Table of Contents. Chapter One: IPM in Schools... 2 Study Guide... 2 Study Questions... 8 Answers... 12

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1 Table of Contents Chapter One: IPM in Schools... 2 Study Guide... 2 Study Questions... 8 Answers Chapter Two: Inspections and Monitoring...19 Study Guide Study Questions Answers Chapter Three: Communications Study Guide Study Questions Answers Chapter Four: Pest Prevention Study Guide Study Questions Answers Chapter Five: Control Tools...83 Study Guide Study Questions Answers This is the training manual for the QualityPro Schools technician and salesperson exam. QualityPro Schools is an additional program a company can join after becoming QualityPro. The QualityPro Schools requirement is that every technician on your team that works with schools must pass this exam whether or not they are certified in the state. There are five chapters in this manual, each focusing on aspect of school pest management. Chapter one is an introduction to Integrated Pest Management in Schools, Chapter Two looks at Inspections and Monitoring, Chapter Three examines Communications, Chapter Four focuses on Pest Prevention, and Chapter Five is about Control Tools. Each chapter is broken down into three sections. The first part of each chapter is an outline format discussion of the topic to help you review for the exam. The second part is the actual test questions these are the questions that will appear on the QualityPro Schools exam, although the exam will only have a fraction of the number of these questions. The third part of each chapter is explanations about the answers, and why the other answers are incorrect. [ version ] Again, the actual exam will be these exact questions the only trick is that you don t know which ones. Good luck! 1

2 Chapter study guide 1 IPM in Schools 1:1 1.1 WHAT IS IPM? 1) The term IPM stands for Integrated Pest Management. 2) Three themes run through IPM: a) Manage pests only when necessary. b) Choose methods and materials that pose low risk to people and the environment while providing long-term, effective control thus reducing the risk from the pest. c) IPM is a partnership between the pest control vendor and the client. 3) IPM is a process for achieving long-term control of pests using many different tools and practices, and using pesticides only when necessary. a) IPM differs most from traditional pest control in that it does not depend on automatic or calendar-based application of pesticides. b) IPM is primarily prevention of pests through pest proofing (exclusions), inspections, and upgrading sanitation. c) Control of existing pests depends on nonchemical techniques as a first choice, things such as traps, vacuums, and moisture control are just a few examples. d) When pesticides need to be used, technicians must begin a whole new decision-making process to choose products and application methods that minimize risks to people, especially children in schools, and the environment. e) IPM often uses action thresholds, a level of pest at which an IPM technician takes action to reduce a pest s numbers, and below which no direct control action is taken. f) IPM clients need to take nonchemical recommendations seriously and implement them as long as they are economical and practical, i.e. installing door sweeps, fixing torn screens, etc. 4) Different people define IPM in different ways. a) The details of IPM programs can vary widely depending on the site and the philosophy of the parties involved. b) IPM in schools has become a hot political issue for many organizations, especially those opposed to the use of pesticides, and those that market pest control supplies and services. c) IPM is NOT a pesticide-free option for controlling pests; there are times when pesticides are necessary and so they are a legitimate tool to be used in IPM. d) When pesticide use does become necessary, it is not as simple as using whatever pesticide the technician chooses. Instead, the pesticide and the application methods should be based on those that will minimize risk from toxicity and exposure. 2

3 chapter 1: study guide e) IPM is also NOT, as some believe, the casual use of two or more methods of control, such as pest exclusion and baits. It is a decision-making process leading to control strategies. 5) IPM poses less risk and is more effective than traditional pest control. 6) IPM is more complex than traditional pest control. a) IPM requires a different mindset on the part of both technicians and school staff. b) IPM is proactive (acting to prevent pest problems) rather than reactive (responding to a pest problem). c) IPM in a school requires institutional coordination and staff cooperation. d) IPM requires expert training and different supplies. 7) IPM programs place a different emphasis than do traditional pest control programs on the various actions and tactics used in pest control. a) Monitoring for pests and conditions contributing to pests is of critical importance in IPM, and far more time will be spent by an IPM technician inspecting in a school than in killing pests. b) Technicians are decision-makers in IPM programs; they determine what to do and how to do it. c) Communications are far more detailed and more time-consuming than in traditional pest control, meaning detailed record-keeping, various types of reports and logs, and education of school personnel and sometimes even students. d) Pest prevention through improved sanitation and pest exclusion is emphasized. e) Nonchemical tools and tactics are emphasized. f) Pesticides are used only when necessary, and then only those that pose the lowest risks to children, staff, and the environment. 8) The following couplets illustrate the differences between IPM and traditional pest control in schools: a) IPM program insecticides are used only when necessary and low hazard products are given priority. The technician has much greater freedom in selecting the pesticides and procedure to be used. Traditional pest control does not necessarily give priority to low hazard products. b) In IPM, the application of pesticides is justified after nonchemical efforts have been deemed to be insufficient. Traditional pest control programs allow pesticides to be used as the first line of defense without trying nonchemical tactics first. c) IPM requires that clients implement technician recommendations in order to solve or prevent pest problems. Traditional pest control does not require client cooperation. d) IPM is dependent on the client being an actively participating partner in the program. Traditional pest control is more of a client/vendor relationship. e) IPM program pesticide exposure risk generally is low for all parties. Traditional pest control has a variable risk of pesticide exposure. f) IPM requirements for education and training are required. Traditional pest control requirements for education and training are variable. g) IPM paperwork requirements are extensive (logbooks, service reports, summary reports, etc). Traditional pest control paperwork requirements can be limited to a few basic comments or a service ticket. h) IPM programs require periodic formal reviews/evaluations. Traditional pest control does not require periodic formal reviews/evaluations. 3

