sustainability metrics from cradle to grave

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1 sustainability metrics from cradle to grave Mendoza, Argentina March

2 Facultad Regional Mendoza, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Todos los derechos de este volumen están reservados. Sólo está permitida la reproducción parcial o total con fines Académicos siempre que se mencione el origen. Primera edición: Marzo de 2013 Diseño de Tapa: Gabriela Barón (UTN) Logotipo de Tapa: Mercedes Civit (Ludwig Morris) ISBN Editores Alejandro Pablo Arena Bárbara Civit Roxana Piastrellini 2

3 Impreso en la Argentina - Printed in Argentina Queda hecho el depósito que previene la ley Responsabilidades: El contenido y opiniones vertidas en los trabajos incluidos en este libro son responsabilidad de sus respectivos autores. 3

4 Proceedings of the V International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment - CILCA2013 CILCA 2013, Mendoza, Argentina March 24th- 27 th,

5 Sustainability metrics, from cradle to grave Organización General Alejandro Pablo Arena (chair) Bárbara Civit (co-chair) Comité Organizador Francesc Castells Pique (Universidad de Rovira i Virgili, España) Joan Rieradevall Pons (Sostenipra - Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, España) Nydia Suppen Reynaga (CADIS, México) Cassia M. L. Ugaya (UTFPR, Brasil) Armando Caldeira Pires (Univ. de Brasilia, Brasil) Gil Anderi da Silva (Univ.de Brasilia, Brasil) Ana Quiros (Ecoglobal, Costa Rica) Claudia Peña (CIMM, Chile) Elena Rosa (Univ. Central de las Villas, Cuba) Isabel Quispe (Pontificia Univ. Católica del Perú) Sonia Valdivia (UNEP, Francia) Carlos Naranjo (GAISA, Colombia) Alejandro Pablo Arena (UTN FRM, Argentina) Barbara Civit (UTN FRM, Argentina) Liliana Niveyro (FCA UNCuyo, Argentina) Pablo Martínez (CNEA, Argentina) Fernando Mele (UNT, Argentina) 5

6 Comité Científico Francesc Castells Pique (España) Joan Rieradevall Pons (España) Nydia Suppen Reynaga (México) Cassia M. L. Ugaya (Brasil) Armando Caldeira Pires (Brasil) Gil Anderi da Silva (Brasil) Ana Quiros (Costa Rica) Claudia Peña (Chile) Elena Rosa (Cuba) Isabel Quispe (Perú) Sonia Valdivia (Francia) Carlos Naranjo (Colombia) Alejandro Pablo Arena (Argentina) Barbara Civit (Argentina) James Fava (USA) Llorenc Mila i Canals (Inglaterra) Maite Aldaya (Francia) Greg Norris (USA) Thomas Koellner (Alemania) Mary Ann Curran (USA) Martina Prox (Alemania) Sangwon Suh (USA) Mark Goedkoop (Holanda) Fernando Mele (Argentina) Jorge Hilbert (Argentina) Claudio Zaror (Chile) Miguel Brandao (España) Edmundo Muñoz (Chile) Patricia Güereca (México) Comité Local Alejandro Pablo Arena (UTN/CONICET) Enrique Puliafito (UTN/CONICET) Bárbara Civit (UTN/CONICET) Roxana Piastrellini (UTN/CONICET) José Luis Córica (UTN) Magalí García (UTN) Luisa Baumhauer (UTN) Silvia Curadelli (UTN) Juan Nuñez Mc Leod (UTN) Miriam López (UTN) Andrés Benito (UTN) Eugenio Fisicaro (UTN) Liliana Niveyro (UNCuyo) Cecilia Rébora (UNCuyo) Andrea Rivarola (UTN) María Celeste Gardey (UTN) Claudia Kolosow (UTN) Paula Díaz Ortiz (UTN) Gabriela Barón (UTN) Cuerpo de Revisores Alejandro Pablo Arena Alfredo Iriarte Garcia Amalia Sojo Ana Quiros Anderi da Silva Anna Lucia Mourad Armando Caldeira Pires Assumpció Antón Barbara María Civit Cassia M. L. Ugaya Celina Rosa Lamb Claudia Peña Claudio Alfredo Zaror Zaror David Gabriel Allende 6

