I Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment

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1 I Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment FINAL REPORT April, 2009.

2 In the framework of the Sound Management of Chemicals of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), the working group on dioxins and furans conducts various activities aimed at supporting Mexico in strengthening its technical and scientific capabilities in this issue. In this context, with the support of the Government of Canada, the Secretariat of the CEC and the coordination of Instituto Nacional de Ecología, the course entitled "Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment" was conducted on March th, 2008, in Mexico City at the Best Western Hotel. Background This workshop was a request of Mexico to the working group of D&F of SMOC CCA to strengthen collaboration with Canada and USA for capacity building in this area. In response to this request, Health Canada provided support for this course. Health Canada has committed to develop and provide a training session for Mexican scientists on human health risk assessment, including training on environmental site assessment. As part of this effort, a case study of a dioxin contaminated site assessment in Canada was included. The training session was organized and held as an implementation activity of the North American Strategy for Catalyzing Cooperation on Dioxins, Furans, and Hexachlorobenzene under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation s (NACEC) Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program. Canada, together with the United States and Mexico, have cooperatively developed the Strategy as a means to reduce the risk of exposure to dioxins, furans and hexachlorobenzene, through capacity building in Mexico and information sharing among the three parties. Mexican officials have identified a need for training in human health risk assessment, in particular focused on potentially dioxin contaminated sites as well as other sites where there is some information of Dioxins. Prior to this, in March, 2008, Health Canada had provided and presented a training module on general human health risk assessment with a focus on POPs, for Mexican scientists and officials. The training session helped to build Mexico s capacity for human health risk assessment of these substances. The workshop was designed by members of the working group of D&F and consultants to meet identified needs. This workshop took place in Mexico City at Best Western Hotel, on March th, 2008, where 30 people attended including public officers, researchers and students from different states of the country.

3 Objective To implement a 1 week training module on ecological risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including dioxins and furans (D/F) aimed at Mexican scientists and government officials. Organizers Health Canada and the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, through Dirección General del Centro Nacional de Investigación y Capacitación Ambiental (DG) with the support of CEC within working group of D&F. Task I: Development of Training Program for Human Health Risk Assessment Mexican officials identified a need for training in human health risk assessment on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including dioxins and furans (D/F) for Mexican scientists and government officials. The training program was developed according to the following: To provide training accordingly to the level of expertise of identified Mexican scientists and officials who may attend the training session To provide information regarding commonly accepted risk assessment methods for contaminated sites or potentially contaminated sites, practices and techniques that are currently implemented in Canada Invitations were extended by the INE for scientists and government officials involved in the Assessment of Risk Analysis. The CEC provided financial support to participants needed to attend the course (accommodation, transportation and living expenses). Task II: Deliver and Present the Risk Assessment Training Program in Cooperation with Health Canada to Mexican Scientists and Officials. Instructors: The instructor for the human health topics was Dr. Mark Richardson of Health Canada, while Dr. Dwayne Moore of Intrinsik Environmental covered the topics on ecological assessment. Dr. G. Mark Richardson is chief of the Contaminated Sites Division at Health Canada and has 20 years of experience on environmental human health risk assessment. Dr. Richardson has several projects which include: Mercury exposure from dental amalgam BPA exposure from dental composites and other sources Canadian National Defence Board of Inquiry on Croatia 1998 mine tailings catastrophe at Aznacollar, Spain