4 1:2 1.2 WHY IPM IN SCHOOLS? 1) We, as a society, have become increasingly less willing to accept health risks, even very small ones, from contaminants in the food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe or in the buildings we occupy. a) The public is especially concerned about children s health and well-being. 2) Parents, medical professionals, and policy makers want children s exposure to pesticides to be minimal. a) The use of pesticide sprays, dusts, and other formulations around children, or in areas where children play or study, troubles many parents, medical professionals, and policy makers. b) The medical community feels that children may be more sensitive to pesticides, and so more likely to become ill from excessive exposure. c) Young children, in particular, are more likely to be exposed to pesticide residues by crawling on the floor or by transferring pesticide residues from treatment surfaces to their mouths. d) IPM minimizes pesticide usage and reduces potential exposure to pesticides in the school environment. 3) The pest management industry has been switching to IPM in many sensitive accounts, especially schools, hospitals, and food plants. a) Many school districts, perhaps even most school districts, have IPM programs in their schools, and the number will increase. b) Pest management companies that have adopted IPM programs not only report a reduction in their use of pesticides, but a significant improvement in their level of control. 4) There are many benefits to IPM in schools, including the following: a) IPM reduces pesticide exposure for students, teachers, and other school staff. b) IPM reduces environmental impacts from pesticides. c) IPM provides effective, long-term control of pests. d) IPM prevents pests from becoming a problem in the first place. e) IPM identifies structural, sanitation, and operational problems at schools and thus helps schools to prevent other problems, such as heat loss, food contamination, poor trash management, security breaches. f) IPM is personally rewarding to technicians because working in IPM programs is more challenging, satisfying, and has a better image with the public than does traditional pest control service. 1:3 1) Certain barriers may complicate a successful 1.3 BARRIERS TO IPM IN SCHOOLS transition from traditional pest control in a school to an effective IPM program. 2) IPM programs require collaboration between many parties including the pest management professionals, school administration, custodial staff, food service staff, maintenance staff, principals, teachers, and even students. 3) A fairly common shortcoming of IPM programs is that problems are identified, but the required action is not undertaken by custodians, maintenance staff, or other school personnel. a) An administrative mechanism is needed to ensure that sanitation or structural problems contributing to pests are corrected. b) School administrators and principals must actively cooperate and insist on 4

5 chapter 1: study guide staff cooperation and proper budgeting for IPM service and supplies. c) School staff must be willing to upgrade sanitation, repair structural problems, and follow other recommendations to prevent pest problems or else the IPM program simply will not work. 4) The different groups and individuals affected by an IPM program in a school may have different ideas of what IPM means. a) A common problem when IPM programs start up is that some groups believe that no pesticides should be allowed in IPM programs, or that only organic materials are acceptable. b) Other individuals or groups do not accept the concept of action thresholds that there are levels of certain pests that are acceptable and which do not require immediate or direct pest control action. c) Others may feel that IPM doesn t work and is a waste of time, and that pesticides are the only effective method to control pest problems. i) When pest problems arise, school staff may insist that technicians fog the infested area rather than follow IPM guidelines. 5) Most technicians will need additional training and technical resources to become proficient in IPM strategies, particularly in: a) inspection and monitoring techniques b) nonchemical tactics c) low exposure pesticide application methods d) communications and record keeping i) Technicians need much better communication skills than are typical in pest control. ii) Record keeping requirements are extensive and many technicians resist doing the paperwork necessary for IPM programs to work. iii) Record keeping requirements may also increase the need for computer resources and support staff. 6) IPM programs require a wider range of equipment and supplies because many more alternative methods of inspection and control are used. 7) IPM programs often require a more in-depth understanding of pest biology and behavior in order to determine which nonchemical measures are likely to be effective. 1.4 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN SCHOOL IPM 1) The pest management company is responsible for the following: a) proposing the IPM program b) inspecting and monitoring the school for pests and conditions contributing to pests c) record keeping d) communicating information related to pest management e) performing pest management, both nonchemical and with pesticides when necessary. 2) IPM technicians have a long list of responsibilities: a) to be proficient at pest identification, inspections, and IPM tools and tactics b) to know good IPM tactics for controlling typical pests of the school c) to control pests while reducing the hazards of pests and pesticide exposure to students and staff d) to protect the environment e) to communicate with school staff on IPM-related issues f) to post notices of pesticide application, if required 1:4 5

6 g) to keep detailed records h) to regularly reevaluate the success of their IPM activities. 3) IPM requires commitment, communication, and cooperation from the school, including from administrators, faculty, staff, and even parents and students in order to succeed. a) Each group has certain responsibilities to meet in order for IPM to be successful at the school. 4) Administrators are responsible for providing the financial and personnel commitments necessary for IPM to succeed. a) If administrators do not show support for the switch to IPM, staff is not likely to cooperate, simply because it takes more effort on their part when pests are managed through IPM than by traditional pest control. b) Administrators need to take action when persistent sanitation problems are not being corrected, or requests for building repairs ( pestproofing ) are repeatedly ignored. 5) The principal is the key player at each individual school. a) The principal must ensure that their school s faculty, staff, and students buy into the program and cooperate with the IPM technicians. b) The principal must review reports and information, and otherwise stay informed about IPM activity at the school. 6) Many schools will appoint an IPM coordinator or liaison to act for school administration. Typical responsibilities for this staff person would be: a) regular review and evaluation of IPM policies and procedures to ensure that IPM service is meeting the needs of the school system b) coordination with other staff to provide IPM-related information to faculty and staff throughout the school system c) ensuring that each school is undertaking the housekeeping, sanitation, and repair actions necessary to reduce or prevent pest problems d) oversight of the public notification procedures related to pesticide application e) coordination with principals and administration to carry out IPM education of students and parents, and training of staff f) addressing conflicts and complaints related to the IPM program and pesticide use 7) Teachers have three possible responsibilities related to the IPM program. a) Practice and encourage good sanitation practices: eating in food areas, cleaning up leftover food and food debris, minimizing clutter, and the like to help prevent pest problems form occurring. b) Report in the logbook any pest sightings, problems, or conditions that might favor pests. c) Communicate the principles, objectives, and tactics of IPM to students. i) They may even, at times, incorporate IPM into their classroom lessons since IPM relates to environmental studies and to public health. 8) Students need to cooperate with the IPM program by eating only in assigned areas, cleaning up food debris from tables and lockers, and putting trash in proper trash receptacles. a) Students also have a role in learning about IPM, and reporting pest problems to their teachers or other staff members. 9) Parents are their children s natural advocates. a) Parents may seek information about the school s IPM program. b) Parents may participate in advisory committees that address pest-related issues. 6