7 Elena Rosa Fausto Freire Fernando Daniel Mele Francesc Castells Pique Gabriela baron Gerardo Javier Arista Greg Norris Irma Mercante Isabel Quispe J Adolfo Almeida Neto Joan Rieradevall Pons Leonor Patricia Guereca Llorenc Mila i Canals Luiz Kulay Maite Aldaya María Dolores Bovea Miguel Brandão Mireya Gonzalez Montserrat Nunez Nydia Suppen Reynaga Pablo Martinez Paulo Sergio Moreira Soares Rafael Rafael Pazeto Alvarenga Ronaldo Francisco Santos Herrero Roxana Piastrellini Sangwon Suh Silvia Palma Rojas Comunicación Elba Pescetti (UTN/CONICET) Florencia Ruggeri (UTN) Gestión tecnológica Javier Gustavo Gitto (UTN) José Luis Córica (UTN) Diseño Mercedes Civit (Ludwig Morris) Gabriela Barón (UTN FRM) Compaginación Juan Nuñez Mc Leod Protocolo Silvana Scarpetta (UTN FRM) 7

8 PROLOGO En nombre del Comité Organizador de la V Conferencia Internacional sobre Análisis de Ciclo de Vida CILCA 2013, ponemos a su disposición estas Actas que recopilan las contribuciones de los distintos autores que han hado sustancia a este evento. Desde la primera edición en Costa Rica en el año 2005, CILCA se ha convertido en una conferencia periódica, bien establecida, y reconocida a nivel internacional, que provee un marco para la difusión del conocimiento generado en los grupos de investigación, en las consultoras y en las empresas, quedando disponible para toda la comunidad. Pero no es eso lo más importante, sino el marco que brinda para la reunión, discusión, cooperación y generación de nuevas ideas, que impulsan edición tras edición nuevos proyectos y publicaciones conjuntas. En este proceso de consolidación y crecimiento, CILCA incorpora nuevas actividades y ofrece una mayor variedad de opciones para sus participantes. Opciones no sólo académicas, sino también recreativas que ayudan a hacer más sostenible Cilca, a través del establecimiento y reforzamiento de relaciones. Este año, el vino mendocino será protagonista de las actividades recreativas, con visitas a bodegas, degustaciones y cenas. A los ya clásicos cursos, sesiones técnicas orales y poster, conferencias plenarias y Mesas redondas, este año sumamos la realización de un Taller para Doctorandos, que ofrece a los tesistas un ámbito de discusión e intercambio de experiencias que enriquecerá sus trabajos de investigación con el aporte de expertos en los temas abordados.. Confiamos en que disfruten de este material tan valioso, y del exigente programa propuesto. A los que no pudieron participar del evento, esperamos que estas memorias les sean útiles, y nos auguramos encontrarlos en el próximo CILCA. Alejandro Pablo Arena Bárbara Civit Marzo de

9 FOREWORD On behalf of the Organizing Committee of the V International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment - CILCA 2013, we provide these proceedings which collect the contributions of the various authors, the marrow of this event. Since the first edition in Costa Rica in 2005, CILCA has become a periodic conference, well established and internationally recognized, which provides a framework for the dissemination of knowledge generated by the research groups, consulting firms, and technical centres. But the most important thing is the framework provided for the meeting for discussion, cooperation and generation of new ideas that drive year after year new projects and joint publications. In this process of consolidation and growth, CILCA incorporates new activities and offers a wider range of options for its participants. Options not only academic, but also recreational that help make Cilca more "sustainable", through the establishment and strengthening of networks. This year, the recreational activites will feature a starring role by the wine from Mendoza: the visits to wineries, wine tastings, lunch at Altavista winery and dinner accompanied with good wine are some of the optional activities included. To the classic courses, oral and poster technical sessions, plenary lectures and panel discussions, this year we added a PhD Workshop, which offers postgraduate students a space for discussion and exchange of experiences that will enrich their research with input from experts in the topics. We hope you enjoy this valuable material, and the demanding program we propose. For those unable to attend the event, we hope these memories will be useful, and we hope we will meet them in the next CILCA. Alejandro Paul Arena Barbara Civit March

