1 NetLink Technologies, Inc. White Paper VoIP and Quality, a System, Not a Product May Sagamore Parkway N. Suite 240 Lafayette, Indiana
2 What this paper is This is a personal, non-exhaustive overview of the factors which, I feel, most dramatically, place VoIP service quality at risk. It s not hardware or service-centric; there s no endorsement of any particular vendor or manufacturer; no specific carrier services are recommended above those of another. It is a discussion, primarily directed at the Small(er) business owner, with a single or multiple site organization. It s presented in as non-technical a fashion as possible, and is intended to address the perception that has contributed to the slower than anticipated acceptance of VoIP into the Small Business community. It is a reflection my opinion of where VoIP is today (a little about where it has come from), where it s headed, and what you need to be aware of especially from the perspective of assessing service quality - before leading your Small Business Enterprise into that future. Introduction In its simplest, VoIP is the transmission of voice communications over any data network utilizing the TCP/IP protocol, including the Internet. VoIP is here to stay it s not some flashy, technologic fad that will disappear in the next six months. It is, in fact, the very future of telecommunications, and it represents a significant departure from the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) we have enjoyed for the past one hundred thirty years. VoIP is about transmitting voice communications across the same types (even the same) networks we have been using to transmit data for more than two decades. It s about Packet Switching, TCP/IP, and the Internet. It is a means of digitizing voice communications, just as we do other forms of information, routing it, storing it, massaging it, and delivering it in the form we need it, where, and when it is needed. It s about cost containment and reduction; productivity improvement; and improved customer/client, vendor/supplier collaboration. It s about limitless potential, and it s about change and the fact that change is not always embraced by everyone. Perception becomes reality Since its invention and patenting in 1874, the telephone (and ultimately) the PSTN has had more than 130 years to evolve, develop, and redefine itself. Every component has gone through
3 countless iterations, upgrades, and improvements designed to make it the most reliable, secure, and taken for granted resource available to the business community today. This national resource has gone from copper wires, to microwave towers, to intercontinental satellite telecommunications, and everything in between. It s migrated from manual switchboards, to step by step switches, to crossbar, to ESS and Digital switching Central Offices. It s gone from one company, to The Bell System, to Divestiture, and back again and it has witnessed a re-definition of what telecommunications is, and who its providers are, with cable companies (Comcast, Insight) providing residential voice services, and AT&T providing movies and other entertainment services, to name just two. In the end though, what other device do we have so much confidence in as the telephone? When we lift the hand set, we hear the expected dial tone. When we dial a telephone number, we expect to be flawlessly connected to the intended party we have dialed. When we dial 911, we expect help to be just minutes away. When we answer an incoming call, it s not uncommon to recognize the calling party, simply from the sound of their voice. This single device extends to us an unprecedented performance standard. When we need it; it is always available (or nearly so). I can think of no other tool -- the lights in my office; my calculator, pens, paper, computer; and certainly not our company s internet connection -- that comes anywhere near the reliability and performance standards, that we have legitimately grown to expect of the telephone network. Along with this performance level, however, has also come an end-user who is extraordinarily sensitive to performance quality (or rather, one sensitive to and intolerant of any deviation from what we have grown to expect). Though VoIP has been available and generally accepted by the enterprise since the mid to late 1990 s (VoIP was experimented with as early as the 1970 s), and is widely accepted throughout Western Europe; there remains a perception - a pervasive concern within the Small Business community, especially - that the actual quality of voice carried as data over a VoIP network, is some how inferior to that of traditional telecommunications. To some degree, this may be residue of early Internet voice users who often tried to connect and transmit voice via unstable, unpredictable, low bandwidth, saturated, residential grade internet connections (and with often inferior hardware, as well). For the record, this perception that VoIP voice quality is somehow, intrinsically inferior, simply cannot be substantiated. There is no reason to expect any deviation in quality simply because of the packet switching characteristics of an IP Network.
