# Mei-Chu Chang Department of Mathematics UCR Riverside, CA 92521

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1 A POLYNOMIAL BOUND IN FREIMAN S THEOREM Mei-Chu Chang Department of Mathematics UCR Riverside, CA Abstract. In this paper the following improvement on Freiman s theorem on set addition is obtained. (Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 in Section 1.) Let A Z be a finite set such that A + A < α A. Then A is contained in a proper d-dimensional progression P, where d [α 1] and log P A < Cα2 (log α) 3. Earlier bounds involved exponential dependence in α in the second estimate. Our argument combines Ruzsa s method, which we improve in several places, as well as Bilu s proof of Freiman s theorem. A fundamental result in the theory of set addition is Freiman s theorem. Let A Z be a finite set of integers with small sumset, thus assume A + A < α A (0.1) where A + A = {x + y x, y A} (0.2) and denotes the cardinality. The factor α should be thought of as a (possibly large) constant. Then Freiman s theorem states that A is contained in a d-dimensional progression P, where d d(α) (0.3) and P A C(α). (0.4) 1 Typeset by AMS-TEX

2 (Precise definitions will be given in the next section.) Although this statement is very intuitive, there is no simple proof so far and it is one of the deep results in additive number theory. Freiman s book [Fr] on the subject is not easy to read, which perhaps explains why in earlier years the result did not get its deserved publicity. More recently, two detailed proofs were given. One, due to Y. Bilu [Bi], is close to Freiman s and very geometric in spirit. The other, due to I. Ruzsa [Ru2], is less geometric and is based also on results in graph theory, such as Plünnecke s theorem. More details of Ruzsa s proof will be given later. In (0.3), (0.4), we denoted by d(α) and C(α) constants that depend on α. In most applications of Freiman s theorem, it also matters to have some quantitative understanding of this dependence. An optimal result would be to show linear dependence of d(α) in α and exponential dependence of C(α) (trivial examples mentioned in [Ru2] show that this would be optimal). This paper addresses that issue and provides a substantial improvement of what was gotten so far from either Bilu s or Ruzsa s approach. But before getting into details, we mention very briefly some results and problems, subject of current research, that are intimately related to quantitative versions of Freiman s theorem. (i) T. Gowers work on arithmetic progressions. [G1], [G2] A celebrated theorem of Szemerédi [Sz], solving an old conjecture of Erdős and Turán, roughly asserts that if S Z + is a set of positive upper density, i.e. [1, N] lim sup S N N then S contains arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions > 0 (0.5) a, a + b, a + 2b,..., a + jb. (0.6) More precisely, there is a function δ(n, j) such that if T [1, N] and T > δ(n, j)n (0.7) 2

3 then T contains a progression (0.6) of size j. Moreover, for fixed j, δ(n, j) 0, when N. (0.8) Szemerédi s proof was a tour de force in combinatorics, which only few people tried to read and, certainly, extracting any quantitative information about the function δ(n, j) from it looks hopeless. Later a more conceptual approach based on ergodic theory was developed by H. Furstenberg and his collaborators (see [Fu], [F-K-O],...). This method applies also in greater generality (see for instance [B-L] on polynomial versions of Szemerédi s theorem) but has the drawback of providing no quantitative information at all. In recent work [G1], [G2], T. Gowers established a lower bound δ(n, j) < 1. (0.9) (log log N) c(j) Notice that already for j = 4, absolutely no estimate was known (the case j = 3 goes back to K. Roth [Ro]). In fact, even for van der Waerden s theorem on progression [VdW], published in 1927, bounds expressed by primitively recursive functions were only given a few years ago (see [Sh]). Gowers estimate (0.9) is therefore certainly most spectacular. The key ingredient in this approach is a quantitative version of Ruzsa s proof of Freiman s theorem. Further progress on this issue is therefore of primary importance to the problematic of progressions in thin sets of integers (most notoriously, the set of prime numbers). (ii) The dimension of measurable rings of real numbers. Let S R be a measurable set and a ring in the algebraic sense, i.e. S + S S, S.S S. An old conjecture of Erdős states that the Hausdorff-dimension of S is either 0 or 1. It is known that if 1 2 < dim S 1, then dim S = 1 (see [Fal]). The problem for 0 dim S 1 2 turns out to be much harder and is closely related to the following conjecture of Erdős and Szemerédi [E-S]. 3