10 CONTENTS FULL PAPERS...20 Carbon and Water footprints...21 A new method for assessing impacts of water use in life cycle assessment...22 Farm-gate environmental decision tool...27 Study of embodied energy and CO 2eq. as eco-efficiency descriptors of Brazilian building materials...41 Modeling carbon footprint of the Chilean apple production...50 Carbon Footprint of Three Walls Systems in Low Cost Housing in Colima, Mexico...54 Assessing water footprint of companies in Colombia...63 Water and energy consumption at KAUST and how to reach a null water footprint...74 Rice water footprint in paddy systems of Entre Ríos...80 Organization s carbon footprint...91 Kraftliner paper A temporary carbon stock packaging material...98 The water footprint and water use efficiency in vineyards-mendoza, Argentina 103 Design for sustainability Contribution of Simplified LCA to Design for Sustainability Cases of Industrial Application Ecolabelling, Environmental Product Declarations Type III (PCREPD) and green purchasing Communicational strategy for environmental aspects to promote the consumption of sustainable products Comparison between European EPD issuing Systems and lessons learned to Latin American Countries Education and Capability Development Life Cycle approach and use of softwares in the chain of Brazilian biodiesel UndeRstandable methodology Bonding KnOwledge from cradle-to-cradle for Undergrad Students: UROBORUS Industrial Ecology Proposal for technical and environmental performance improvement actions at an electricity cogeneration plant within the sugar/alcohol sector Industrial Symbiosis in the Industrial Area of Villa El Salvador

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12 Multi-Step Decision Making on Life Cycle Assessment Methods for Industrial Sectors Environmental and Socioeconomic LCA of Milk in Canada Comparative LCAs of ceramic tiles and bricks vs concrete equivalents in the Brazilian context Sustainability assessment of chemical processes and/or products using life cycle assessment Life Cycle Assessment of the CILCA 2007 event Life cycle assessment of Chilean copper wire rods Energy balance of IVS 4500 wind turbine through a Life Cycle Assessment Life cycle analysis of handmade ceramic brick in chiapa de corzo, chiapas, mexico Life cycle assessment of corn-based ethanol via dry milling in Province of Santa Fe, Argentina Analysis of the procedures for allocation criteria and the system boundaries in LCA: study case of a toothbrush Evaluation of the dicalcium phosphate process with a view to environmental performance improvement identification LCA-based comparison of different scenarios of the application of a novel ceramic nanofiltration membrane in the pulp industry Allocation in Brazilian milk production: a case study Importance of dry matter intake on environmental impacts of Brazilian milk production: a case study Life-cycle evaluation of the ceramic block with a focus on social interest housing LCA of lighting products: looking for methodological consistency Comparison of different methods for vinasses treatment from the bioethanol industry based on LCA Life cycle assessment applied to technology for the remediation of contaminated sites: a case study with chemical oxidation LCI & LCA Databases The need for consequential system modelling in Life Cycle Assessment for robust decision support LCADB.sudoe: Life Cycle Inventories database of the southwest of Europe LCIA Life Cycle Impact Assessment on the land use impacts and application of Geographic Information Systems Incorporation Of Risks Analysis Into The Lca Methodology: Challenges In Petroleum Production

13 LCM and Eco-efficiency Development of a methodology for the integration of nutritional and environmental aspects for sustainable food consumption The environmental evaluation of alternatives for energy improved performance in printing and writing paper production by way of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) Driving product stewardship: an empirical evaluation of the association between some form of LCA implementation and environmental strategy choice in Colombian firms Life Cycle Management of Products in Embraer: challenges and persperctives Systematic Monetization and Integration of environmental Impacts in planning processes Life Cycle Costing Economic and environmental impacts assessment along the supply chain of anhydrous ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil Social Responsibility and Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment Studying the Social Hotspots of 100 product categories with the Social Hotspots Database Social Life Cycle Assessment of Brick Production in El Algarrobal, Mendoza, Argentina: Preliminary Selection of Indicators Framework for social life cycle impact assessment Managing issues of responsibility across the entire product life cycle: Towards an integrative model from the resource-based view of the firm and stakeholder theory Environmental and Economic Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment of Bagasse-Derived Ethanol Produced in Brazil Sustainability evaluation of biodiesel production using Life Cycle Assessment performed with a specific Sustainability Index at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil The use of aggregation step in Social Life Cycle Assessment: cocoa's soap case study Sustainable Resource Management Improvement of the Energy Balance of Microalgae Biodiesel by Integration with anethanol Distillery Environmental viability assessment of soybean ethyl ester in vehicle use The state of the art on calculating abiotic resource depletion Material assessment beyond geological availability LCA of logs extracted by forest management in Amazonian rainforests Estimating CO 2 emissions in the employees transportation service of an agricultural sector