7 chapter 1: study guide c) Parents may request that they be notified in advance of certain pesticide applications. 10) School custodians have primary responsibility for sanitation and trash management in most school areas. a) Custodians need to understand the connection between pest problems and food, standing water, and clutter. b) Custodians need to respond to requests from IPM technicians for housekeeping or trash management action. c) Custodians need to report any pest problems they notice, either by writing in the logbook, or by personal communication with an IPM technician. 11) School maintenance staff have responsibility for making repairs and correcting structural problems that are or could be contributing to pests, and reporting any pest problems that they observe. a) School maintenance staff should pestproof walls, doors, windows, and other areas that are allowing pests to enter the building or move from room to room. b) School maintenance staff should correct leaks or condensation problems contributing to pests 12) Cafeteria managers need to cooperate with the IPM program by responding to sanitation improvement requests from IPM technicians, and they should report any pest problems that they observe. 7

8 Chapter study questions 1 IPM in Schools 1) The initial I in IPM stands for: a) Insect b) Integrated c) Insecticide 2) Which statement is NOT a theme of an IPM program? a) manage pests only when necessary b) choose methods and materials that pose low risk to people and the environment while providing long-term, effective control c) all pesticide applications are eliminated without exception 3) IPM differs most from traditional pest control service in that: a) it combines two or more methods of control b) it uses vacuums and traps c) it does not depend on automatic application of pesticides 4) IPM is primarily about of pests rather than waiting until the problem needs attention. a) prevention b) elimination c) identification 5) Which of the following tactics is NOT a preferred way to prevent pests in an IPM program? a) weekly perimeter treatment b) exclusion c) upgrading sanitation 6) Which one of these is a major component of an IPM program? a) pesticides are applied on a regular schedule b) materials used pose low risk to people 1:11.1 WHAT IS IPM? c) pestproofing is done as a followup after controls have been implemented 7) Which one of these is a chemical control method used for cockroaches? a) vacuuming b) pestproofing c) bait application d) trapping 8) Which statement is TRUE? a) IPM eliminates the use of all pesticides b) IPM uses only pesticide baits c) IPM is a safer alternative than traditional pest control methods 9) Which one of these statements accurately describes an IPM program? a) IPM is simpler than traditional pest control b) IPM requires no special training c) IPM is procactive in preventing pest problems 10) In a school IPM program, the technician will spend most of the time: a) monitoring and inspecting for pests b) placing baits c) choosing pesticides d) measuring application amounts 11) In a school IPM program, the person who decides when to implement controls is the: a) principal b) IPM technician c) head of maintenance 12) In the event that pesticide usage is necessary, which one of the following pesticide applications is the best choice for controlling insects in a school IPM program if reduced exposure is required? a) fan spray b) fogging c) void treatment d) baseboard treatment 8

9 chapter 1: study questions 13) In an IPM program, the risk of pesticide exposure is often higher than that of a traditional pest control program. 14) IPM requires expert training and different supplies. 15) Which of the following statements best illustrates the differences between IPM in schools and traditional pest control. a) IPM philosophy is to react to pest problems, traditional pest control philosophy is to prevent pest problems. b) IPM emphasizes baits, traditional pest control depends on sprays. c) IPM priority is to look at all approaches, traditional pest control gives a higher priority to pesticide application. 16) Which statement about IPM in schools is TRUE? a) IPM technicians follow the same control procedures at every service visit b) pesticides are only used to prevent pests c) to be effective, IPM requires institutional coordination and staff cooperation :2 1.2 WHY IPM IN SCHOOLS? 1) Which one of these statements is TRUE? a) Children have a higher tolerance for exposure to pesticides b) People today are more willing to accept health risks c) Young children are considered to be at greater risk as a result of exposure to pesticides than adults 2) Besides schools, which one of these accounts would be the most likely candidate for an IPM program because of risk and exposure to possible chemical application? a) hospital b) mini-storage facility c) lumber yard 3) Which one of these is NOT true about IPM in schools? a) IPM identifies sanitation problems in schools b) IPM means pesticides are applied on a regular schedule regardless of evidence of infestation c) IPM means people are exposed to less pesticide d) IPM means improved control of pests 4) Why are younger children more likely than older children to be exposed to traditional insecticide sprays in their school? a) they have more-developed immune systems b) their classrooms are sprayed more often while they are present c) they are more likely to transfer residues from treated surfaces to their mouths 5) What is the primary concern of medical professionals related to pest control in schools? a) the use of pesticides where children play and study b) the presence of ants in classrooms c) the high cost of pest control 6) Why is the pest control industry changing from traditional pest control to IPM in their school accounts? a) an IPM program means less time spent at the site b) an increasing number of school systems recommend or mandate IPM c) IPM is an easier concept to sell d) all of the above 7) What effect does switching to IPM typically have on how well pests are controlled in a school: a) doesn t make any difference b) control goes down slightly c) significantly improved 8) Besides reducing pesticide exposure and improving control, what positive effects can IPM programs have on school operations? a) help prevent heat loss b) improve security c) reduce food contamination d) all of the above 1.3 BARRIERS TO IPM IN SCHOOLS? can1:3 1) One of the advantages to a school IPM program, as opposed to a traditional pest control progam, is that an IPM program 9