4 Dr. Dwayne Moore is senior scientist and vice president at Intrinsik Environmental Sciences. Dr. Moore has 19 years of experience as an ecological risk assessor. His areas of expertise include: Assessment of large contaminated sites (e.g. Housatonic River, Calcasieu Estuary) Complex avian risk assessment models for pesticides Taught many courses on ERA, probabilistic methods, statistics. Program: Drs. Moore and Richardson presented their lectures over five days from March 10 14, 2008 in Mexico City. Overall, the course accomplished its main goals, proving that language was not a barrier to success (simultaneous translation was provided for those attendants not proficient in English). All though the lectures the participation was highly encouraged, which resulted in many valuable discussions. During the last day, attention was focused on presenting research interests, projects and issues within the Mexican perspective. Day 1: a) Introduction of instructors (Dr. Mark Richardson and Dr. Dwayne Moore) b) Introduction of course participants c) Course objectives (Dr. Mark Richardson) d) Overview of ecological and human health risk assessment (Dr. Mark Richardson and Dr. Dwayne Moore) e) The problem formulation component of ecological risk assessment (Dr. Dwayne Moore) o Site characterization o Ecological characterization o Chemicals of potential concern o Background concentrations o Chemicals of concern o Exposure pathways for POPs, e.g., dioxins and furans, PCBs, DDT o Receptors of concern with an example for wildlife at a PCBs contaminated site o Conceptual model o Assessment and measurement endpoints o Analysis plan Day 2: a) The exposure assessment component of ecological risk assessment (Dr. Dwayne Moore) o Overview of steps and methods o Deterministic exposure assessment o Measures of central tendency o Measures of dispersion o Dealing with non detects o Geospatial tools o Exposure assessment models o Aquatic case study chloramines in rivers and lakes

5 o Wildlife case study mink exposed to PCBs o Accounting for uncertainty b) The effects assessment component of ecological risk assessment (Dr. Dwayne Moore) o Overview of steps and methods o Benchmarks and toxicity reference values o Concentration and dose response curves o NOELs and LOELs o Regression analysis o Species sensitivity distributions o Field studies including example with tree swallows exposed to PCBs, dioxins and furans at Housatonic River contaminated site c) The risk characterization component of ecological risk assessment (Dr. Dwayne Moore) o Tiered approach o Risk curves o Other lines of evidence o Mink exposed to PCBs, dioxins and furans in a whole media feeding study o Mink field surveys o Weight of evidence assessment o Sources of uncertainty o Strengths and weaknesses o Decision making Day 3: Human health risk assessment (Dr. Mark Richardson) Day 4: a) Probabilistic risk assessment concepts and methods (Dr. Dwayne Moore) o Probability theory o Types of uncertainty o Overview of methods o Interval analysis o First order Monte Carlo, including introduction to input distributions o Second order Monte Carlo o Probability bounds analysis b) Probabilistic risk assessment simple case study involving threatened and endangered species exposed to PCBs, dioxins and furans (Dr. Dwayne Moore) o Exposure model o Small footed myotis o Diet and dietary concentrations o Body weight and free metabolic rate o Monte Carlo analysis and results o Bald eagle o Diet and dietary concentrations o Monte Carlo analysis and results d) Probabilistic risk assessment advanced case study involving bald eagles exposed to dioxins and furans (Dr. Dwayne Moore) o Interval analysis o Second order Monte Carlo

6 o Probability bounds analysis o Advantages and disadvantages of different PRA methods Day 5: a) Demonstration of software (Dr. Dwayne Moore) o Crystal Ball o Risk curve software o SSD Master b) Presentations by class participants on their risk assessments and group discussions (All) c) Group discussion of future training needs Participants: In the workshop had the assistance of 30 people attending from different Mexican institutions such as: UAMI, CINVESTAV, CIAD, INE, SIMAT SMA,, UASLP, UNAM PUMA, UNAM CIECO, DGGIMAR, COFEPRIS, INSP and SEMARNAT. In Annex A there is an example of the offices of invitation sent to approximately 35 people, and the list of attendees which totalled 30 people. Annex B contains the final program of this training session. Annex C includes all presentations presented by Dr. Dwayne Moore, Intrinsik Environmental Sciences Inc., and Dr. Mark Richardson, Health Canada, during workshop. Annex D contains the CV's of trainers in this workshop. CONCLUSIONS The goal of this workshop was successfully reached. The experience favoured the communication between representatives of the scientific community and the government sector on issues and possible solutions to the implementation of Risk Assessment procedures in Mexico. In particular, the objective of providing capacity building for Mexico s scientist and government official on risk assessment of POPs was achieved. All participants agreed that such forums should be further encouraged to bring these two sectors working together, which in turn could open areas of opportunity and synergy to eventually adapt Risk Assessment procedures to the Mexican reality. Further efforts of capacity building in Mexico will guarantee that these academic exercises could in fact be used to support the design and implementation of programs to develop risk analysis in Mexico as scientifically sound decision making tools for the health and environmental sectors. Gathering the comments from participants and instructors, a proposal of a follow up practical workshop in 2009 was made. In the Annex E presents some comments of participants about their experience in the workshop.