4 It s only as strong as its weakest link We ve all had experiences with data networks of one form or the other. We ve had good experiences and bad. There are known characteristics of a data network that must be taken into consideration; levels of quality must be engineered into the infrastructure; but VoIP makes no demand that we somehow lower our expectations regarding voice transmission quality. If you remember our definition of VoIP - the transmission of voice communications over any data network utilizing the TCP/IP protocol, including the Internet - it s probably time to concede that definition has generally grown to mean especially the Internet. With the proliferation of cheap (in some cases, free) internet voice services; the widespread promotion of Vonage and other Cable-based residential services; and with the fact that the Internet may be the only generally available network paralleling the PSTN many have concluded that VoIP has to be carried via the internet. Frankly, that s not completely accurate VoIP can be carried across any IP network including Private IP, Frame Relay, ADSL, etc. Factors affecting quality, however, also can apply to these other forms of IP networks. It s my belief that our individual experiences make it a bit easier to understand if we confine our discussion to Internet. When many of us were first introduced to the Internet, it was through services like Prodigy and AOL; CompuServe; and others. Access was a subscription based service, utilizing a telephone connection, and initially connecting at a dialup speed of 14.4Kbps. Later, speeds were to increase to 28.8Kbps; 56K over dialup modems; then to 1.5Mbps, to 7Mbps, or even faster, via ADSL or Cable connections. In general, our experience (and enjoyment) with internet access was directly related to the speed at which we could connect with Bandwidth. Just as bandwidth directly affected our Internet browsing experience, it leads the list of factors to consider when considering those that affect quality of the VoIP experience. Simply, bandwidth is the size of the pipe that connects your company s network to the rest of the world. Assuming all factors to be equal the bigger the pipe, the greater its ability to carry data before experiencing a loss of quality. But here s the rub, all factors aren t equal. Just as an oversubscribed ISP (more users and collective demand, than can be carried by THEIR connection to the Internet) could impact the quality of your internet connection; just as an inferior modem; just as your service provider s hardware infrastructure or connection to the internet itself could impact YOUR browsing experience, it follows, your total experience will only be as good as that provided by its weakest component. Physically, not every local area network (LAN) is created equally. Some are do it yourself models, where a friend of a neighbor s cousin, works with computer networks and will install your cable infrastructure for little more than a pizza and a subscription to the beer of the month club. Some have improper wiring, poorly terminated, extending beyond the realistic reach of
5 twisted pair cabling. Or those that are evolutionary, having been constructed over years without a plan or even a clear understanding of the destination of the project. These types of IP Networks (LANS) are subject to serious performance flaws and leaks, and should not be relied on to carry voice communications internally, let alone, across publically available facilities. Regardless of the size of the pipe, it is likely that a VoIP experience in this environment will fall very short of expectations. Contrary to the opinions of many, there really are differences between the switching and routing capabilities of different manufacturer s products. If that wasn t the case, everyone would buy an $80 router instead of a $2000 router (or more), and Cisco would be out of business. Some have more memory, or a more powerful processor; other were specifically designed and optimized to work within an integrated voice and data environment, others are simply, inexpensive. We all have seen how hardware improvements have added enjoyment to our personal computing experiences. It is essential to understand that higher quality hardware is likewise, one of the fundamental ingredients in a solid, dependable, scalable, high quality VoIP infrastructure. It is equally important to understand that even the best pipe cannot compensate for sub-standard hardware dependence. Not every telephone system is capable of VoIP communications. Many in service today, have been in place for 10 or more years; nearly pre-dating the general availability of VoIP itself. It is as unfair to expect those devices to be able to perform, as it is to expect the earliest PC to run today s high-end, and graphics intensive software applications. Today, available to virtually every sized business customer, are premise based VoIP enabled systems from manufacturers like Avaya, Cisco, and Nortel the world leaders in premises based VoIP CPE (Customer Provided Equipment). In addition, an array of hosted solutions, requiring little to no hardware is also available from respected providers like AT&T, Verizon, and Qwest. But again it s about the WEAKEST Link, and in my opinion, that s about the characteristics of the physical connection your company chooses to attach your VoIP system to the internet it s about your internet connection, and Jitter, Delay, and Latency. When best effort isn t good enough I admit enthusiastic ignorance when it comes to the details of circuit switching (traditional PSTN technology); as opposed to packet switching (the methodology by which data is transmitted across a Data Network). However, at least a basic technologic foundation is necessary in order for us to understand our differing tolerance for errors which occur in data and voice communications..