14 Waste Management and Recycling Uncertainties in modelling impacts from the application on agricultural land of processed organic waste Sustainability Assessment of Chemical Processes and/or Products using Life Cycle Assessment The Clean Development Mechanism in Wastewater Treatment Plants: The Case of Latin America and the Caribbean Environmental impact allocation methods and their reflection on the attractiveness of blast furnace slag in cement industry ABSTRACTS LCA Case Studies Land Use in drylands: Desertification risk assessment. An agricultural case study Management of whey in small dairy industries. A life cycle analysis Waste Management and Recycling Use of garlic herbaceous waste as a fiber source on growing Rabbits POSTERS Carbon and Water Footprints Green Water Footprint for agricultural exports from the Province of Buenos Aires Water Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment frameworks: synergies and hurdles Water footprint of soybean under different tillage practices Effect of water recovery on the water footprint of cellulose production in Chile. 754 Sustainability analysis of the Colombian flower industry: LCA, environmental indicators and benchmarking Carbon footprint of the Chilean raspberry production Water footprint of the tourism sector in Chacras de Coria, Mendoza, Argentina Carbon footprint of beers of a small processing plant in Chile Water footprint of a cattle breeding production system in the Argentine Pampa Design for Sustainability Application of Life Cycle Assessment in Enhancing the Environmental Characterization of Materials for Ecodesign

15 Calculation of the ecological footprint of concrete. A tool for sustainable design Redesign of a portable water treatment plant LCA applied case: Strategic Analysis for a Sustainable traveling exhibition Balancing Ecology & Economy A case study Ecodesign (ISO 14006) and Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001): specifications, comparisons and organizational advantages of its integration Proposition of LCA - and LCC- based eco-efficiency indicators for selection of concrete building structural components Life cycle assessment of temporary structures: A framework for decision making and evaluation Inventory Of Life Cycle Of The Polymer Phb- Polyhydroxybutyrate Education and Capability Development Implementation of LCA in Poland Laboratory of Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Systems at the IEE-USP Empirical guidelines to reduce errors in LCA data gathering process Green Economy and Sustainable Policies Factores inherentes al Análisis de Ciclo de Vida: recomendaciones de política Sustainability Policies in Tourism Protected Areas. Case: Archipelago Los Roques National Park Operationalising sustainability: current industrial practice Life cycle sustainability of wind power in Brazil Pilot Project: Neutralization of Emissions from Agribusiness through Afforestation and Reforestation Inherent factors to Life Cycle Assessment: policy guidelines Industrial Ecology Sustainable assessment of the pervaporation process for bioethanol dehydration using an LCA-based approach LCA & Rural Development Life Cycle Assessment As A Tool To Assess The Sustainability Of Cocoa In Colombia Biodigestors And Lca A Contribution To The Pig Farming s Sustainability The Case Of Santa Catarina (Brazil) LCA & Sustainable Cities Quantifying the environmental value of building reuse Cumulative energy demand estimation of SIP (structural insulated panels) homes through LCA

16 Life Cycle Assessment of social interest housing in Mexico LCA of housing in Chile LCA Case Studies Home and ready-made meals Beyond Carbon Footprinting for Corporate Activities LCA vs. Carbon Footprint of a Canadian Bank Life cycle assessment of Miscanthus pellet production in Ireland LCA application in the water footprint dairy chain. Argentina case study Life Cycle Impacts Assessment as a support for risks management: the case of chemotherapy drug waste in a Brazilian hospital Trade off between operating cost increment and Carbon market income due to life cycle greenhouse gases emissions reduction Preliminary study on the environmental profile of bioethanol production from Spartina argentinensis. Inventory phase Environmental impact assessment of mercurial sludge generated from Chloralkali Cuban plant by means of Life Cycle Analysis: Disposal or Remediation?856 Environmental impacts of used cooking oil: direct wastewater treatment or transportation to Biodiesel production plants? LCA-based hotspot analysis of food products to inform major Chilean retailer s sustainability strategy Management of whey in small dairy industries. A life cycle analysis Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Cars in Portugal Life Cycle Energy Analysis Of Rainwater Harvesting System With Reservoir Made Of Reinforced Concrete Modeling the Consequential Life Cycle Assessment of Brazilian Biodiesel Energy Balance Analysis And Life Cycle Energy Assessment Of Sugarcane Bagasse Ethanol Production And Electricity Generation Definition of the allocation rules in the PCR of basic metals based on a case study Life cycle assessment of cellulose production from pine and eucalyptus wood in Chile LCA methodology to guide Green Process Innovation: A case study of Brazilian MDF industry Potentiality of Life Cycle Assessment to determine points of inefficiency in agribusiness systems: a case study for the sugar and ethanol agro industry of Tucumán Life Cycle Assessment applied to a clothing product Handprints: The Positive Counterpart to Footprints