4 Conjecture. If A is a finite set of integers, then E 2 (A) A 2 ε for all ε > 0 (0.10) where E 2 (A) = (A + A) A.A. (0.11) In [N-T], it is shown that if A 1, A 2 Z are finite sets and A 1 = A 2 = k 2, A 1 + A 2 3k 4 (0.12) then A 1.A 2 ( ) 2 k. (0.13) log k Here one uses the fact that if (0.12) holds, then A 1 and A 2 are contained in a 1-dimensional arithmetic progression. This is a special case of Freiman s general theorem, where a strong conclusion holds. Related to the general conjecture, the record at this point is (see [El]) E 2 (A) > c A 5/4 (0.14) obtained from the Szemerédi-Trotter theorem on line-incidences in the plane (see [S-T]). (iii) Relation of Freiman s theorem on set-addition to the problem of the dimension of Besicovitch sets in R d. Recall that a measurable subset A R d, d 2 is a Besicovitch set if it contains a line segment in every direction. Such sets may be of zero-measure but it is likely that always dim A = d (the maximal dimension). For d = 2, this is a known result, but the question for d > 2 appears to be very hard (for d = 3, best result so far is Hausdorff-dim A 5 2, for Minkowski-dim A ɛ [K-L-T]). This is a problem in geometric measure theory with major implications to Fourier Analysis in several variables. It has been subject to intensive research during the last decade, a survey 4

5 of which the reader may find in [W], [T] (relations of this problem and a number of other conjectures to the Erdős ring problem are discussed in [K-T], [T]). For application in other subjects such as group theory, coding theory and integer programming, see [He], [Ru3], [C-Z], [Ch]. We now return to the content of the paper. We will mostly follow Ruzsa s method (providing the best bounds so far) and improve several places in his argument. Basically there are two stages in Ruzsa s method. First, one generates a large progression P 0 2A 2A by embedding a subset of A in Z N, finding a large progression in this image, then pushing it back to Z. Next, enlarges P 0 to get a progression P 1 A. The progression P 0 is of dimension d 0 d 0 (α) (0.15) and A P 0 < C 0(α). (0.16) Rusza obtains d 0 (α) < α 4 and log C 0 (α) bounded by some power of α. We improve this here to d 0 (α) α log α (0.17) log C 0 (α) α(log α) 2 (0.17 ) by refining the harmonic analysis part related to the circle method. We do feel however that this statement is not optimal and it does not seem unreasonable to conjecture bounds α ε or even C log α in (0.17) (if true, this last statement would have substantial new applications). Notice that the construction of the progression P 0 inside A is the hard part of the argument. Once P 0 is obtained, one considers a maximal set of elements a 1,, a s A s.t. the sets a i + P 0 are naturally disjoint. Then A {a 1,..., a s } + P 0 P 0 (0.18) 5

6 and we use {a 1,..., a s } as additional generators for a progression P A, whose dimension may be bounded by d(α) s + dim P 0 C 0 (α) + d 0 (α). (0.19) This procedure introduces thus an exponential dependence of d(α) on α in (0.3) because of the C 0 (α)-dependence. We present here a more economical procedure, replacing (0.19) by d(α) α log C 0 (α) + d 0 (α) α 2 (log α) 2. (0.20) As mentioned earlier d(α) α (0.21) would be the optimal result here. The progression P obtained is not necessarily proper (see next section for definition). In [Bi], it is shown how starting from Ruzsa s result one may replace P by a proper progression still satisfying (0.3), (0.4). Based on a variant of this argument, we obtain Theorem 2 below (cf. Section 1), where P A is a proper progression of dimension d [α 1] and log P A < Cα2 (log α) 3. In this paper, Z N always denote Z/NZ. The paper is organized as following, In Section 1, we give preliminaries, and the precise statement of our theorems. Also we summarize Ruzsa s method. In Section 2, we improve step 4 in Ruzsa s method. In Section 3, we prove a technical proposition which is used for the improvement of step 4 in Ruzsa s method. In Section 4, we prove Theorem 2. Acknowledgement The author would like to thank J. Bourgain for helpful discussions, particularly for explaining Ruzsa s method and various mathematics 6