7 ANNEX A: OFFICIAL INVITATION

8 ANNEX A: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Assistance

9 Name Patricia Ramírez Romero Gerardo Gold Bouchot Miguel Betancourt Lozano Aida Juárez Cruz Gerardo Samuel López V. Salvador Blanco J. Luke Trip Ernesto Navarro Laura Nevárez Guillermo Espinoza Reyes Cesar Arturo Ilizaliturri Angélica Garduño Cynthia Armendáriz José A. Romero Salvador Eduardo Gómez R. Martha Ramírez Ernesto Reyes Alberto Rosales Castillo Ma. Camerina Macuitl M. Claudia Márquez Estrada Jesús A. Durán Loza Daniel A. de la Rosa Pérez Susana González Vargas Alma Delia Nava Fidel Gómez Arturo Amador Higuera Lizbeth López Carrillo Mireya Benítez Hernández Name Laura Andreina Nevárez Domínguez Mireya Benítez Hernández Gerardo Samuel López V. Patricia Ramírez Romero Humberto Cuevas García Jazmín Cortés Peña Susana González Vargas Claudia Márquez Estrada José A. Romero Salvador Luke Trip Gerardo Gold Bouchot Guillermo Espinoza Reyes Cesar Arturo Ilizaliturri Miguel Betancourt Lozano Ma. Camerina Macuitl M. Cynthia Armendáriz Aida Juárez Cruz Salvador Blanco J. Martha Ramírez Eduardo Gómez R. Ma. Carmen Gutiérrez Cigales Fidel Gómez Jesus Durán Alma Delia Nava Angélica Garduño Alberto Rosales Castillo Tomasa León Sánchez Mary Carmen Baltazar Reyes Arturo Amador Higuera Teresa Ortuño Ernesto Reyes Villegas David Alejandro de la Rosa Pérez March 10th. Assistance Institution UAM I CINVESTAV Mérida CIAD INE SIMAT SMA INE CCA CCA INE UASLP UASLP UNAM PUMA UNAM CIECO DGGCDRETC DGGIMAR INE UAM I Cofepris/Salud DGGIMAR INE DGGIMAR INE INE INE INE SEMARNAT INSP March 11th. Assistance Institution SIMAT SMA UAM I SEMARNAT SEMPRNAT DGGCARETC CCA Cinvestav Mérida UASLP UASLP CIAD DGGIMAR UNAM CIECO INE DGGIMAR INE DGGIMAR UNAM PUMA Cofepris/Salud SEMARNAT INSP SEMARNAT