6 With Circuit switching, a connection in the form of a dedicated path is established between two devices from the telephone, over copper wires, to and from Central Offices and Toll Centers, again over copper wires, to the party we intended to call which, once established, is used for the duration of the message. The communication path is selected from among many; is established and maintained, until terminated by the parties; and ultimately gives us the ability to create communications between many separate devices. This is the switching technique used by the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). In a Packet Switching Network, no specific path is used for data transfer. Instead, the message is divided into smaller, well defined segments called packets and sent over the network. Information regarding the routing of the message is embedded in the packet themselves and left to intermediary hardware devices within the network (routers, switches, etc.) As a result, packets are often transported over different routes, combined or broken apart, as might be required in order to get them efficiently from one point to another. At the receiving end, data is read from the packets and reassembled to form the original message. This is the switching technique used by virtually all Data Networks, including the Internet. Far more differences between these two switching methodologies exist, but the point that needs emphasis with regard to its impact on VoIP is that Voice communications carried over the PSTN enjoys the luxury of being carried, in an uninterrupted fashion, from one end of the circuit to the other. Data -- including digitized voice -- carried via a packet switched network, is broken into multiple parts, switched and routed over multiple different routes, and then reassembled at its destination. Three characteristics of a packetized network, all of which CAN impact the effectiveness of data delivery, must be taken into consideration. Enter the evil triplets Jitter, Delay, and Latency. Jitter is the variation in the time between packets arriving at the destination, caused by network congestion, timing fluctuations, or route changes. Delay, on the other hand, is the amount of time it takes for a signal to be transferred across the path. Finally, Latency is a synonym for delay, and describes how much time it takes for a packet to get from one point to another. As often as I ve heard the terms, as often as I look at the definitions, I m still not sure I understand the distinction between the three. But that s not important. What is important is the knowledge that data transmitted over a packet switched network is subject to DELAYS.
7 We also need to understand that voice communications occurs in real time; that delays are most likely a bad thing and that packets containing voice information therefore require priority handling by the network. As we know, the PSTN was designed and perfected to carry voice traffic. But in a packet switched network, everything appears as homogenous data. That means in order to insure the quality that we as users demand, resources of the network must be 100% committed to the transport of voice packets immediately, and on demand. If not, the sound quality of the voice traffic could be significantly degraded. In contrast, however, data transport is extremely tolerant of variations in network performance levels. When packets containing an are dropped, the missing information is simply resent; when an end-user encounters an additional 500 ms of delay in loading a web page, it s a non event. Can you imagine a telephone conversation where you re forced to repeat yourself every three or four sentences, just to be understood? Tools used for simple internet browsing, , and other data based services, no longer can be expected to provide the necessary quality we demand for voice communications. ADSL, and other similar services originally intended to provide a low cost, residential Internet experience have proven to be unacceptable for VoIP applications due to a complete lack of Voice Quality of Service (QOS). Cable connections (residential in nature) because of the common practice of over-subscription, the lack of QOS, and because they are prone to service interruptions, have less than desirable performance track records. Satellite and other non-terrestrial modes of communications, because of their natural tendency to delay transmissions (propagation), also appear to be unacceptable as a means of voice transport. Dancing with the one that brought you Within the Carrier/ISP world are three levels (Tiers) of providers, Tier 1, 2, and 3. In general, Tier 1 Providers own their entire network, or have peering arrangements with other Tier 1 Carriers to exchange services where necessary (they do not purchase facilities or services). Tier 2 providers, on the other hand, may be very large organizations, in and of themselves, but at some level, are required to purchase facilities and services from a Tier 1 provider. Providers within the Tier 3 category purchase all facilities and services from Tier 1 and 2 providers. One of the more obvious qualities of this hierarchical structure is the inescapable conclusion that Tier 3 providers are more subject to breakage, market volatility, service outages, adverse service offerings due to financial performance (or the lack of it), and other factors. Another concern is the size of the provider itself; its geographic reach, and the redundancy of the network itself. A single Fiber connection to a Tier 1 or Tier 2 provider (though offering significant bandwidth) is still, a single connection, and a single point of failure. Unfortunately, most Internet Service Providers are Tier 3 providers.