7 (in fact, most of the introduction) related to Freiman s Theorem. The author would also like to thank T. Gowers for pointing out some errors in an earlier version of the paper. SECTION 1. Preliminary and Ruzsa s method. We begin this section with recalling some definitions. For the readers convenience, we write here various theorems from [Na] in the form we need. For proofs, please see [Na]. A d-dimensional (generalized) arithmetic progression is a set of the form P = P (q 1,..., q d ; l 1,..., l d ; a) = {a + x 1 q x d q d 0 xi < l i, i = 1,..., d} (1.1) The length of P is d l(p ) = l i. (1.2) i=1 Clearly P l(p ) (Here P is the cardinality of P.) If P = l(p ), the progression is called proper. Denote A + B = {a + b a A, b B} (1.3) ha = A + + A (h fold). (1.4) Observe that if P in (1.1) is proper, then 2P 2 d P. (1.5) The above makes sense in any Abelian group but we restrict ourselves to Z in this paper. The following result is a structural theorem for subset of Z with small doubling set. 7

8 Freiman s theorem. Let A Z be a finite set and 2A α A. (1.6) Then A is contained in a d-dimensional generalized arithmetic progression P, where d d(α) (1.7) l(p ) C(α) A. (1.8) Our interest here goes to the quantitative aspects. Known bounds (obtained in [Ru]) for d(α) in (1.7) (respectively, C(α) in (1.8)) are exponential (resp. double exponential) in α. The role of α here is a possibly large constant. In this paper, the following improvement will be obtained. Theorem 1. Freiman s theorem holds with d(α) and log C(α) bounded by Cα 2 (log α) 2 (the letter C will stand for various absolute constants). Theorem 2. Assume A Z a finite set satisfying (1.6). Then A P, where P is a proper d-dimensional arithmetic progression, with d [α 1] (1.9) log P A Cα2 (log α) 3. (1.10) Remark 2.1. Compared with Theorem 1, (1,9) is an improvement of (1.7). Moreover, P is proper in Theorem 2. Theorem 2 will be deduced from Theorem 1 using an additional argument from [Bi]. These statements answer to a satisfactory extent the question raised at the end of [Ru] (where it is conjectured that one may take d(α), log C(α) α) and also in [Na]. 8

9 To prove Theorem 1, we basically follow Ruzsa s proof in its consecutive steps and will bring an improvement in two of them. Notice that, although simpler than Freiman s, Ruzsa s argument remains fairly nontrivial and combines techniques and results from at least 3 different fields, graph theory (Plünnecke s inequalities), geometry of numbers (Minkowski s second theorem) and harmonic analysis (Bogolyubov s method). Now, some preliminaries. Recall that a Freiman homomorphism of order h (h 2) is a map φ : A B (A, B Z) such that φ(a 1 ) + + φ(a h ) = φ(a 1) + + φ(a h) (1.11) if a 1,, a h, a 1,, a h A and a a h = a 1 + a h. If φ : A B is a one-to-one correspondence and satisfies that a a h = a a h if and only if φ(a 1 ) + + φ(a n ) = φ(a 1) + + φ(a h) (1.12) then φ is called a Freiman isomorphism of order h. We begin with two easy lemmas. Their proofs can be found in Nathanson s book. ([Na], Theorems 8.5 and 8.4) Lemma 1.1. If h = h (k + l) and A, B are Freiman isomorphic of order h, then ka la and kb lb are Freiman isomorphic of order h. Lemma 1.2. Let P be a d-dimensional arithmetical progression and φ : P Z a Freiman homomorphism of order h 2. Then φ(p ) is d-dimensional progression. If P is proper and φ a Freiman isomorphism, then φ(p ) is also proper. The following is an important inequality due to Plünnecke. 9

10 Proposition 1.3. ([Na], Theorem 7.8) Let A be a finite subset of an Abelian group such that 2A = A + A α A. Then, for all k, l > 1 ka la α k+l A. Now, we summarize the main steps in Ruzsa s proof. Step 1. ([Na], Theorem 8.9) Fix h 2 and denote D = ha ha. Let N be the smallest number such that N > 4h D. (1.13) Then there is a subset A 1 A, A 1 > A h which is Freiman isomorphic of order h to a subset of Z N. (1.14) Denote by φ : A 1 A 1 Z N (1.15) this h-freiman isomorphism. From (1.13) and (1.14) and Proposition 1.3, we may thus ensure that N < 8h D 8hα 2h A < 8h 2 α 2h A 1. (1.16) Next, one invokes the following fact. Step 2. (Bogolyubov, [Na], Theorem 8.6) Let R Z N, with R = λn. Then for some integer d λ 2, there exist pairwise distinct elements r 1,..., r d Z N s.t. ( B r 1,, r d ; 1 ) 2R 2R (1.17) 4 10