10 be run successfully with almost no input from school staff. 2) School administrators are involved in the IPM program to: a) put out sticky traps b) ensure that problems contributing to pests are corrected c) decide when and where pesticides will be used 3) One of the main concepts of IPM is that: a) only organic pesticides may be used b) only nonchemical controls are allowed c) certain pests may be acceptable at low levels 4) An IPM program generally requires paperwork than a traditional pest control program. a) more b) less c) about the same 5) IPM programs require a wider range of equipment than traditional pest control programs. 6) Which of the following statements is TRUE about IPM in schools? a) only organic pesticides can be used in student areas b) pesticides are the most effective method of control c) school administrators must insist on staff cooperation 7) A common barrier to IPM success in schools is that: a) some staff members will insist that technicians fog whenever a pest problem arises b) reduced use of pesticides in IPM means less effective control c) too much time is spent on paperwork 8) In which areas do pest control technicians typically need additional training in order to become proficient at IPM? a) inspection and monitoring techniques b) communications c) low exposure pesticide application methods d) all of the above 9) Which one of the following is NOT a common problem for school IPM programs? a) school staff is unwilling to upgrade sanitation b) the maintenance department will not repair damaged walls c) nonchemical tactics prove ineffective d) the principal refuses to insist on staff cooperation 1:4 1) In a school IPM program, it is the job of the 1.4 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN SCHOOL IPM? to keep written records about pest problems, actions taken, and notes. a) custodian b) IPM technician c) teacher d) principal 2) In a school IPM program, it is the job of the to provide the financial and personnel commitments necessary for IPM to succeed. a) custodian b) IPM technician c) teacher d) school administrators 3) Which one of these is NOT the sole responsibility of the pest management company in a school IPM program? a) proposing the program b) inspecting and monitoring c) communicating with school staff d) repairing structural deficiencies 4) In a school IPM program, it is the job of the to make sure that all school staff cooperate with the program. a) custodian b) teacher c) IPM technician d) principal 5) Managing pests through IPM makes the job of the school maintenance staff easier than under a traditional pest control program. 10

11 chapter 1: study questions 6) Students are the only part of the school community that doesn t play an active role in a school IPM program. 7) The staff person that has primary responsibility for sanitation and trash management in most areas of a school is the: a) custodian b) head of maintenance c) teacher d) cafeteria manager 8) Which one of these individuals has the most important role in educating students about IPM? a) parent b) teacher c) principal 9) The primary job of a school s IPM coordinator is to provide the financial backing for the IPM program. 10) Which of the following is a typical role for school custodians in an IPM program? a) coordinating IPM-related information with faculty b) notification of pesticide application c) responding to sanitation reports from the IPM technician d) all of the above 11) Which of the following is a typical responsibility for teachers in an IPM program? a) encouraging good sanitation practices b) reporting pest sightings c) explaining IPM to students d) all of the above 12) Which of the following is a normal role for some parents in a school IPM program? a) coordinating IPM-related information with faculty b) participating in advisory committees c) reporting pest problems d) all of the above 13) Which of the following is a typical role for school maintenance personnel in an IPM program? a) fixing leaks b) pestproofing openings that allow pest entry or movement c) reporting pest problems d) all of the above 14) Which of the following is a typical role for an IPM technician in an IPM program? a) communicating with school staff b) fixing leaks c) cleaning up spilled food d) all of the above 15) Who typically addresses conflicts and complaints related to pesticide use in an IPM program? a) IPM technician b) IPM coordinator c) head custodian d) any of the above 16) Who typically oversees the public notification procedures related to pesticide application in an IPM program? a) IPM technician b) IPM coordinator c) head custodian d) any of the above 17) Who typically reports pest sightings or problems in the IPM logbook? a) IPM technician b) teacher c) head custodian d) any of the above 18) Who has primary responsibility for reducing the hazards of pests and pesticide exposure in a school IPM program? a) IPM technician b) IPM coordinator c) head custodian d) any of the above 11