8 Tier 1 providers, (AT&T, Verizon, Qwest, and others) are today s names for many of the same companies that got us here in the first place. AT&T is today s version of Ameritech (Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Ohio Bell Operating Companies), SBC, and Southwest Bell. Verizon; the combination of GTE, and Nynex, MCI and UUNet, and Qwest represents a union of Mountain Bell, US West, Pacific Northwestern Bell. These companies, or at least their predecessors, are the same entities responsible for the development of the PSTN, and the incredible quality we have grown to take for granted. Who better than these same companies to lead the development of VoIP as an alternative voice transport? With a Tier 1 provider you know they don t resell someone else s service their guarantees are their own, the responsibility and liability their own. They have spent, and continue to spend BILLIONS of dollars expanding the reach and capability of the network; they have built in unparalleled redundancy, minimizing the likelihood and impact of service outages and promoting rapid disaster recovery; the networks themselves are often enhanced to provide integrated anti-spam, virus protection, and other security services. They provide dynamic bandwidth allocation, providing you with more or less bandwidth depending upon your needs at any single point in time. In short, they are the phone companies of the past, working today to provide an IP network as robust, failure proof, and as secure as that to which it is most often compared. Many would argue they have already accomplished their objective. Conclusion The reality is that we have significantly different performance expectations (and thresholds for tolerance) for data compared to voice traffic. In general, data networks operate under what is often referred to as best effort standards that don t set any end-user expectations. On the other hand, we expect voice communications to be a pristine experience. When it comes to delivering the expected level of voice reliability, availability, security and quality, best efforts are clearly not enough. Another reality is that VoIP is here to stay. It isn t going away, and will only get better and better, ultimately offering capabilities that we haven t thought of yet. It is the future of telecommunications, it s available to all, and it should be evaluated by every business, regardless of size, as to the potential for profit improvement within your own organization. It is an asset to be developed, customized, continually evaluated, and protected by integrating the best components possible within the constraints of a budget.
9 As I hope we have begun to demonstrate, VoIP is more a system, than a product. It is truly more than the sum of its parts It s cabling, switching and routing; hardware and software; it s the integration of a premises based or hosted VoIP telephone system; and it is about high quality carrier access to the internet. Each of these components must seamlessly integrate with one another in order to assure the same level of quality we have come to expect and demand. i NetLink Technologies is a Microsoft Certified Solutions Provider Partner, specializing in the design; installation; support and maintenance of Windows Networking solutions for the Small to Midsized Business client. In addition, they are both an Avaya Small Business Partner, as well as a Cisco Select Business Partner, with concentrations in the voice, voice over IP, and data communications needs of the Small Business Client. NetLink Technologies also, through contractual arrangement, represents the services of more than 50 Carrier service products and services, including: AT&T, Verizon, Qwest, Sprint, and others. They can be reached at (765) , or via the internet at The author is President of NetLink Technologies, Inc., and has more than thirty years experience with Telecommunications, Data Communications, Data Networking and Internet products and services. He may be reached via at
NetLink Technologies, Inc. White Paper Telecommunications and Data Convergence for the Technically Challenged April 2008 3589 Sagamore Parkway N. Suite 240 Lafayette, Indiana www.netlink-tech.com In the
NetLink Technologies, Inc. White Paper VoIP for the Technically Challenged April 2008 3589 Sagamore Parkway N. Suite 240 Lafayette, Indiana www.netlink-tech.com Introduction Voice over Internet Protocol
Comparison of Internet Access Options By Joe Budelis Persimmon Telecommunications Abstract: Which of the many Internet Access options are best? If Telecom service is critical to an organization s mission,
Good VoIP vs. Bad VoIP The term Voice over IP, or VoIP has been thrown around in a lot of different cirlces around the telecom industry. There seems to be growing confusion about what it is, whether or
VoIP Speed Test Why run the test? Running a VoIP speed test is an effective way to gauge whether your Internet connection is suitable to run a hosted telephone system using VoIP technology. A number of
Glossary of Telco Terms Access Generally refers to the connection between your business and the public phone network, or between your business and another dedicated location. A large portion of your business
Goal We want to know Introduction What is Meant by Carrier-Grade? What is Meant by VoIP? Why VoIP? VoIP Challenges 2 Carrier Grade VoIP Carrier grade Extremely high availability 99.999% reliability (high
IP Telephony Basics Part of The Technology Overview Series for Small and Medium Businesses What is IP Telephony? IP Telephony uses the Internet Protocol (IP) to transmit voice or FAX traffic over a public
VoIP Solutions Guide Everything You Need to Know Simplify, Save, Scale VoIP: The Next Generation Phone Service Ready to Adopt VoIP? 10 Things You Need to Know 1. What are my phone system options? Simplify,
Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN) Network Considerations & Guidelines 1 What Causes A Poor Video Call? There are several factors that can affect a videoconference call. The two biggest culprits
Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork Real-Time Voice in a Best-Effort IP Internetwork This topic lists problems associated with implementation of real-time voice traffic in a best-effort IP internetwork.