11 where B(r 1,..., r d, ε): = {g Z N gr i < ε, for i = 1,..., d} (1.18) N denotes the Bohr neighborhood. Also, for x R, x = dist (x, Z). Remark. The proof of this is a discrete version of the usual circle method (cf. also [F-H-R], [R2]). Step 3. ([Na], Theorem 8.7) The Bohr set B(r 1,..., r d ; ε) defined in (1.18) contains a (proper) arithmetic progression P Z N, dim P = d and P > N( ε d )d. (1.19) Remark. The main tool involved in the proof is Minkowski s second theorem on the consecutive minima. Applying Step 2 with R = A 1, λ 1 8h 2 α 2h (cf. (1.16)), yields thus a Bohr-set B(r 1,..., r d ; 1 4 ) 2A 1 2A 1 with d 64 h 4 α 4h. (1.20) Application of Step 3 gives a d-dim progression P 2A 1 2A 1 P > N (4d) d > A h(4d) d. (1.21) By Lemma 1.1, the map φ in (1.15) induces an h 4 -Freiman isomorphism ψ : 2A 1 2A 1 2A 1 2A 1 (1.22) and, assuming h 4 2, it follows from Lemma 1.2 that P 0 : = ψ 1 (P ) is a (proper) d-dimensional progression in 2A 1 2A 1 2A 2A. Moreover, by (1.21) P 0 > A h(4d) d. (1.23) 11

12 Step 4. This is the final step to conclude the proof. The argument is the same as that in [Chan]. Simply consider a maximal collection {a 1,, a s } A for which the sets a i + P 0 Z are mutually disjoint. Hence, for each a A, we get a + P 0 a i + P 0 φ, for some i. Therefore, i.e. a a i + P 0 P 0, for some i = 1,..., s, a {a 1,..., a s } + P 0 P 0. (1.24) The set in (1.24) is clearly contained in a progression P 1 of dimension and dim P 1 = s + dim P 0 = s + d (1.25) l(p 1 ) 2 s 2 d l(p 0 ) = 2 s+d P 0 2 s+d 2A 2A 2 s+d α 4 A. (1.26) It remains to bound s. Clearly, from (1.23) and Proposition 1.3, Hence, s h(4d) d A < s P 0 = P 0 + {a 1,..., a s } 2A 2A + A α 5 A. s < h(4d) d α 5. (1.27) Observe that (1.20) and (1.27) lead to exponential dependence of s and dim P 1 in α. SECTION 2. Some improvement of Step 4. In this section, we will improve Step 4 in Ruzsa s argument. The improvement is a rather trivial one, but permits already to replace the exponential α-dependence of d(α) = dim P 1 by a powerlike bound d(α) < α C. This bound will mainly depend on d = dim P 0 for the progression P 0, where P 0 is obtained above from Steps 2 and 3. This section concerns what can be deduced from the following proposition, which will be prove in Section

13 Proposition 2.1. Let A Z be a finite set such that 2A α A. Then 2A 2A contains a (proper) progression P with d = dim P < C(log α)α (2.1) and P > A 8(10d 2 ) d. (2.2) To improve step 4, we apply Proposition 2.1. This provides an arithmetic progression P 2A 2A (2.3) such that, from (2.1) and (2.2), we have d = dim P α(log α) (2.4) P > Assuming that there exists a set S 1 A A 8(10d 2 ) d (2.5) S 1 = 10α (2.6) such that (P + x) (P + y) = for x y in S 1, (2.7) we define P (1) = P + S 1 2A 2A + A. (2.8) Then it follows from (2.6) and (2.7), we have P (1) = 10α P. (2.9) Next, we assume again that there is a subset S 2 A, S 2 = 10α (2.10) 13