10 Name Aida Juárez Cruz Gerardo Gold Bouchot Ernesto Reyes Villegas Mireya Benítez Hernández Laura Nevárez José A. Romero Salvador Cynthia Armendáriz A. Guillermo Espinoza Reyes Cesar Arturo Ilizaliturri Patricia Ramírez Romero Gerardo Samuel López V. David Alejandro de la Rosa Pérez Mary Carmen Baltazar Reyes Miguel Betancourt Lozano Salvador Blanco J. Ma. Camerina Macuitl M. Silvia Victoria Ramñirez Eduardo Gómez R. Georgina Echáriz P. Susana González Vargas Angélica Garduño Ma. Carmen Gutiérrez Cigales Arturo Amador Higuera Claudia Márquez Estrada Lizbeth López Carrillo Alberto Rosales Castillo Alma Delia Nava Teresa Ortuño Fidel Gómez Name Gerardo Gold Bouchot Patricia Ramírez Romero Mireya Benítez Hernández Aida Juárez Cruz Claudia Márquez Estrada José A. Romero Salvador Cesar Arturo Ilizaliturri Guillermo Espinosa Reyes Salvador Blanco J. Mary Carmen Baltazar Reyes Ernesto Reyes Villegas Ma. Camerina Macuitl M. Laura Nevárez David Alejandro de la Rosa Pérez Ma. Carmen Gutiérrez Cigales Eduardo Gómez R. Angélica Garduño Martha Ramírez Fidel Gómez Alma Delia Nava Arturo Amador Higuera Gerardo Samuel López V. Teresa Ortuño March 12th. Assistance Institution INE Cinvestav Mérida DGCCDRETC UNAM CIECO UASLP UASLP UAM I SIMAT SMA INE INSP CIAD DGGIMAR COFEPRIS DGGIMAR INE UNAM SEMARNAT INSP COFEPRIS INE DGGIMAR March 13th. Assistance Institution Cinvestav Mérida UAM I INE DGGCARETC UASLP UASLP INSP DGGIMAR DGGIMAR UNAM INE INE SEMARNAT SIMAT SMA

11 Name Gerardo Gold Bouchot Cynthia Armendáriz A. Claudia Márquez Estrada Jazmín Cortés Peña Aida Juárez Cruz Miguel Betancourt Lozano Guillermo Espinosa Reyes Patricia Ramírez Romero Cesar Arturo Ilizaliturri Fidel Gómez Susana Gonzalez Laura Nevárez Angélica Garduño José A. Romero Salvador Gerardo Samuel López V. Mary Carmen Baltazar Reyes Mary Carmen Gutiérrez Cigales Arturo Amador Higuera David Alejandro de la Rosa Pérez Alma Delia Nava Teresa Ortuño March 14th. Assistance Institution Cinvestav Mérida CIECO UNAM INE UAM INE CIAD UASLP UAM I UASLP DGGIMAR INE PUMA UNAM DGGCDRETC SIMAT SMA INSP SEMARNAT

12 ANNEX B: FINAL PROGRAM

13

14 ANNEX C: LIST OF PRESENTATIONS Presentation: Trainer(s) Dwayne Moore Ph.D. & G. Mark A short course on ecological and human health risk assessment. Richardson Ph.D. Health Canada s Risk Assessment Approach G. Mark Richardson, Ph.D. Hazard Assessment Are all risk assessments created equal? Or Should risk assessment methods be standarized? Considering bioavailability in risk assessment G. Mark Richardson, Ph.D. How does Health Canada use geochemical data? The difficulties of deciding upon receptor characteristics The other coast Ecological Risk Assessment. Effects Assessment Intrinsik Ecological Risk Assessment. Exposure Assessment Intrinsik Ecological Risk Assessment. Ecological risk assessment overview. Dr. Dwayne Moore Ecological Risk Assessment. Problem Formulation Dr. Dwayne Moore Ecological Risk Assessment. Risk Characterization Case study: Assessment of potential risks to Canadian troops exposed to soils during peacekeeping duties in Croatia, 1993 to 1995 Risk logic Scientific Services Inc. Probabilistic Risk Assessment. Concepts and methods Intrinsik Probabilistic Risk Assessment. Advanced Case Study Intrinsik Probabilistic Risk Assessment. Case Study Intrinsik Use of probabilistic RA. Methods to estimate Hg. Exposure and risk from dental amalgam.