12 Chapter answers 1 IPM in Schools 1:1 1.1 WHAT IS IPM? 12 1) Answer b) is correct. Various methods and tactics are integrated together to achieve long-term, effective control while posing low risk to people and the environment. Answer a) is incorrect because IPM is not limited to insects but deals with all pests. Answer c) is incorrect because, while insecticides may be used in IPM, they are only one tool among many, and the proper name of IPM is Integrated Pest Management 2) Answer c) is correct. All pesticide applications are not eliminated in IPM programs. Answer a) is incorrect because it IS a theme of IPM to manage pests only when necessary. Answer b) is incorrect because IPM technicians SHOULD be choosing methods and materials that pose low risk to people and the environment while providing long-term, effective control. 3) Answer c) is correct. Automatic application of pesticides is in total conflict with the philosophy of IPM which requires that you only use pesticides only when necessary. Answer a) is incorrect because, while in IPM you may use two or more methods of control, the same can be said of traditional pest control. Answer b) is incorrect because, while in IPM you may use vacuums and traps, you may also do so in traditional pest control (especially traps), and you can theoretically conduct an IPM program without using vacuums or traps. 4) Answer a) is correct. The goal of IPM programs in schools is to prevent pests through pestproofing and sanitation rather that reacting to pest problems once they become established. Answer b) is incorrect because eliminating pests is a reactive process and deals with the pest problem after it occurs; besides, not all pest problems require such extreme action and effort as pest elimination : think of the effort to eliminate one fly in a school gymnasium. Answer c) is incorrect because pest identification is only a first step in dealing with a pest problem. 5) Answer a) is correct. Weekly perimeter treatment is not a preferred way to prevent pests because it is an automatic application of a pesticide, because nonchemical techniques such as pest-proofing (exclusion) should be a first choice, and because perimeter treatment puts a great deal of insecticide onto an area that children could access, the outside perimeter of the building. Answer b) is incorrect because exclusion is a preferred tactic in IPM since it requires no pesticide and it results in longterm control and pest prevention. Answer c) is incorrect because upgrading sanitation is also a primary tactic to achieve long-term control and pest prevention. 6) Answer b) is correct. Any materials or methods used in an IPM program must be chosen because they pose a low risk to people, nontarget animals, and the environment. Answer a) is incorrect because, in an IPM program, pests are controlled only when necessary, not on a scheduled basis. Answer c) is incorrect because prevention of pest problems through measures such as pestproofing should be a first step in an IPM program.

13 chapter 1: answers 7) Answer c) is correct. Bait application is a chemical control method since cockroach baits do contain pesticides. Answer a) is incorrect because vacuuming is a useful nonchemical control for cockroaches. Answer b) is incorrect because sealing openings around pipes and in other areas is a nonchemical control that can help prevent movement of cockroaches. Answer d) is incorrect because sticky traps are a good nonchemical control measure for low level infestations or in sites where pesticides cannot be used. 8) Answer c) is correct. This is the true statement because IPM does not mean application of pesticides on a regular basis. Pesticides are used only when necessary and the products used are those that present the least risk. Answer a) is not true because pesticides can still be used in an IPM program if other control measures are not effective. Answer b) is not true because, while baits may be a part of an IPM program, other pesticides can be used as well. 9) Answer c) is correct. An IPM program works to prevent pest problems in the first place rather than simply responding to the problem after it has occurred. Answer a) is incorrect because IPM is more complex than traditional pest control since it requires special training, ongoing monitoring, data evaluation and decision making, and record keeping, in addition to implementation of various control measures. Answer b) is incorrect because a good IPM technician needs special training and education above and beyond that of a regular technician. 10) Answer a) is correct. An IPM technician should spend most of the time at the school inspecting for pests and problems contributing to pests. Answer b) is incorrect because, while baits may be used in an IPM program, they are used only when necessary and as a result of continuous monitoring. Answer c) is incorrect since pesticides are a last resort in a school IPM program, and therefore, should not require most of the effort. Answer d) is incorrect because, measuring application amounts may be necessary, a technician should be spending far more time monitoring for pest problems and implementing nonchemical controls. 11) Answer b) is correct. The technician is the decision-maker in an IPM program. He/she is the one with the knowledge of conditions and pest problems at the site. Answer a) is incorrect because, while the principal might be consulted, pest control decisions should be left to the IPM technician. Answer c) is incorrect because, while maintenance staff play an important role in an IPM program, the IPM technician has the necessary knowledge to manage the pests. 12) Answer c) is correct. A void treatment places pesticide inside an enclosed space such as a wall or ceiling void where pests are hiding but that is out of the reach of children. It minimizes the amount of airborne pesticide. Answer a) is incorrect because a fan spray is not targeted to areas where pests hide. Answer b) is incorrect because fogging places large amounts of pesticide in the air and only kills pests that are out in the open. Answer d) is incorrect because a baseboard spray does not reach insects that are hiding in cracks and crevices, or voids. 13) Answer b) is correct. This statement is false because, unlike traditional pest control, in an IPM program, pesticides are used only when necessary. Then, low risk products are chosen and are applied in a manner that reduces exposure to people. 14) Answer a) is correct. Pest control technicians new to IPM typically require additional training in monitoring, nonchemical tactics, low exposure pesticide application methods, communications, and IPM record keeping. 15) Answer c) is correct. IPM seeks to prevent pests and minimize pesticide exposure risks so that technicians consider all approaches, both nonchemical and chemical, while in traditional pest control, priority is given to 13