14 such that (P (1) + x) (P (1) + y) =, for x y S 2. (2.11) Thus P (2) = P (1) + S 2 2A 2A + A + A = 2A 2A + 2A, (2.12) and P (2) = (10α) 2 P. (2.13) If the process may be iterated t times, we obtain P (t) = P + S S t 2A 2A + ta, (2.14) and P (t) = (10α) t P. (2.15) It follows from (2.5), (2.15), (2.14) and Proposition 1.3, we have (10α) t A 8(10d 2 ) d (2 + t)a 2A α4+t A. (2.16) Hence, Now, (2.4) gives 10 t 8α 4 (10d 2 ) d (2.17) t log α + d log d α(log α) 2. (2.18) Therefore, after t steps (note that t is bounded in (2.18)), the set S t can not be defined, i.e., there is a set S t A, S t < 10α, such that for each x A, there is a S t with (x + P (t 1) ) (a + P (t 1) ) hence x a + P (t 1) P (t 1) S t + P (t 1) P (t 1). (2.19) It follows, recalling (2.14), that A (P P ) + (S 1 S 1 ) + + (S t 1 S t 1 ) + S t. (2.20) 14

15 If P = P (q 1,..., q d ; l 1,..., l d ), (cf. (1.1)), then (2.20) is clearly contained in a translate of the progression of dimension P = P (q 1,..., q d, r<t S r S t; 2l 1,..., 2l d, 3,..., 3, 2) (2.21) d = dim P = d + r<t S r + S t < d + 10αt (2.22) and l( P ) 2 d l(p ) 3 10αt = 2 d 3 10αt P 2 d 3 10αt α 4 A. (2.23) (The last inequality is by (2.3) and Proposition 1.3.) Together with (2.4), (2.18), this yields Freiman s theorem with a d-dimensional progression P satisfying d α 2 (log α) 2, l( P ) < C d A. (2.24) Remark. The progression P need not be proper. SECTION 3. Proof of Proposition 2.1. By theorem 8.9 in [Na] (in our Step 1, take h = 8), there is a subset A 1 A, A 1 > A 8 (3.1) which is 8-isomorphic to a subset R of Z N, with N prime and N < 40 8A 8A < 40α 16 A. (3.2) Denote by φ : A 1 R this 8-isomorphism. To prove the Proposition, it clearly suffices to produce a d-dimensional progression P in 2R 2R satisfying (2.1), (2.2). We will begin with some definitions and standard facts. Let f, g : Z N R be functions. We define the following 1. ˆf(m): = 1 N 0 k<n f(k)e km N 15

16 2. f g(x): = 1 N 3. f (x): = f( x) 0 y<n f(x y)g(y) Then the following facts are easy to verify. a. f(x) = 0 m<n ˆf(m)e mx N b. f g(m) = ˆf(m)ĝ(m) c. f f (x) = 0 m<n ˆf(m) 2 mx e N d. 0 m<n ˆf(m) 2 = 1 N 0 m<n f(m) 2 Let f = χ R be the indicator function of the set R, i.e. χ R = 1, if x R, 0 otherwise. Then e. Supp(f f ) R R, and Supp(f f) 2R f. Supp(f f f f ) 2R 2R g. f f f f (x) = 0 m<n ˆf(m) 4 mx e N We also recall that the inner product of f and g is 4. f, g : = 1 N 0 x<n f(x)ḡ(x). and we have the L p -norm 5. f p : = ( 1 N 0 x<n f(x) p ) 1 p We call a set D = {r j } j Z N dissociated, if εj r j = 0 with ε j { 1, 0, 1}, then ε j = 0 for all j. (3.3) h. (Rudin) If D is dissociated, then n D nx a n e N p C p( a n 2 ) 1 2. n D 16

17 Lemma 3.1. Let R Z N with R = δn and let f = χ R be the indicator function of R. Let ρ be a constant. We define Γ: = {0 m < N ˆf(m) > ρδ} and let Λ be a maximal dissociated subset of Γ. Then Λ < ρ 2 log 1 δ. Proof. Let where g(x) = n Λ a n = nx a n e N, (3.4) ˆf(n) m Λ ˆf(m) 2. (3.5) Let p = p p 1. (3.6) Then Fact a, (3.4) and (3.5) give f p g p f, g = ā n ˆf(n) = n Λ ˆf(n) 2 n Λ m Λ ˆf(m) 2 = ˆf(n) 2 ρδ Λ. (3.7) n Λ The last inequality is from the definition of Γ which contains Λ. On the other hand, and f p p 1 = ( 1 N R 1) p 1 p = δ p 1 p (3.8) g p C p. (3.9) The last inequality follows from Fact h (Rudin). Putting these together, we have Now, choosing p = log 1 δ, we have the bound claimed. ρδ Λ C pδ p 1 p. (3.10) 17