15 ANNEX D: RESUME OF TRAINERS G. MARK RICHARDSON, Ph.D. EXPERTISE Since September 2003, Dr. Richardson has been responsible for establishing and directing Health Canada s Contaminated Sites Division, managing Health Canada s Expert Support role under the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan (FCSAP). Health Canada s technical/scientific program has established national approaches to the assessment of human health risks presented by federally owned contaminated sites and launched new and original research projects to address knowledge gaps in risk assessment, toxicology, human exposure, and contaminant fate in the environment. Duties included the supervision of up to 27 scientific and professional staff (biologists, toxicologists, chemists, others), directing a salary budget of some $3 million, and an O&M budget of approximately $4 million per year to support research and methods development in environmental health risk assessment, and to establish and facilitate an in house and academic based research program to develop and improve risk assessment methods in Canada. Other responsibilities have included: the authorship and publication of national guidance on conducting human health risk assessments at contaminated sites; providing expert advice to federal departments, provinces, territories, municipalities as well as private sector consultants on the approach to and conduct of risk assessments on numerous contaminated sites and emergency situations; delivering training programs in risk assessment; participation on various regional and national committees (such as the CCME Soil Quality Guidelines Task Group; BC Science Advisory Board on Contaminated Sites); and establishing BioAvailability Research Canada (BARC) as a joint government academic industry effort to develop and refine methods for the valid quantification of the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of inorganic and organic contaminants found in contaminated sites. Dr. Richardson joined Health Canada from Risklogic Scientific Services Inc., the private sector consulting company founded by him in During his time in the private sector, he conducted, assisted or peer reviewed a large number and variety of high profile risk assessments including: the assessment of risks posed by contaminated soils to Canadian Peace Keepers, as part of the DND Board of Inquiry on Croatia; the 1998 mine tailings catastrophe at Aznacollar, Spain (Boliden, Inc.), considered to be the worst mine tailings disaster in European history; the assessment of arsenic exposure and risks in Yellowknife, NWT as a result of the legacy of gold mining; and he served as an advisor to Health Canada in relation to the assessment of risks at the Sydney, N.S. Tar Ponds. Between 2000 and 2002, Dr. Richardson was the primary human health risk assessor on behalf of the Department of National Defence s Forces Health Protection program, providing assessments and advice concerning occupational and environmental risks posed to Canada s peace keepers overseas; participation in the DND Board of Inquiry on Croatia stemmed from this work. Dr. Richardson published the first probabilistic risk assessment of chemical exposures arising from medical devices and materials, having authored Health Canada's Assessment of Mercury Exposure and Risks from Dental Amalgam (1995), as well as publishing the first quantitative assessment of risks in Canada posed by the family of dental materials known as composite resins (1997), and of bisphenol a (1999). Contributions were also solicited by the Government of Sweden in their review of the potential hazards posed by mercury released from dental materials, and he has lectured in Canada, the U.S.A., Australia and Europe on risk assessment, including potential health risks posed by dental materials. He was an invited speaker in November 2002 to the US House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform, for their hearings on Mercury in Dental Amalgams: An Examination of the Science. Dr. Richardson was one of six North Americans invited to Kuwait in 1994 to address a special workshop convened by the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences, to discuss risks and problems posed by the severe crude oil contamination in that country following the Gulf War. He is the author of the Compendium of Canadian Human Exposure Factors for Risk Assessment, a risk assessment resource presenting basic statistics and probability distributions for numerous physical and behavioural characteristics of the Canadian population that is now the most common source of receptor characteristics for contaminated site (and other) risk assessments in Canada. Dr. Richardson has research experience is a broad range of topics including: risk assessment methods; toxicology; pharmacokinetics; environmental fate of pesticides and environmental contaminants; the biogeochemistry of mercury; dental materials; contaminated soils; and human chemical exposure. Dr. Richardson is a member of the Science Steering Committee (SCC) of the NSERC funded Metals in the Human Environment Research Network (MITHE RN), a multi disciplinary research program coordinated by the Canadian Network of Toxicology Centres at the University of Guelph. He has also served as an external reviewer and as a member of site visit committees on behalf of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), to evaluate the merits of academic research grant proposals in Canada.