14 pesticide application because that tends to be easy, quick, and responsive to complaints. Answer a) is incorrect because IPM is not primarily reactive but proactive, meaning that it tries to prevent pest problems in the first place or address them very early before a pest problem becomes serious. Answer b) is incorrect because, while IPM may use baits rather than sprays and dusts, IPM priority will always be on pest prevention. 16) Answer c) is correct. This statement is true because IPM in a school requires institutional coordination and staff cooperation to correct structural deficiencies, improve sanitation, and follow the various other recommendations that help prevent or minimize pests; without these improvements, IPM cannot work. Answer a) is not true because IPM technicians change their actions based on pest levels and current conditions. Answer b) is not true because pesticides are rarely used in a preventive way. They are used when necessary to control existing pests over the action threshold level. 1:21.2 WHY IPM IN SCHOOLS? 1) Answer c) is correct. This statement is true because young children crawl on the floor and touch many surfaces and then put their hands in their mouths, transferring pesticide residues. Answer a) is not true because children have less body weight and less ability to detoxify contaminants and so are more likely to become ill from pesticide exposure. Answer b) is not true because people are less willing today to accept even small health risks from contaminants in their environment. 2) Answer a) is correct. IPM programs are most useful and most desired in sensitive accounts like schools and hospitals where the residents are more sensitive than the general population to pesticides. Answer b) is incorrect because, while almost all accounts can benefit from an IPM program, there are not the same concerns about pesticide exposure in a mini-storage facility where people are rarely present. Answer c) is incorrect because, while almost all accounts can benefit from an IPM program, there are not the same concerns about pesticide exposure in a lumber yard where people only spend a short period of time, and it is mostly outdoors. 3) Answer b) is correct. Regular application of pesticides is not a benefit of an IPM program. IPM s goal is to reduce the amount of pesticide used in a school. Answer a) is incorrect because an IPM program does identify structural, sanitation, and operational problems through regular monitoring. Answer c) is incorrect because an IPM program does reduce pesticide exposure for students, teachers, and other school staff. Answer d) is incorrect because an IPM program generally does result in effective, long-term control of pests while using less pesticide. 4) Answer c) is correct. Young children often crawl around at floor level where most insecticide residues are applied and they commonly put their hands in their mouths. Answer a) is incorrect because their immune system does not affect how much they are exposed to an insecticide, only to what degree that exposure affects their health. The younger the child, the less developed the immune system. Answer b) is incorrect because classrooms should never be sprayed with pesticide when children are present, regardless of their age. 5) Answer a) is correct. Medical professionals want children s exposure to pesticides to be minimal and they worry about the use of pesticide sprays, dusts, and other formulations around children, or in areas where children play or study. Answer b) is incorrect because, while the presence of any pest can be a health, most medical professionals seem to see far more of a health threat to students from pesticides. Answer c) is incorrect because cost of pest service is of little interest to medical professionals. 14

15 chapter 1: answers 6) Answer b) is correct. Many states require or recommend that schools control pests through IPM, and many other school systems are requiring IPM as well, and the number continues to grow. Answer a) is incorrect because IPM typically requires more time at the site on the part of the technician. Answer c) is incorrect because IPM is more often a hard concept to sell because it is different, it often costs more, and it requires more cooperation from school personnel. 7) Answer c) is correct. It often surprises those not familiar with IPM, but switching to a school IPM program nearly always results in a significant improvement in pest problems at the school. Answers a) and b) are incorrect because pests almost never stay the same or get worse if a real IPM program is undertaken. 8) Answer d) is correct. IPM identifies structural, sanitation, and operational problems at schools and thus helps schools to prevent other problems, such as heat loss, food contamination, poor trash management, security breaches. Most schools are pleasantly surprised to discover these unexpected benefits. 1:3 1) Answer b) is correct. This statement is false 1.3 BARRIERS TO IPM IN SCHOOLS because an IPM program requires even more input and cooperation from staff. Typically, the school administration, custodial staff, food service staff, maintenance staff, even teachers, need to be involved in the program. 2) Answer b) is correct. School principals and other administrative staff must see that recommendations for corrective action are followed through by maintenance staff, custodians, and others. Answer a) is incorrect because it is the job of the IPM technician to apply all pest control measures, whether chemical or nonchemical. Answer c) is incorrect because, again, it is the job of the IPM technician to evaluate the situation through monitoring and to decide if pesticides are necessary. 3) Answer c) is correct. Depending on the pest, low pest levels may not require any control action at all. The action threshold for the particular pest determines when control will be implemented. Answer a) is incorrect because various types of pesticides may be used when needed. It s important, however, to select pesticides that pose the least risk. Answer b) is incorrect because pesticides are allowed in an IPM program if there is a demonstrated need and if other nonchemical controls have not been effective. 4) Answer a) is correct. An IPM program requires more paperwork, including maintaining an IPM logbook, regular monitoring reports, service reports, and summary reports. Answer b) is incorrect because traditional pest control may require only a service ticket for each job. IPM is much more involved. Answer c) is incorrect because IPM has many more facets than traditional pest control, each requiring record keeping. 5) Answer a) is correct. This statement is true. Since an IPM program uses many different types of controls and more extensive inspections, it requires a wider range of equipment and supplies. 6) Answer c) is correct. This statement is true because without staff cooperation on sanitation issues, structural problems, and other pest management issues, IPM cannot be successful. Answer a) is incorrect because the choice of pesticides in schools is based on a pesticide s potential exposure risk to students and others, not on whether or not it is organic. Answer b) is incorrect because pesticides are only short-term solutions to pest problems. 7) Answer a) is correct. In every school there will be certain staff members, even sometimes the principal, who will sneer at IPM tactics and insist that any pest 15