18 Lemma 3.2. Let R Z N with R = δn and f = χ R, the indicator function of R. Let ρ be a constant. We define Γ: = {0 m < N ˆf(m) > ρδ}. Denote B = B(Γ, ε) = {x mx N < ε, for every m Γ}, where ε < 1 4. If ρ 2 δ 3 < 1 2πε 2 2πε 0 m<n ˆf(m) 4, then B 2R 2R. Proof. First, we note that from trignometry, for every x B, and for every m Γ mx 1 e N < 2πε. (3.11) To show B 2R 2R, by Fact f, it suffices to show that According to Fact g, it suffices to show Write m 0 m<n ˆf(m) 4 mx e N B Supp(f f f f ). (3.12) ˆf(m) 4 mx e N 0, for all x B. (3.13) = m Γ The idea is to show m Γ ˆf(m) 4 e is small. ˆf(m) 4 e m Γ mx N ˆf(m) 4 mx e N mx ˆf(m) 4 m Γ m Γ N + m Γ ˆf(m) 4 mx e N, (3.14) is big, while m Γ ˆf(m) 4 e = m Γ m Γ < 2πε m Γ ˆf(m) 4 mx e N ˆf(m) 4 mx (e N mx ˆf(m) 4 m Γ 1) ˆf(m) 4 mx e N 1 ˆf(m) 4. (3.15) N Therefore, ˆf(m) 4 e m Γ mx N > (1 2πε) ˆf(m) 4 m Γ = (1 2πε)( m 18 ˆf(m) 4 m Γ ˆf(m) 4 ). (3.16)

19 On the other hand, ˆf(m) 4 e m Γ mx N ˆf(m) 4. (3.17) m Γ The definition of Γ and Fact d give ˆf(m) 4 ρ 2 δ 2 m m Γ ˆf(m) 2 = ρ 2 δ 3. (3.18) Putting (3.16), (3.17) and (3.18) together, we have m ˆf(m) 4 e mx N ˆf(m) 4 e m Γ mx N ˆf(m) 4 e m Γ mx N > (1 2πε)( m ˆf(m) 4 m Γ ˆf(m) 4 ) m Γ ˆf(m) 4 = (1 2πε) m ˆf(m) 4 (2 2πε) m Γ ˆf(m) 4 (1 2πε) m ˆf(m) 4 (2 2πε)ρ 2 δ 3. (3.19) which is positive by our assumption. Lemma 3.3. Let R Z N with R = δn be as in inequalities (3.1) and (3.2), and let f = χ R be the indicator function of R. Then 0 m<n ˆf(m) 4 > δ3 8α. (3.20) Proof. We denote and f (2) : = f f, (3.21) S : = Suppf (2). (3.22) First, we note that Fact e, Proposition 1.3, and (3.1) give S 2R = 2A 1 2A α A < 8α R = 8αδN. (3.23) 19

20 Next, Facts b and d give ˆf(m) 4 = 0 m<n 0 m<n f (2) (m) 2 = 1 N f (2) (m) 2 = f (2) 2 2. (3.24) 0 m<n Now, Hölder s inequality and Definitions 2 and 4 give δ 2 = f (2) 1 f (2) 2 χ S 2 = f (2) 2 S N. (3.25) Putting (3.23), (3.24), (3.25) together, we have (3.20). In the following Lemma, we use the notation defined in either (1.18) or Lemma 3.2 for the Bohr neighborhood. Lemma 3.4. Let Γ be a subset of Z N, and let Λ Γ be a maximal dissociated subset with Λ = d. Then B(Λ, ε d ) B(Γ, ε). Proof. First, we notice that every m Γ can be represented as m = γ j m j, where γ j {0, 1, 1}. (3.26) m j Λ Let x B(Λ, ε d ). Then mx N γ j m j x N γ j ε d m j Λ m j Λ ε, (3.27) i.e. x B(Γ, ε) Proof of Proposition 2.1. To apply Lemma 3.2, we choose ρ such that 10 2 α < ρ 2 < 10 3 α, (3.28) and we choose ε = (3.29) Now, (3.28) and (3.29) imply ρ 2 < 1 100α 2πε < (1 2 2πε ) 1 8α. (3.30) 20