17 Life Cycle Assessment of Concrete Blocks Masonry: Processes Contribution Analysis Big Affect from Little Wooden Tongue Depressors Comparison between internal combustion and electric vehicles in Brazil using Life Cycle Assessment Life cycle assessment of Jatrophacurcas cultivation in tropical regions destinated to biodiesel production Environmental Evaluation of an Intensive Production System in the Central Basin of Argentina employing the Extended Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Physic-mechanical and environmental comparison of Compressed Earth Blocks stabilized with cement and lime Post-consumer PET bottles Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) in Mexico LCI & LCA Databases LCA of Buildings in Mexico: Advances, Limits and Catalysts Life Cycle Inventory Of Milk Production At An Experimental Unit In Itapetinga BA The World Food LCA Database (WFLDB) project: towards more accurate food datasets Life cycle inventory of electronic waste treatment: Brazilian case LCA-based tools for data collection and data processing towards a National Life Cycle Inventory for the Chilean Food & Agriculture Sector Estimating environmental impacts by means of FADN data. Comparison with horticultural LCA results Life Cycle Assessment of soybean oil in Brazil Inventory of ammonia emission (NH3) from livestock production in Chile The transportation of oil in biodiesel production in Bahia / Brazil and its importance in Life Cycle Assessment The influence of transportation modal in the life cycle of copper in Brazil LCIA Urea formaldehyde resin: impacts on the productive life cycle of wood panels. 907 Soybean Oil s Enviromental Impacts andland The use of optional elements of the Life Cycle Impacts Assessment: literature review LCM and Eco-efficiency Life Cycle Management of chemicals How far are we? Life Cycle Costing Life cycle cost analysis of four bioclimatic strategies aimed at saving water and energy in direct evaporative cooling equipment

18 Social Responsibility and Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment Excessive Caribbean Medical Traveling: Analysis and Suggestions for a Lower the Carbon Footprint Sustainable Resource Management LCA of locally produced feeds for Peruvian aquaculture Potential environmental impacts of the production of antivenom immunoglobulins in a brazilian official laboratory Water consumption analysis for Life Cycle Assessmentin a dairy cattle farm Energy consumption analysis in a dairy cattle farm Waste Management and Recycling Life Cycle Concept in Waste Management in the Oil & Gas Offshore Exploration Activities Life Cycle Inventory of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) in Spain and Portugal Car recycling management in the frame of LCM Recovery of manganese from spent alkaline batteries: use of MnOx as catalyst for VOCs elimination Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Regional Proposal Effects of biodynamic preparations on the development of compost from manure and agro- industrial residues LCA- C&DW: An environmental assessment tool in the waste management of the construction sector LCA as a tool of Decision making processfor the Environmental Improvement of wastewater treatment in Latin American and the Caribbean Life Cycle Assessment of Integrated Management of PET bottles generated in the municipality of Ecatepec de Morelos Improving the Utilization of Garlic Herbaceous Waste in the Diet of Breeding Cows Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management of San Miguel, Buenos Aires, Argentina DOCTORAL WORKSHOP Integración de ACV y técnicas de optimización. Caso de estudio: Bioetanol a partir de maíz El Valor Intangible Del Desarrollo Tecnológico: Aspectos Ambientales Análisis de Ciclo de Vida de la Gestión de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos de San Miguel, Buenos Aires, Argentina Análisis del Ciclo de Vida del Manejo Integral de las botellas de PET que se generan en el Municipio de Ecatepec de Morelos