16 infestation requires intensive pesticide applications and fogging or fumigating. Answer b) is incorrect because reduced use of pesticides does not mean less effective control; IPM programs typical improve the level of control in schools significantly. Answer c) is incorrect because paperwork is part of the communication process in IPM, which improves school cooperation and the success of pest management. 8) Answer d) is correct. IPM programs emphasize different tactics and require different skills from technicians. Most technicians will need additional training and technical resources to become proficient in IPM strategies, particularly in those subjects that are emphasized in IPM such as inspection and monitoring techniques, nonchemical management tactics (from pestproofing to trapping strategy), low exposure pesticide application methods, and communications and record keeping. Technicians need much better communication skills than are typical in pest control. 9) Answer c) is correct. This is not a common problem because nonchemical tactics, when done properly, are typically more effective than weekly or monthly application of insecticides and other practices common in traditional pest control programs in schools. Answer a) is incorrect because it IS a common problem at the beginning of an IPM program for staff to be unwilling to upgrade sanitation ( Controlling pests is your job, not ours!) and this can make pest management very difficult. Answer b) is incorrect because it IS a common problem in school IPM programs for the maintenance department to ignore the requests for wall repairs, etc. made by the IPM technician because of the maintenance workload. Answer d) is incorrect because it IS a common problem for the principal to ignore the IPM program and so not insist on staff compliance. All these common problems need to be addressed and overcome for IPM to be effective in a school. 1:4 1) Answer b) is correct. Most recordkeeping is 1.4 ROLES AND RESPOINSIBILITIES IN SCHOOL IPM the responsibility of the IPM technician and includes such records as IPM service reports, sanitation reports, corrective action notices, and entries in the logbook. Answer a) is incorrect because the primary record keeping responsibility of the custodian is to make pest reporting entries in the logbook and to note when corrective actions have been taken. Answer c) is incorrect because the primary record keeping responsibility of a teacher is to make pest reporting entries in the logbook. Answer d) is incorrect because the primary record keeping responsibility of the principal is typically to report to the pest management company on shortcomings of the program from the school s perspective. 2) Answer d) is correct. Administrators are responsible for providing the financial and personnel commitments necessary for IPM to succeed. If administrators do not show support for the switch to IPM, staff is not likely to cooperate, simply because it takes more effort on their part when pests are managed through IPM than by traditional pest control. Answer a) is incorrect, because school custodians have primary responsibility for sanitation and trash management in most school areas. Answer b) is incorrect because the IPM technician is responsible for the technical operations of the program. Answer c) is incorrect because teachers have three possible responsibilities related to the IPM program: practice and encourage good sanitation practices, report in the logbook any pest sightings, problems, or conditions that might favor pests, explain the principles, objectives, and tactics of IPM to students. 3) Answer d) is correct. The pest management company should point out structural problems and make recommendations, but the actual repairs are the responsibility of the school. 16

17 chapter 1: answers Answer a) is incorrect because proposing the IPM program is the responsibility of the pest management company. Answer b) is incorrect because the company is responsible for inspecting the site and performing ongoing monitoring of conditions there. Answer c) is incorrect because the company and the technician must communicate information related to pest management. 4) Answer d) is correct. It is up to principal to make sure that school staff cooperates. The IPM technician can seek that cooperation but it can only be enforced by the principal or other senior school administrator. Answer a) is incorrect because the custodian can see that the maintenance staff cooperates but cannot oversee the entire school staff. Answer b) is incorrect because teachers are responsible for enlisting cooperation from their classroom and their students, but not the entire staff. Answer c) is incorrect because, while the IPM technician can encourage cooperation, he or she does not have the authority to demand it. 5) Answer b) is correct. This statement is false because it generally takes more effort on the part of school staff to be part of a successful IPM program. Maintenance staff will likely have to do extensive pestproofing and correct water leaks to prevent pest problems. 6) Answer b) is correct. This statement is false because students have a role in learning about IPM, reporting pest problems, cleaning food out of lockers, eating only in designated areas, and putting trash into the proper containers. 7) Answer a) is correct. The school custodian is the individual who generally responds to requests from the IPM technician for school-wide improvements in housekeeping or trash management. Answer b) is incorrect because the maintenance department generally is responsible for repairing structural problems. Answer c) is incorrect because teachers are responsible for trash management only in their individual classrooms. Answer d) is incorrect because the cafeteria manager is responsible for sanitation only in the cafeteria area. 8) Answer b) is correct. Teachers are in the best position to explain to students the principles, objectives, and tactics of IPM. They can even make it part of their classroom lessons since the concept of IPM is directly tied to the environment and public health. Answer a) is incorrect because, while parents can discuss IPM with their children, they have less direct contact with or knowledge of the school program. Answer c) is incorrect because although the principal is involved in the IPM program, he/she does not have the same level of communication with students as a teacher. 9) Answer b) is correct. This is a false statement because the IPM coordinator is a school staff person who acts as a liaison between school administration and the pest management company. He or she reviews the program, coordinates with staff, educates staff, sees that recommendations are followed, reports problems, etc. but is not directly responsible for financing the program. 10) Answer c) is correct. School custodians have primary responsibility for sanitation and trash management in most school areas. Answer a) is incorrect because coordinating IPM information with the faculty is the responsibility of the IPM coordinator. Answer b) is incorrect because notification of pesticide application is the responsibility of the IPM coordinator. Answer d), all of the above, is incorrect because a) and b) are incorrect. 11) Answer d) is correct. Teachers have three possible responsibilities related to the IPM program: practice and encourage good sanitation practices, report in the logbook any pest sightings, problems, or conditions that might favor pests, explain the principles, objectives, and tactics of IPM to students. 17

