

THE MAKE IT WORK CAMPAIGN S POLICY PROPOSAL ON CAREGIVING: CHILD CARE, EARLY EDUCATION, AFTER SCHOOL CARE AND LONG-TERM CARE THE MAKE IT WORK CAMPAIGN S POLICY PROPOSAL ON CAREGIVING: CHILD CARE, EARLY EDUCATION, AFTER SCHOOL CARE AND LONG-TERM CARE POLICY PROPOSAL ON CHILD CARE, EARLY EDUCATION, AFTER SCHOOL CARE As child care

More information

Disk Redundancy (RAID)

Disk Redundancy (RAID) A Primer fr Business Dvana s Primers fr Business series are a set f shrt papers r guides intended fr business decisin makers, wh feel they are being bmbarded with terms and want t understand a cmplex tpic.

More information

BSc (Hons) Civil Engineering Course content

BSc (Hons) Civil Engineering Course content BSc (Hns) Civil Engineering Curse cntent The BSc (Hns) Civil Engineering curse is designed arund the cre themes f the prfessinal accrediting bdies and the mdules yu study are designed t develp yur general

More information

Students learn to identify and manage insect pests on a cranberry bog. How do growers identify, monitor populations of, and control insect pests?

Students learn to identify and manage insect pests on a cranberry bog. How do growers identify, monitor populations of, and control insect pests? Challenges Await Yu Bugs n the Bg Students learn t identify and manage insect pests n a cranberry bg. Hw d grwers identify, mnitr ppulatins f, and cntrl insect pests? Lessn Overview In this lessn students

More information

NORTH CAROLINA STEM TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM (NC STEP) PROGRAM OF STUDY

NORTH CAROLINA STEM TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM (NC STEP) PROGRAM OF STUDY NORTH CAROLINA STEM TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM (NC STEP) PROGRAM OF STUDY NC STEP is an innvative alternative licensure teacher certificatin prgram administered by Nrth Carlina New Schls and apprved by

More information

COUNTY OF SONOMA AGENDA ITEM SUMMARY REPORT

COUNTY OF SONOMA AGENDA ITEM SUMMARY REPORT COUNTY OF SONOMA AGENDA ITEM SUMMARY REPORT Department: General Services Cntact: Phne: Dave Head (707) 565-2809 Bard Date: May 12, 2009 Clerk f the Bard Use Only Meeting Date Held Until / / / / Agenda

More information

Summary of online survey on contributions

Summary of online survey on contributions Summary f nline survey n cntributins Frm June 20 th t July 14 th an nline-based cnsultatin was pened fr feedback n key questins cncerning the legal acts fr cntributins f credit institutins t reslutin financing

More information

Vision and Draft Findings

Vision and Draft Findings Nebraska Bradband Plan Visin and Draft Findings Draft March 2014 Visin Nebraska s bradband visin is that residents, businesses, gvernment entities, cmmunity partners, and visitrs have access t affrdable

More information

Business Intelligence represents a fundamental shift in the purpose, objective and use of information

Business Intelligence represents a fundamental shift in the purpose, objective and use of information Overview f BI and rle f DW in BI Business Intelligence & Why is it ppular? Business Intelligence Steps Business Intelligence Cycle Example Scenaris State f Business Intelligence Business Intelligence Tls

More information

To transform information into knowledge- a firm must expend additional resources to discover, patterns, rules, and context where the knowledge works

To transform information into knowledge- a firm must expend additional resources to discover, patterns, rules, and context where the knowledge works Chapter 15- Managing Knwledge Knwledge Management Landscape Knwledge management systems- supprt the creatin, capture, strage, and disseminatin f firm expertise and knwledge, have becme ne f the fastest-grwing

More information

Accident Investigation

Accident Investigation Accident Investigatin APPLICABLE STANDARD: 1960.29 EMPLOYEES AFFECTED: All emplyees WHAT IS IT? Accident investigatin is the prcess f determining the rt causes f accidents, n-the-jb injuries, prperty damage,

More information

Impact of Data Storage Technologies in Key Sectors (Technical Insights)