Chapter 1 Review Questions R1. What is the difference between a host and an end system? List several different types of end systems. Is a Web server an end system? 1. There is no difference. Throughout
International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security VOL. 3, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015, 48 53 Available online at: www.ijcncs.org E-ISSN 2308-9830 (Online) / ISSN 2410-0595 (Print) The Impact
Overview of WAN Connections Module 1 Objectives This module introduces the basic elements of WAN connections and describes the role each element plays in creating that connection. After completing this
How to Successfully Select and Implement a Hosted VoIP System Written by Igal Rabinovich, CEO IT Help Central How to Successfully Select and Implement a Hosted VoIP System Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE
telephony internet access remote access modems Content Toll-bypass Long Distance Calling... 1 What Is VOIP?... 2 That Was Then... This is Now... Immediate Cost Savings... 3 Applications... 3 Office-to-office
Confessions of a Telecommunications Provider Five things you MUST know about Global Voice over IP (VoIP) Providers http://tatacommunications-newworld.com www.youtube.com/tatcomms 1 ' 2015 Tata Communications
Guide to Voice Over IP (VoIP) Introduction Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP, IP Telephony, or Internet Telephony, represents the latest in phone system technology. VoIP is a phone service
ADSL or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Backbone Bandwidth Bit Commonly called DSL. Technology and equipment that allow high-speed communication across standard copper telephone wires. This can include
WAN Technology Heng Sovannarith email@example.com Introduction A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and often uses transmission facilities provided
COMP9333 Advance Computer Networks Mini Conference QoS issues in Voice over IP Student ID: 3058224 Student ID: 3043237 Student ID: 3036281 Student ID: 3025715 QoS issues in Voice over IP Abstract: This
In Brief Applications UC & VoIP Challenge Cut telecom cost by finding an alternative to costly MPLS Improve Internet connectivity speeds Fortify business continuity Solution Mushroom Networks Truffle Internet
Truffle Broadband Bonding Network Appliance Reliable high throughput data connections with low-cost & diverse transport technologies PART I Truffle in standalone installation for a single office. Executive
52-30-20 DATA COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION TO VOICE OVER IP Gilbert Held INSIDE Equipment Utilization; VoIP Gateway; Router with Voice Modules; IP Gateway; Latency; Delay Components; Encoding;
L e a r n i n g C e n t e r S e r i e s Making the Move to VoIP: Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for Small Business Straight Talk About Costs by John Macario President, Savatar Table of Contents ABSTRACT.............................................1
CTS2134 Introduction to Networking Module 07: Wide Area Networks WAN cloud Central Office (CO) Local loop WAN components Demarcation point (demarc) Consumer Premises Equipment (CPE) Channel Service Unit/Data
What s the Internet? PC server laptop cellular handheld access points wired s connected computing devices: hosts = end systems running apps communication s fiber, copper, radio transmission rate = bandwidth
10 QUESTIONS TO ASK BEFORE YOU BUY PHONE SERVICE FOR YOUR BUSINESS SHARE THIS DOCUMENT 1 TELEPHONE SERVICE TELEPHONE SERVICE Telephone service continues to be a critical factor to business success. What
ADSL vs Cable Cable subscribers are connected directly to high speed lines while ADSL subscribers are connected directly to medium speed lines Cable subscribers share the line connecting them to neighbourhood
Making Everything Easier! Fonality Special Edition Cloud VoIP Learn to: Increase productivity with a cloud-based Unified Communications solution Save money by avoiding CAPEX Access the right person with
Common issues of hosted VOIP service (and how to avoid them!) CONTENTS Contents Is your business ready for hosted VOIP?.... 3 The Potential Issues.... 4 Poor call quality concerns....4 Incomplete inbound
Cable Access Q&A - Part One Accessing the Internet using a Cable Network (and a cable modem) is becoming increasingly more popular due to the much greater speed than is available through telephone-modem
Protocols Precise rules that govern communication between two parties TCP/IP: the basic Internet protocols IP: Internet Protocol (bottom level) all packets shipped from network to network as IP packets
Business Phone System & VOIP Service Buyer s Guide SAVE MONEY WITH THE RIGHT BUSINESS PHONE SYSTEM Enterprise Phone System Buyer s Guide Whether you are planning to purchase a new phone system or upgrade
Traditional PBX & Hosted VOIP Technology: The Key Differences & What They Mean For Your Business CONTENTS Summary... 3 What s The Buzz About?... 3 What It Means For Businesses... 3 What It Means For Employees...