21 Lemma 3.3, and (3.30) imply that the hypothesis of Lemma 3.2 holds. Inequalities (3.1) and (3.2) give δ > Lemma 3.1, (3.28), and (3.31) give the bound (2.1) on d. 1. (3.31) 320α16 Now use Lemma 3.4 and Step 3. Substitute (3.29) in (1.19), we have (2.2), the bound on P. Remark. Compared with the usual argument presented in [Na] (Theorem 8.6), the method used above give a significant improvement of the dimension bound, i.e. d α(log α). It is not unreasonable however to conjecture estimates in Proposition 2.1 of the form d < (log α) C (in this respect, compare with comments in [F-H-R]). If true, one would obtain estimates d(α), log C(α) < α(log α) C in Freiman s theorem (which would be essentially optimal). SECTION 4. Proof of Theorem 2. Starting from Ruzsa s result [Ru], it is indicated in [Bi] how to pass to a proper progression of dimension [α 1]. Following this and the estimates in [Bi], the resulting estimate on P becomes log P A < α3 (log α). (4.1) In order to preserve the bound (1.10), we will proceed a bit more carefully. Here, we adopt terminology and notations from [Bi] and highlight a number of key estimates. For further details, the reader will have to consult [Bi]. First, we redefine a triple (m, B, ϕ). This means that m Z + (4.2) 21

22 B R m is a convex symmetric body such that dim(spanb Z m ) = m (4.3) ϕ : Z m Z is a group homomorphism. (4.4) A m-dimensional progression P is the image of a parallelepiped in Z m under the obvious ϕ. The property that ϕ being one- to-one implies that P is proper. To control the dimension of the progression, we use the argument in Section 9.3 of [Bi]. However, this argument only implies that A is in the image of a symmetric convex body. We use the proof of Theorem 1.2 (Section 3) in [Bi] for the construction of the parallelepiped. We start with the progression P 1 = P (q 1,..., q d ; l 1,..., l d ) obtained in Theorem 1. We let m 1 = d and let ϕ 1 : Z m 1 Z be the homomorphism defined by ϕ(e i ) = q i. Let B 1 be the box d i=1 [ l i + 1, l i 1]. Thus ϕ 1 (B 1 Z m 1 ) A (4.5) Vol m1 (B 1 ) 2 d l(p ) (4.6) hence m 1 and log Vol (B 1) A < Cα 2 (log α) 2. (4.7) First, we use the construction in the proof of Proposition 9.3 in Section 9.2 of [Bi] by letting T = 2 and we obtain a triple (m 2, B 2, ϕ 2 ) satisfying m 2 m 1 (4.8) ϕ 2 (B 2 Z m 2 ) A. (4.9) The restriction ϕ 2 T B2 Z m 2 is one-to-one, (4.10) and Vol m2 (B 2 ) (2m 1 T ) m 1 m 2 Vol m1 (B 1 ). (4.11) 22

23 Hence, from (4.7), log Vol (B 2) A Cd log α + log Vol (B 1) A < Cα 2 (log α) 3. (4.12) Next, follow [Bi], Section 9.3 and replace (m 2, B 2, ϕ 2 ) by (m, B, ϕ ) satisfying in particular Hence, from (4.12), m [α 1] (4.13) ϕ (B Z m A (4.14) ( ) m2 Vol m (B m2 ) m 2! Vol m2 2 (B 2). (4.15) log Vol B A Cα 2 (log α) 3. (4.16) At this stage, what we gain is the estimate (4.13) on the dimension. Next, we need to replace B 2 by a parallelepiped. We first apply the proof of Proposition 9.3 in [Bi] again with (m 1, B 1, ϕ 1 ) replaced by (m, B, ϕ ) and taking We get a triple (m, B, ϕ ) such that Hence, from (4.16), (4.17) log T = 2α([α]!) 2. (4.17) m m [α 1] (4.18) ϕ (B Z m ) A. (4.19) The restriction ϕ T B Zm is one-to one (4.20) Vol B A Vol m (B ) (2m T ) m m Vol m (B ). (4.21) Cα 2 log α + Cα 2 (log α) 3 < Cα 2 (log α) 3. (4.22) To replace the body B by a parallelepiped, we use the argument in Section 3 of [Bi]. This finally yields a proper m -dim progression A P satisfying ( ) m 3 P (m!) (m!) 2 Vol B (4.23) thus This proves Theorem m log P A Cα2 (log α) 3. (4.24) 23