16 EXPERIENCE From Sept/2003 Chief, Contaminated Sites Division, Bureau of Risk and Impact Assessment, Safe Environments Programme, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario CANADA K1A 0K9 Directed Health Canada s Expert Support program in support of the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan (FCSAP). Provided expert support and advice on human health risk assessment and related aspects of contaminated sites assessment and management to Canadian federal departments; directed a group of up to 27 professional/scientific staff (9 in Ottawa; up to 18 in HC regional offices) involved with risk assessment, toxicological evaluation and public outreach/communication; conducted and peer reviewed risk assessments; managed a budget of approximately $7 million annually, including up to $3 million O&M to support research related to improving risk assessment knowledge and methods; contributed to federal/provincial/territorial activities such as the CCME Soil Quality Guidelines Task Group, the BC Science Advisory Board on Contaminated Sites and BioAvailability Research Canada (BARC); conducted training courses in human health risk assessment for professional staff of Health Canada, other federal departments, provincial and municipal agencies Director & Risk Assessment Specialist, Risklogic Scientific Services Inc., 14 Clarendon Ave., Ottawa, Ontario CANADA K1Y 0P2 Founder and director of the company, which specializes in human health risk assessment, ecological risk assessment, human health and environmental based guidelines, data analysis and biostatistics. Conducts multi media human health risk assessments for contaminants generally dispersed in the environment and conducts risk assessments for: specific contaminated sites; chemical exposures arising from medical devices and materials; and other sources of chemical exposure. Provides contract support to environmental regulatory programs at the federal and provincial/territorial levels. Provides biostatistical consulting and support, particularly relating to statistical analysis and probability density functions for human exposure factors. Conducts training courses in risk assessment to regulatory and industrial clients O'Connor Associates Environmental Inc., 14 Clarendon Ave., Ottawa, Ontario CANADA K1Y 0P2 Was responsible for conducting and reviewing risk assessments for chemical exposures arising from medical devices and materials, contaminated sites, and for conducting multi media human health exposure assessments for contaminants in the environment. Developed and presented training courses in risk assessment to regulatory and industrial clients. Provides biostatistical support to other risk assessors in the company, particularly relating to probability density functions for human exposure factors. Was also responsible for the development and recommendation of environmental regulatory policies and procedures to client regulatory agencies Medical Devices Bureau, Health Protection Branch Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontar io CANADA

17 Responsible for preparing the Department s assessment of the exposure and risks posed by mercury arising from dental amalgam.

18 Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario CANADA & As Head of the Air and Waste Section, was responsible for the development and management of procedures for quantitative risk assessment of environmental contaminants and contaminated soils; provision of expertise in human exposure assessments during chemical fires, spills and other environmental emergency situations; direction of Health Canada's contribution to the National Contaminated Sites Remediation Program; evaluation of the adequacy of risk assessments prepared in support of megaprojects under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process; assessment of risks posed by incinerator stack emissions; and establishment of a new program within Health Canada on the health risks of hazardous waste, contaminated soils and soil cleanup technologies Full time doctoral candidate, University of Ottawa, Department of Biology Environmental Health Directorate Health and Welfare Canada Responsible for providing input, advice and recommendations on the direction, conduct and management of federal R & D programs in environmental and occupational health. Duties included participation on Federal/Provincial Advisory Committees related to environmental and occupational health, specifically pertaining to chemical and radiation contamination of air, drinking water, soils and occupational environments. Also provided expertise in human health risk assessment associated with chemical exposures in northern environments and First Nations diets Environmental Analysis Branch, Environment Canada Reviewed and assessed the potential environmental hazards posed by industrial, municipal and institutional activities Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation Assistance Program, Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada Managed contracts for health, biological and chemical research on urea formaldehyde foam insulation; analyzed and interpreted indoor air quality and health related data collected through the UFFI Assistance Program. OTHER EXPERIENCE Other experience includes an extensive knowledge and working ability in: biostatistics; regulatory toxicology, risk assessment and risk management; human characteristics, time activity patterns and exposure factors used in risk assessment; chemical exposures and risks posed by dental materials and other medical devices; development of regulatory risk management processes and environmental policy. PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS Member, B.C. Science Advisory Board on Contaminated Sites Member, Science Steering Committee, Metals in the Human Environment Research Network Member, BioAvailability Research Canada (BARC)