VoIP 101: An introduction to the basics of Voice over Internet Protocol How to guide Introduction You may have heard of VoIP that it s the future of telephone service, and that you can save a lot of money
MPLS: Key Factors to Consider When Selecting Your MPLS Provider Whitepaper 2006-20011 EarthLink Business Page 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), once the sole domain of major corporations
OpManager White paper WAN Monitoring Whitepaper Branch Office Blackout A whooping 40-60% of employees of enterprises today work in branch offices and access critical applications via WAN. A poorly monitored
Voice Over IP is it hype or can it work for me? By American Business Communication Inc. In the world of telecom, it seems like everywhere you turn there is a buzz about Voice over IP (VoIP). Hardly a day
Gen2 Ventures White Paper Clearing the Way for VoIP An Alternative to Expensive WAN Upgrades Executive Overview Enterprises have traditionally maintained separate networks for their voice and data traffic.
MPLS and MPLS VPNs: Basics for Beginners Christopher Brandon Johnson Abstract Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a core networking technology that operates essentially in between Layers 2 and 3 of
ADSL BROADBAND BASICS FOR THE DOMESTIC USER AS NOTHING MAN MADE IS PERFECT, ADSL IS NOT AN EXCEPTION. The Main Limitations of ADSL Broadband are as follows. 1. ADSL is not a Guaranteed Bandwidth Service.
Synchronization Essentials of VoIP WHITE PAPER Synchronization Essentials of VoIP Introduction As we accelerate into the New World of VoIP we assume we can leave some of the trappings of wireline telecom
A SENSIBLE GUIDE TO LATENCY MANAGEMENT By Wayne Rash Wayne Rash has been writing technical articles about computers and networking since the mid-1970s. He is a former columnist for Byte Magazine, a former
A Link Load Balancing Solution for Multi-Homed Networks Overview An increasing number of enterprises are using the Internet for delivering mission-critical content and applications. By maintaining only
Chapter 4 Connecting to the Internet through an ISP 1. According to Cisco what two things are essential to gaining access to the internet? a. ISPs are essential to gaining access to the Internet. b. No
Voice over IP Basics for IT Technicians White Paper Executive summary The IP phone is coming or has arrived on desk near you. The IP phone is not a PC, but does have a number of hardware and software elements
White Paper A Guide to Assessing the Network Benefits and Requirements of Cloud VoIP A Guide to Assessing the Network Benefits and Requirements of Cloud VoIP The positive impact that hosted VoIP can have
Article VoIP Introduction Internet telephony refers to communications services voice, fax, SMS, and/or voice-messaging applications that are transported via the internet, rather than the public switched
WHITEPAPER MPLS: Key Factors to Consider When Selecting Your MPLS Provider INTRODUCTION Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), once the sole domain of major corporations and telecom carriers, has gone mainstream
Confessions of a Telecommunications Provider Five things you MUST know about Global Voice over IP (VoIP) Providers 1 Contents 3 Introduction 5 Aren t all VoIP networks the same? 6 Delivery is everything!