19 Technological Parametrized Lifecycle Analysis Method For Wall Insulation Energía y Huella de Carbono de Edificios Habitacionales en México: Escenarios de Mitigación Ante el Cambio Climático Envolventes De Hormigon Liviano Sustentable: Diseño Y Propiedades Para El Ahorro Energetico PLENARY CONFERENCE La Comunicación Estratégica del Pensamiento de Ciclo de Vida desde la perspectiva regional y mundial Global LCI for primary copper From foundations to the building - a blueprint of LCA in Mexico The Bhutan-UN International Project to Create a New Paradigm for Sustainable Development Interoperability in LCA: problems and solutions Contributing To Rio+20: A Unep/Setac Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment Approach ROUND TABLE PCR Guidance Development Process and its Importance to the Latin American Region Product category rules in emerging regions: the global trade of mineral raw materials The development of Product Category Rules in order to ensure a Green Economy in emerging regions ADDENDUM Consistent calculation of multiple system models and improved integration of regionalized data in a background inventory database

20 Comparative LCA industrialized and craft supplies vs. alternative materials for sustainable housing. Gerardo Javier Arista González 12, Jorge Aguillón Robles 13, Fernando González Maza Facultad del Hábitat, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Niño Artillero 150, Zona Universitaria, CP 78290, San Luis Potosí, México, Tel (55) Fax.(55) Ph.D. in Architecture, Investigator Professor, 3 Master Bioclimatic Design, Investigator Professor, 4 Applicant to obtain the title of Architect, Abstract The intention of this article is to present to the reader the results of an investigation that tries to identify and to quantify the environmental impacts that generate some industrialized inputs and elaborated others of a handcrafted way widely used in the construction of housings, and the enormous environmental advantages that it represents to diminish the use or substitution of these conventional materials for alternate inputs, since it is the adobe stabilized also tabitec called (Partition of stabilized and compressed land). The study and comparative analysis between the proposed materials carries out with the methodological support of the LCA, Life cycle of analysis and the application of the software Simapro 7.2, which there allows the identification and evaluation of environmental impacts in the different categories of analysis that offers this program. The results of the comparative show that the handcrafted partition is a highly pollutant material for the burning tire (EPA, 1997), followed distantly by the block that for his content of cement generates significant impacts, whereas the adobe in his two versions constitutes a more amicable material with the environment, nevertheless the extraction of clay for his production. One concludes that to achieve a more sustainable building in the production of social massive housing there will have to be checked the materials and constructive systems with which nowadays the institutional housing takes place in Mexico. Key words: analysis of life cycle, sustainable building, alternate materials of construction, adobe. 1.- Introduction. Today the massive industrialization of housing in Latin America is a source of predation, pollution and emission of toxic substances that are generating serious environmental impacts. The construction industry is one of the largest generators of the current environmental crises-half by the depletion of natural resources. According to international data, construction consumes about 25% of forests and 40% of rocks, gravel and sand used in the world annually. (Salas, 1997) This paper will address the problem of environmental impact caused by the construction industry in the city of San Luis Potosi, mainly in the production of inputs such as partition and block, to meet the demand for these inputs in its core market, which is the social housing, which from the year 2010 and according to the official guidelines (CONAVI, 2008) must necessarily be built with 274

21 ecological criteria also include eco technologies to encourage savings in energy consumption resulting from inhabiting these homes. The methodology of LCA, Life Cycle Analysis, provides an option to analyze and quantify environmental impacts of materials like cement block and brick craftsmanship so widely used in the construction of social housing, and establish a comparative analysis with other inputs as alternate the tabitec, adobe clay tablet made from stabilized and establishing a new thermal option, economic and sustainable for low-income families living spaces requiring self build with alternative materials and techniques. The research hypothesis states that by using the LCA methodology, as applied in construction materials, can be determined quantitatively the impacts caused by the use of certain conventional inputs and define with more certainty, which are the most suitable materials for building sustainable and allows, in decisions taken Designer parameters scientific and less subjective they need to take into account not only the aesthetic, utilitarian, and functional space or object generated, but their decision-making should consider materials, production processes and building systems that are less aggressive friendlier to the environment and, in general, generate less impact on the planet where we live. Moreover, the energy use in the construction industry is one of the indicators of increased environmental impact, as it is a factor in any production process. Energy consumption in its many processes results in CO2 emissions, gas that can assess the environmental impact of the different sources involved in the process. The steady increase in CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases (GHG) increase the concentration of these compounds in the atmosphere, causing artificially increase the greenhouse effect, which is partly the source of global climate change (Suppen Van Hoof, 2005). 2.- METHOD: ANALYSIS OF COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE Defining objectives and scope The objective of this analysis concerns the definition and quantification of the main environmental impacts caused by the production of building materials used in the construction of housing and are responsible for air pollution emissions. To address this stage defined the objectives and scope of the LCA and they described other important purposes such as: Set compare products, their life cycles and functions performed, Set lar environmental reasons for the development of comparative analysis, Being a comparative analysis should define the functional unit, Detailed Description of the limits of comparative analysis to be performed. The target of the investigation concerns the urgent need to assess the impacts to human health and ecosystems causing materials used as inputs in the production of products such as wall and block, traditionally used in the city of San Luis Potosi to institutional housing construction and compare the results with the tabitec, alternative materials based compressed earth without cooking. 275