19 JOURNAL ARTICLES IN PRESS, SUBMITTED OR IN PREPARATION Allan M, H Jones Otazo and GM Richardson. Inhalation Rates for Risk Assessments Involving Construction Workers in Canada. In preparation, for submission to: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. Richardson, GM, R Brecher, H Scobie, J Hamblen, K Phillips, J Samuelian and C Smith. Mercury vapour (Hg 0 ): Continuing toxicological uncertainties, and establishing a Canadian reference exposure level. In preparation; intended for submission to: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Knafla A, S Petrovic, J Carey and M Richardson. Methodology for the development of soil quality guidelines and predicting risks associated with dermal exposure to B[a]P and the development of skin cancer. In preparation; intended for submission to: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Dodd M, DA Bright and GM Richardson. Bioaccessibility estimates for metals from ingested soils: role of soil properties and different soil to extraction solution ratios. Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Monitoring. Allan M, GM Richardson and H Jones Otazo. Probability density functions describing 24 hour inhalation rates for use in human health risk assessments: an update and comparison. Accepted for publication in Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. PUBLISHED JOURNAL ARTICLES, BOOK CONTRIBUTIONS AND BOOK REVIEWS Loney CB, GM Richardson, BD Leece, RM Wilson, U Klee and BJ MacLean Comparison of contaminated site human health risk assessment approaches in Canada: application of provincial methods to a hypothetical site. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 13(6): Moody RP, J Joncas, M Richardson, I Chu Contaminated soils (1): In vito dermal absorption of benzo[a]pyrene in human skin. J. Toxicol Environ Health, Part A, 70: Knafla A, KA Phillipps, RW Brecher, S Petrovic, M Richardson Development of a dermal cancer slope factor for benzo[a]pyrene. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol., 45: Jones Otazo, H.A., J.P. Clarke, M.L. Diamond, J.A. Archbold, G. Ferguson, T. Harner, G.M. Richardson, J.J. Ryan, and B. Wilford Is house dust the missing exposure pathway for PBDEs? An analysis of the urban fate and human exposure to PBDEs. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39 (14), Richardson, G.M., D.A. Bright and M. Dodd Do current standards of practice measure what is relevant to human exposure at contaminated sites? II: Oral bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12(3): Bright, D.A., G.M. Richardson and M. Dodd Do current standards of practice measure what is relevant to human exposure at contaminated sites? I: A discussion of soil particle size and contaminant partitioning in soil. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12(3): Jones Otazo, H. M. Diamond and G.M. Richardson An interagency comparison of screening level risk assessment approaches. Risk Analysis, 25(4): Richardson, G.M Inhalation of mercury contaminated particulate matter by dentists: an overlooked occupational risk. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9(6): Van Boom, G., G.M. Richardson and L.J. Trip Waste mercury in dentistry: the need for management. Environmental Health Review, 47(2): Moore, D.R.J., R.S. Teed and G.M. Richardson Derivation of an Ambient Water Quality Criterion for Mercury: Taking Account of Site specific Conditions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22(12): Richardson, G.M., I. Mitchell, M. Mah Paulson, T. Hackbarth and R. Garrett Natural emissions of mercury to the atmosphere in Canada. Environmental Reviews, 11(1): Richardson, G.M., K.E. Clark and D.R. Williams Preliminary estimates of adult exposure to bisphenola from dental materials, food and ambient air. In: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Standardization of Biomarkers for Endocrine Disruption and Environmental Assessment: Eighth Volume, ASTM STP 1364, D.S. Henshel, M.C. Black and M.C. Harrass, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA. pp Richardson, G.M Mercury Exposure From Dental Amalgam: Re evaluation of the Richardson Model, Standardization by Body Surface Area, and Consideration of Recent Occupational Studies. In: Chapter VI. Expert Commissions, Amalgam and Health New Perspectives on Risks,