18 chapter 1: answers 12) Answer b) is correct. Parents are their children s natural advocates. They may seek information about the school s IPM program, participate in advisory committees that address pest-related issues, request that they be notified in advance of certain pesticide applications. Answer a) is incorrect because coordinating IPM-related information with faculty is the responsibility of the IPM coordinator. Answer c) is incorrect because reporting pest problems is the responsibility of those in the school. Answer d) is incorrect because a) and c) are incorrect. 13) Answer d) is correct. School maintenance staff have responsibility for making repairs and correcting structural problems that are or could be contributing to pests, and reporting any pest problems that they observe. 14) Answer a) is correct. IPM technicians have a long list of operational responsibilities, one of which is to communicate with school staff, both by word-of-mouth and through reports, on IPM-related issues. Answer b) is incorrect because fixing leaks is the responsibility of maintenance, Answer c) is incorrect because cleaning up spilled food is the responsibility of those spilling the food, or of the custodial department. Answer d) is incorrect because answers b) and c) are incorrect. 16) Answer b) is correct. The procedures involved in notification of pesticide application is most often the responsibility of the IPM coordinator, who typically acts as liaison for school administration. Answer a) is incorrect because notification should never be the responsibility of the pest management company or its staff, although notice posting, as necessary, will be. Answer c) is incorrect because the head custodian has no role in notification procedures. Answer d) is incorrect because answers a) and c) are incorrect. 17) Answer d) is correct. All parties present in the school have a responsibility to report pest sightings and problems in the IPM logbook. 18) Answer a) is correct. The ultimate responsibility for the use of pesticides and reducing their hazards in a school rests squarely on the shoulder of the IPM technician. Answer b) is incorrect because the IPM coordinator should not be directly involved in pesticide application or the choice of products and formulations. Answer c) is incorrect because the head custodian should not be directly involved in pesticide application or the choice of products and formulations. Answer d) is incorrect because answers b) and c) are incorrect. 15) Answer b) is correct. The IPM coordinator has primary responsibility for addressing conflicts and complaints related to pesticide use because he or she is the liaison between the school and the pest management company. Answer a) is incorrect because the technician cannot address a pesticide conflict because he or she is the one applying the pesticides. Answer c) is incorrect because the head custodian has no oversight role. Answer d) is incorrect because answers a) and c) are incorrect. 18

19 chapter 2: study guide Chapter study guide 2 2:1 2.1 VISUAL INSPECTIONS OF SCHOOLS 1) Monitoring consists of regular and thorough inspections, accurate identification of pests, and assessment of conditions at the school. Monitoring includes the following: a) Identifying and locating pests b) Identifying areas of critical sensitivity (classrooms, infirmary, etc.) c) Estimating size of pest populations d) Identifying the factors that are contributing to the pest problem (poor sanitation, improper storage, holes in walls, etc.) e) Reporting management practices that could affect pest populations or pest management activities (trash pickup, lighting, construction, etc.) f) Identifying nontarget species that could be killed or injured g) Assessing natural enemies and potential secondary pests h) Assessing environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, weather or seasonal changes) 2) Proper identification of pests is essential to IPM. a) Different pests have different habits and food requirements. Inspections and Monitoring b) What works to manage one pest may not work against another similar pest. For example: i) One species of ant may feed on a particular type of bait, while a very similar looking ant may not. ii) iii) iv) One stored product moth may be attracted to a pheromone trap while another similar moth is not. Gnats reported in the kitchen may be fruit flies, drain flies, or phorid flies. Bees around the dumpster may turn out to be yellowjackets. c) Sometimes identification to a group is adequate, sometimes it will be necessary to identify a pest to species. i) It may not be essential to know which species of ground beetle, cricket, or spider is appearing in sticky traps because your management action would be the same regardless. ii) It is essential to identify to species infestations or recurring activity of ants, cockroaches, small flies, rodents and other pests whose closely-related species might be found in different locations and might require different actions for successful management. 3) If there is any doubt as to the proper identification of a pest, specimens should be brought back to the office for further identification. 19

20 4) There are three ways to collect information in an IPM monitoring program at a school: a) Speaking with school personnel, or reading their comments in the IPM logbook b) Walk-through visual inspections of all areas of the building, including outside c) Use of various types of monitoring traps 5) An effective inspection is the most valuable service a contracted pest management professional can offer a school client. a) It helps identify means of preventing pests in the first place or of controlling pests in the safest and most effective way. b) It enables technicians to minimize their use of pesticides. 6) Technicians should always check with staff at the school regarding any pest sightings or complaints since the last visit. a) First contact the person who is designated the official IPM contact, liaison, or coordinator. b) As conditions allow, also talk with custodians, maintenance people, cafeteria workers, teachers and others who may have seen or heard about pest problems. 7) Check the IPM logbook or the pest sighting log at the start of every inspection to identify locations where pests have been seen or suspected. 8) Use a bright flashlight during indoor inspections. a) Do not look just for the pests themselves, look for other evidence of pests such as: i) droppings (especially from cockroaches and rodents) ii) iii) frass (from wood borers) gnawing, tracks, and grease marks (from rodents) iv) damage (such as powderpost beetle exit holes) v) shed insect skins. b) Carry a magnifying glass (hand lens). c) The presence of feeding debris or frass is an indication of infestation. 9) Examine areas prone to infestations by the pests more commonly found in the school. a) Examine window sills regularly as many pests fly or crawl towards light. Also check inside ceiling light fixtures. b) Many pests can be found behind baseboards, under furniture, behind moldings, in cracks in floors, behind radiators, or in air ducts. c) Check around door jambs for cockroaches and spider webs. Spiders often spin their webs across gaps around doors to capture insects trying to enter. 10) Check for new rodent droppings in likely areas: a) At the floor/wall junction throughout all food preparation, eating, and storage areas. b) On food shelves and food prep surfaces. c) In pantries and cabinets in food areas. d) In the base of stoves, refrigerators, dishwashers. e) Inside drop ceilings and cooler tops (the storage space above walk-in coolers). 11) Look, too, for conditions that might lead to pest problems. a) Check for moisture problems, both indoors and out, which may lead to moisture-related pests such as carpenter ants, termites, or mold. b) Look out for damaged screens, doors, and walls, which could allow pest entry. c) Note any sanitation problems. d) Be aware that fresh flowers and potted plants may be infested with insect pests. 20

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