22 The limits of this study are defined between the stages of life cycle known as the "cradle to gate", meaning that the analysis considered only from the stages of raw material extraction, transportation, input production, its transportation and placement and does not consider the stages of use of the dwelling as such and disposed of it Functional unit and reference flows. General functions of the panels to be compared: Isolate, separate and define living spaces indoors and under certain conditions as outer shell analysis. General functions of the panels to be compared: Isolate, separate and define living spaces indoors and under certain conditions as outer shell analysis. Function relevant: Separate living spaces interior and exterior spaces eventually; Functional Unit: "Separate living spaces through a What are they? Construction elements that serve constructive component of 1 m2 of wall structural support and support for housing; Pot life: 50 years; surface, able to withstand structural loads from the weight of the roof and / Dimensions: 1 m 2 ; or a second floor mezzanine of a Frequency of use: Continuous. dwelling that considered useful life of 50 years. Certain functional unit are calculated reference flow, in the amount of each product to fulfill this functional unit, and from these data starts data collection to define the LCV, life cycle inventory. Fig 1. - Definition of the functional unit. The functional unit, previously established (Fig. 1) to determine the exact quantification of inputs and outputs for each input and output to analyze. Is the extent through which is defined a reference of what and how large are the inputs and outputs to the system. Meanwhile the reference flow is, in turn, the quantities of each input needed to cover the intended functional unit, which, for the selected case study, is a section of 1 m 2 in the three individual products: the traditional common septum, the cement block with industrialized production processes and tabitec (compressed earth without cooking) with semi-industrialized processes for their manufacture. Figure 2 shows the reference flows of each product to be analyzed, necessary to satisfy 1 m2 of wall (functional unit) therefore reference flows are determined for each comparable parts according to the unit containing functional, whereas between the pieces, regardless of their separation is required dimensions of 1 cm. approx. which corresponds to the thickness of the mortar used for the jointing piece. Functional unit Raw Materials Reference Flows Functional Unit Materials Raw Materials Reference Flows Craft whith Septum Clay silt, sand 60 pc. / M 2 1m 2 6x12x24 and water. 1.5 a 2 Kg / pc. Cement Block Cement, 12.5 pc. / M 2 12x 20x40 Sand and Water Kg / pc. Selected Clay cal 22 pc. / M 2 Tabitec 12x15x30 or cement and 16 Kg / pc. water. Fig. 2 - Definition of reference streams. For purposes of this comparative analysis are seen three different mortars for the jointing of the pieces of each in a thickness comparable to 1cm. in varying proportions which are described below: 1:5 lime-sand mortar for jointing parts common septum, 276