24 References [B-1]. V. Bergelson, A. Liebman, Polynomial extensions of van der Waerden s and Szemerédi s theorem, J. AMS, Vol 9, N3 (1996), [Bi]. Y. Bilu, Structure of sets with small sumset, in Structure Theory of Set Addition, Astérisque 258 (1999), [Ch]. M. Chaimovich, New Structural approach to Integer Programming, a Survey, in Structure Theory of Set Addition, Astérisque 258 (1999). [Chan]. M.-C. Chang, Inequidimensionality of Hilbert schemes, Proceedings of AMS. [C-Z]. G. Cohen, G. Zemor, Subset sums and coding theory, in Structure Theory of Set Addition, Astérisque 258 (1999). [El]. G. Elekes, On the number of sums and products, Acta Arithmetica 81, Fase 4, (1997). [E-S]. P. Erdős, E. Szemerédi, On sums and products of integers, in Studies in Pure Mathematics, Birkhauser, Basel, (1983). [Fal]. K. Falconer, The geometry of Fractal sets, Cambridge UP (1986). [Fr]. G. Freiman, Foundations of a structural theory of set addition, Translations of Math. Monographs, 37, AMS, [F-H-R]. G. Freiman, H. Halberstam, I. Ruzsa, Integer sumsets containing long arithmetic progressions, JLMS (2), 46 (1992), no 2, [Fu]. H. Furstenberg, Ergodic behaviours of diagonal measures and a theorem of Szemerédi on arithmetic progressions, J. Analyse math. 31 (1977), [F-K-O]. H. Furstenberg, Y. Katznelson, D. Ornstein, The ergodic theoretical proof of Szemerédi s theorem, Bulletin AMS, 7 (1982), no 3, [G1]. [G2]. W.T. Gowers, A new proof of Szemerédi s theorem, preprint. [He]. M. Herzog, New results on subset multiplication in groups, in Structure Theory of Set Addition, Astérisque 258 (1999). [K-L-T]. N. Katz, I. Laba, T. Tao, An improved bound on the Minkowski dimension of Besicovitch sets in R 3, Annals of Math.. [K-T]. N. Katz, T. Tao, Some connections between the Falconer and Furstenburg conjectures, New York J. Math.. [L-R]. J. Lopez, K. Ross, Sidon sets, Marcel Dekker ed, Lecture Notes in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol 13 (1975). [Na]. M.B. Nathanson, Additive Number Theory: Sumsets, Springer (1996).. Inverse Problems and the Geometry of [N-T]. M. Nathanson, G. Tenenbaum, Inverse theorems and the number of sums and products, in Structure Theory of Set Addition, Astérisque 258 (1999). [Ro]. K. Roth, On certain sets of integers, J. London Math. Soc 28 (1953), [Ru1]. I. Ruzsa, Arithmetic progressions in sumsets, Acta Arithmetica 60 (1991), no 2,

25 [Ru2]. I. Ruzsa, Generalized arithmetic progressions and sumsets, Acta Math. Hungar. 65 (1994), no 4, [Ru3]. I. Ruzsa, An analog of Freiman s theorem in groups, in Structure Theory of Set Addition, Astérisque 258 (1999). [Sh]. S. Shelah, Primitive recursive bounds for van der Waerden numbers, J. AMS, Vol. 3 (1998), [Sz]. E. Szemerédi, On sets of integers containing no k elements in arithmetic progression, Acta Arith. 27 (1975), [S-T]. E. Szemerédi, W. Trotter, Extremal problems in discrete geometry, Combinatorica 3 (1983), [T]. T. Tao, From rotating needles to stability of waves: emerging connections between combinatorics, analysis, and PDE, Notices Amer. Math. Soc.. [VdW]. B.L. van der Waerden, Beweis einer Baudetsche Vermutung, Nieuw Arch. Wisk. 15 (1927), [W]. T. Wolff, Recent work connected with the Kakeya problem, in Prospects in mathematics, (Princeton, NJ, 1996), , AMS, Providence, RI (1999). 25

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