Impact of Data Storage Technologies in Key Sectors (Technical Insights) Impact f Data Strage Technlgies in Key Sectrs (Technical Insights) Unleashing newer applicatins with advanced data strage technlgies June, 2015 Cntents Cntent Slide N. Executive Summary 4 Research Outline

More information

1. What insurance coverage is provided for Sigma Chi chapters that are members of the Risk Management Foundation?

1. What insurance coverage is provided for Sigma Chi chapters that are members of the Risk Management Foundation? Frequently Asked Questins 1. What insurance cverage is prvided fr Sigma Chi chapters that are members f the Risk Management Fundatin? Membership in the Risk Management Fundatin includes the fllwing mandatry

More information

To achieve these objectives we will use a combination of lectures, cases, class discussion, and exercises.

To achieve these objectives we will use a combination of lectures, cases, class discussion, and exercises. 95-730 E-business Technlgy and Management Curse Descriptin The Internet, and assciated technlgies, are nw an established element f the IT prtfli f rganizatins in bth the public and private sectrs. Experiments

More information

TO: Chief Executive Officers of all National Banks, Department and Division Heads, and all Examining Personnel

TO: Chief Executive Officers of all National Banks, Department and Division Heads, and all Examining Personnel AL 96-7 Subject: Credit Card Preapprved Slicitatins TO: Chief Executive Officers f all Natinal Banks, Department and Divisin Heads, and all Examining Persnnel PURPOSE The purpse f this advisry letter is

More information

The Family Cost Share system is designed so families with the ability to pay will share in the cost of services.

The Family Cost Share system is designed so families with the ability to pay will share in the cost of services. Paying fr Early Childhd Interventin Services What is ECI? Texas Early Childhd Interventin (ECI) prgrams serve families with children birth t 36 mnths with develpmental delays r disabilities. ECI prvides

More information

NHPCO Guidelines for Using CAHPS Hospice Survey Results

NHPCO Guidelines for Using CAHPS Hospice Survey Results Intrductin NHPCO Guidelines fr Using CAHPS Hspice Survey Results The Centers fr Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has develped the Cnsumer Assessment f Healthcare Prviders and Systems (CAHPS ) Hspice

More information

Supply Chain and Logistics Management Engineering Business Management

Supply Chain and Logistics Management Engineering Business Management The University f Warwick WMG Management Qualificatins at Eastern Mediterranean University MSc Prgramme and Other Qualificatins in Supply Chain and Lgistics Management Engineering Business Management WMG

More information

INVESTOR PREFERENCES IN SELECTING A FINANCIAL ADVISOR. December 1, 2014

INVESTOR PREFERENCES IN SELECTING A FINANCIAL ADVISOR. December 1, 2014 INVESTOR PREFERENCES IN SELECTING A FINANCIAL ADVISOR December 1, 2014 1 Table f Cntents Page Objectives & Methdlgy. 3 Executive Summary 4 Detailed Findings... 6 Questinnaire. 14 2 Objectives & Methdlgy

More information

SECTION J QUALITY ASSURANCE AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

SECTION J QUALITY ASSURANCE AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM Audit Manual Sectin J SECTION J QUALITY ASSURANCE AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM Ref. Plicy and Practice Requirements IIA Standards and Other references J 1 Plicy: The Head f Internal Audit shall develp and maintain

More information

PBS TeacherLine Course Syllabus

PBS TeacherLine Course Syllabus 1 Title Fstering Cperative Learning, Discussin, and Critical Thinking in Elementary Math (Grades 1-5) Target Audience This curse is intended fr pre-service and in-service grades 1-5 teachers. Curse Descriptin

More information

Bakersfield College Program Review Annual Update

Bakersfield College Program Review Annual Update Bakersfield Cllege Prgram Review Annual Update I. Prgram Infrmatin: Prgram Name: Child Develpment Prgram Type: Instructinal Nn Instructinal Prgram Missin Statement: The child develpment faculty and staff

More information

Licensing the Core Client Access License (CAL) Suite and Enterprise CAL Suite

Licensing the Core Client Access License (CAL) Suite and Enterprise CAL Suite Vlume Licensing brief Licensing the Cre Client Access License (CAL) Suite and Enterprise CAL Suite Table f Cntents This brief applies t all Micrsft Vlume Licensing prgrams. Summary... 1 What s New in This

More information