VOIP THE ULTIMATE GUIDE VERSION 1.0 9/23/2014 onevoiceinc.com WHAT S IN THIS GUIDE? WHAT IS VOIP REQUIREMENTS OF A VOIP SYSTEM IMPLEMENTING A VOIP SYSTEM METHODS OF VOIP BENEFITS OF VOIP PROBLEMS OF VOIP
Technote SmartNode Quality of Service for VoIP on the Internet Access Link Applies to the following products SmartNode 1000 Series SmartNode 2000 Series SmartNode 4520 Series Overview Initially designed
By Pat Moulton Is Hosted VoIP Right For You? Hosted PBX Overview: With the availability of cheap broadband services, migrating applications and storage from premise-based servers to the cloud has become
The Telephone Network 1 2 PSTN public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the largest and most widespread communications network in the world For computer communications used to link remote sites of organisation
Technology Brief Implementing DSL Service for ISPs with the SMS The DSL Opportunity Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) services represent a major opportunity for dialup-based Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
Subtitle Reliability of VoIP Phone Systems Can You Trust VoIP? Reliability of VoIP Phone Systems Compare Business Products 2014 1 Contents Reliability of VoIP Business Phone Systems... 3 VoIP Technology
WAN Data Link Protocols In addition to Physical layer devices, WANs require Data Link layer protocols to establish the link across the communication line from the sending to the receiving device. 1 Data
> White Paper Tough Questions, Honest Answers For many years, voice over IP (VoIP) has held the promise of enabling the next generation of voice communications within the enterprise. Unfortunately, its
SIP trunking, simply put, is a way for you to accomplish something that you already do, for less money, with equal or better quality, and with greater functionality. A Guide to SIP V4 An Introduction to
KEY VOIP TERMS 1 ACD: Automatic Call Distribution is a system used to determine how incoming calls are routed. When the ACD system receives an incoming call it follows user-defined specifications as to
1 VDSL (VERY HIGH DATA BIT RATE DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE) INTRODUCTION 1. Recent events in the telecommunications environment are giving rise to a new class of service providers, setting the stage for how
White Paper Voice over IP is Transforming Business Communications Voice over IP (VoIP) is changing the world of telecommunications. It entails the transmission of voice calls over data networks that support
White Paper January 2011 Introduction In today s demanding business environment, few companies can afford having a key facility or branch location go off-line, or face service interruptions at headquarters.
White Paper Voice over IP Networks: Ensuring quality through proactive link management Build Smarter Networks Table of Contents 1. Executive summary... 3 2. Overview of the problem... 3 3. Connectivity
New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business C20.0001 Information Systems for Managers Fall 1999 Networking Fundamentals A network comprises two or more computers that have been connected in
The basic conditions and terms used to describe information exchange over networks. 385 Jordan Road Troy, NY 12180 Phone 518.286.7000 518.286.2439 www.learnlinc.com Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS...2
Abstract The evolution of TETRA networks towards an all- IP architecture is now a reality and has been accepted by even the most demanding users of TETRA technology. Although circuit switch based TETRA
VOIP Security Essentials Jeff Waldron Traditional PSTN PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) has been maintained as a closed network, where access is limited to carriers and service providers. Entry
Addressing Convergence and IP Telephony in Enterprise Communications Introduction The convergence of voice and data networks has begun to drive radical changes in the development and delivery of products
Five Hosted VoIP Features WHITEPAPER: three FUNDAMENTALS for consistently good voip call quality www.megapath.com Every week, businesses across the country are converting to Voice over IP (VoIP) communication
Introduction Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information No master/slave relationship between the computers in the network Data Communications.
Five Steps to Ensuring a Successful VoIP Migration By Mike Perry, incontact Vice President, Network Operations Voice over IP (VoIP) has arrived and is here to stay. Many contact centers are realizing the
Smart Broadband the future of business communications IP Telephony Solutions White Paper Choosing the right type of service for your business! This document has been written to highlight some of the cost
Charter Business : White paper SIP Trunking: A new voice in communications service WHITE PAPER With the rise of next-generation technology, business customers have more options than ever from providers
Benefits of Cloud Computing - Pros of Cloud Computing - Arguments for Cloud Computing Choosing a Cloud Computing Company 1. With Cloud Computing, employee's computers will cost less, because essentially
Will MPEG Video Kill Your Network? The thought that more bandwidth will cure network ills is an illusion like the thought that more money will ensure human happiness. Certainly more is better. But when
Bandwidth Aggregation, Teaming and Bonding The increased use of Internet sharing combined with graphically rich web sites and multimedia applications have created a virtually insatiable demand for Internet
3.1 TELECOMMUNICATIONS, NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET The Business Value of Telecommunications and Networking Business value impacts of the telecommunications and Networking are: Declining transaction costs
VoIP QoS Version 1.0 September 4, 2006 AdvancedVoIP.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Phone: +1 213 341 1431 Copyright AdvancedVoIP.com, 1999-2006. All Rights Reserved. No part of this
The Benefits of Upgrading to FiOS Introduction Verizon FiOS (fiber optic service) is the world s leading fiber to the premises (FTTP) service, which sets a new performance standard for telecommunications
VoIP from A to Z NAEO 2009 Conference Cancun, Mexico VoIP glossary What is VoIP? Bandwidth Signaling Codecs Quality of Service (QoS) What is VoIP? Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is the method of transmitting