23 Mortar cement-lime-sand 1:1:5 for jointing parts hollow cement block, Clay-lime mortar for jointing 1:10 parts tabitec or stabilized adobe. Regardless stroke that the walls may be considered uncoated, ie finished apparent, if this analysis considers three types of coatings with thickness approximately 1 cm. one for each comparable and different proportions of which are mentioned immediately: Flattening plaster on both sides for common partition sample; Leveling mortar cement-lime-sand 1:1:10 on both sides for sample block; Flatten with clay on both sides to sign tabitec or stabilized adobe ICV: Life Cycle Inventories. During this phase of stroke were quantified all inputs and outputs including matter and energy, as in the case of the wall of mud, all emissions tested system that may have an impact on human health or the environment. As provided in ISO (1998) this stage involves data collection and calculation procedures to identify and quantify all adverse environmental effects and also called environmental burdens that are associated with the defined functional unit. The block wall inventory is recorded the presence of emissions from cooking in clay brick ovens using craft supplies such as tires, sawdust, manure and other waste that is burned with fuel oil or used oil, and are causing emissions of highly toxic gases and particles harmful to human health and the environment. Moreover, the presence of materials such as lime and gypsum correspond to inputs used in the jointing mortars and finishing parts, respectively. Similarly, the presence of fuels such as electricity, diesel and natural gas fuels concerns by factory production equipment such as vibro-compressors, etc.. The inventory of inputs block wall highlights the presence of materials such as cement, which is the essential raw material in the production of the block, and its weight amount so indicates. In itself, the presence of materials such as lime, cement also concerns the use of these inputs in the production of mortars used in both wall lining M2 as the jointing parts. In turn, in Tables 3 and 4 present machining adobe inventories (tabitec), in the first table using cem.-lime (3% -3%) as inputs stabilizers and the second using only lime ( 6%), and also in the presence both inventories necessary electric power to perform the hydraulic compression tabitec parts. Moreover, in the inventories carried out highlights the fact that the bulk of matter corresponds to inputs aggregates weighing almost 200 kg. The functional unit of matter, which is a significant amount of soil and sand extraction on ecosystems where banks are located exploitation of raw materials. In turn, the amount by weight of cement input decreases by almost 50% of the volume required to block the manufacture and processing of the grout from the one used in the stabilization of adobe. Conversely, the amount by weight of the lime used for the jointing mortar coating and the partition wall and the coating of the block representing 75% and 34% respectively on the lime used in the stabilization of using only adobe this input. 277

24 In both cases the use of raw materials such as cement and lime production that require high temperatures, represents the generation of toxic emissions and use of fossil fuels for heat production LCIA: Impact assessment of the life cycle. The implementation of this phase is defined by ISO (2000) and the current study only considered mandatory testing modalities such as: classification and characterization. Both the value table in Figure 3 as the graph of Figure 4 are seen characterization impacts caused by different inputs, highlighting those generated by cement block in the categories of climate change, ozone layer, etc., the septum in organic and inorganic respiratory and adobe arising in two versions in the categories of carcinogens and land use. Similarly, in the eco-points table in Fig 5 and Fig 6 of stand single score, by volume, the impact generated by the septum into the categories of respiratory acidification inorganic and / eutrophication, and the consumption of fossil fuels in the block walls and adobe, mainly caused by transport. 278

25 Fig 6. Impacts of eco-indicators of 1 m 2 of wall block, brick and adobe machining Results and Discussion Identification of significant aspects The study shows the evolution of stroke of 1 m2 of wall block, brick and adobe machining (tabitec) structured around a distinction between the components defined in the target and the various inputs, outputs and impacts presented by each, being significant the following: 1. - The impacts caused by the burning of residual sawdust MJ and 0.99 kg of used tires needed for the preparation of solid brick pieces for 1 m2 artisanal brick wall that emit at kg CO2 atmosphere, 0.07 kg of CH4, N2O 1.40 kg, 0.04 kg and 0.01 kg VOC PST, causing approximately 53.27% of all damages calculated, 42.52% for respiratory effects and 10.92% inorganic acidification and eutrophication The environmental impacts of fossil fuel consumption account for about 26.32% of all environmental damage caused by the four walls tested prototypes; a. 6.12% of the total impact is caused by using 7.66 kg of cement needed for the preparation of spare block for 1 m2 of wall. b. 4.98% of the damage to the environment are caused by the use of 5.06 kg and 5.06 kg cement lime used in the production of parts adobe cem m2 of lime mud wall. c. 6.21% is caused by the transport of the various inputs required for the development of the basic elements required for the 5 m2 of wall, only 1.79% is for transport of materials for cem. adobe-lime and 1.68% for moving block the necessary materials The damage to health by inorganic respiratory effects without considering the production of handmade bricks represent about 10.81% of the total estimated impacts for Eco-gauge 99 (H), 7.67% caused by the inputs of the various materials required for preparing prototypes. a. 1.87% by the use of kg and 7.66 kg of sand cement to manufacture the parts needed for the construction of 1 m2 of wall block. b. 2.32% for the use of land and kg kg of gypsum for the manufacture of bricks for 1 m2 of wall and its lining. 279

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