20 FORSKNINGSRÅDSNÄMNDEN (FRN; Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research), Report 99:1, Stockholm, Sweden. Richardson, G.M Dental Amalgam and Mercury Exposure: Potential Patient Risks and the Basis for Restrictions on Use. In: Chapter 3, Amalgam and Health New Perspectives on Risks, FORSKNINGSRÅDSNÄMNDEN (FRN; Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research), Report 99:1, Stockholm, Sweden. Richardson, G.M Book Review: How to Control Costs in Your Pollution Prevention Program, by J.A. Cichowicz. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 106: Clark, K.E. and G.M. Richardson Debate/Commentary Fate and exposure models: Selecting the appropriate model for a specific application, Introduction. J. Soil Contam., 7(3): Allan, M. and Richardson, G.M Probability Density Functions Describing 24 hour Inhalation Rates for Use in Human Health Risk Assessments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Vol. 4(2), Richardson, G.M Assessment of adult exposure and risks from components and degradation products of composite resin dental materials. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 3(4): Richardson, G.M Invited Debate/Commentary: Is bioremediation a green technology? Introduction. J. Soil Contam., 6(3): Richardson, G.M Invited Debate/Commentary: What research is needed on indoor infiltration of volatile organic contaminants? Introduction. J. Soil Contam., 6(1): 1 2. Richardson, G.M. and M. Allan A Monte Carlo Assessment of Mercury Exposure and Risks from Dental Amalgam. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2(4): Richardson, G.M. and D.Burmaster (Eds.) Theoretical, Toxicological and Biostatistical Foundations for Deriving Probability Density Functions Describing Variability and Uncertainty in References Doses, Benchmark Doses and Slope Factors. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2(1). Richardson, G. M Deterministic versus Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Strengths and Weaknesses in a Regulatory Context. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2(1), Bartlett, S., G.M.Richardson, D. Krewski, S.N.Rai and M.Fyfe Commentary: Characterizing uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions drawn from a workshop. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 2(1), Williams, D.R., J.C.Paslawski and G.M. Richardson Development of a screening relationship to describe migration of contaminant vapours into buildings. J. Soil Contam., 5(2): Richardson, G.M. and D.J. Currie Using empirical methods to assess the risks of mercury accumulation in fish from lakes receiving acid rain. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 1(3): Richardson, G.M., M.Egyed and D.J. Currie Does acid rain increase human exposure to mercury? A review and analysis of recent literature. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., volume 14 (5), Richardson, G.M., M.Egyed and D.J. Currie Human exposure to mercury may decrease as acidic deposition increases. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 80: Richardson, G.M., M.Mitchell, S.Coad and R.Raphael Exposure to mercury in Canada: a multimedia assessment. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 80: Richardson, G.M. and A. Myers Risk Assessment and its Application to Risk Management in Environmental Health. Environmental Health Review, 37(2): Richardson, G.M. and D.J. Currie Estimating Fish Consumption Rates for Ontario Amerindians. J. Expos. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol., 3(1): Murray, W.D. and M. Richardson Development of Biological and Process Technologies for the Reduction and Degradation of Pulp Mill Wastes That Pose a Threat to Human Health. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 23(2): Murray, W. and M. Richardson Progress Toward the Biological Treatment of C1 and C2 Halogenated Hydrocarbons. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 23(3): Jessiman, B., G.M. Richardson, C. Clark and B. Halbert A Quantitative Evaluation of Ten Approaches to Setting Site Specific Cleanup Objectives. J. Soil Contamin., 1(1): Richardson, G.M Contaminated Sites: An Update of Health Protection Activities at the National Level. Environ. Health Rev., 35(4): Bourdeau, P., E. Somers, G.M. Richardson and J.R. Hickman (Eds.) Short Term Toxicity Tests for Non Genotoxic Effects. SCOPE 41, SGOMSEC 4, IPCS Joint Symposia 8. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

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