DIABETES MANAGEMENT: Your Guide to the Basics

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1 DIABETES MANAGEMENT: Yur Guide t the Basics

2 Table f Cntents Target Gals fr Diabetes 1 Mnitring Bld Glucse 2 High Bld Glucse (Hyperglycemia) 3 Lw Bld Glucse (Hypglycemia) 4 Fds with Carbhydrate 5 Fds with Very Little r N Carbhydrate 6 Sick Day Management 7 Alchl and Diabetes 8 Lng Term Cmplicatins 9

3 Target Gals fr Diabetes Hemglbin A1C Hemglbin A1C (A1C) is a test that gives an verall view f hw cntrlled r uncntrlled yur bld glucse has been fr the past 2-3 mnths. The A1C test is dne by a bld draw r fingerstick at yur dctr s ffice r at the lab every 3-6 mnths. Fr gd diabetes cntrl, yur A1C shuld be <7%, but 6.5% is even better. If yur A1C is <7%, it will decrease yur risk f develping cmplicatins frm diabetes r prevent the cmplicatins that yu may have frm getting wrse. Hemglbin A1C Estimated Average Glucse 12% % % % % % 226 9% % 197 8% % 169 7% % 140 6% 126

4 Mnitring Bld Glucse Bld Glucse Target Gals Fasting/After Sleep mg/dl Befre Meals mg/dl 2 hurs After Meals <140 Excellent <160 Okay >180 T High Checking Bld Glucse (BG) Bld glucse is checked by applying a small amunt f bld t a strip that has been placed in a bld glucse mnitr. Bld glucse testing is necessary fr mnitring yur diabetes and making medicatin adjustments. Studies shw that peple wh check their bld glucse regularly and keep a recrd have better cntrl f their diabetes. Ask yur dctr when he/she wuld like yu t check yur bld glucse. Typical bld glucse testing schedules: Fasting/After Sleep Fasting and befre the evening meal Fasting and ccasinally 2 hurs after a meal Yu can purchase a bld glucse mnitr, but ask yur dctr first since he/she may be able t prvide ne. If yu get a prescriptin fr bld glucse strips, yur insurance may cver sme f the cst.

5 High Bld Glucse (Hyperglycemia) REASONS bld glucse (sugar) can g t high Yu ate t much Yu frgt t take yur diabetes medicine Yu didn t exercise enugh Yu are sick Yu started taking sme ther kind f medicine SIGNS f high bld glucse Shrt term: Extreme thirst Need t urinate ften Hungry Gruchy r mdy Lng Term: All f the shrt term Dry skin Blurry visin Tired Slw-healing ACTIONS yu can take Test yur bld glucse t see hw high it really is. Drink water r ther zer calrie caffeine free drinks. If yu have type 1 diabetes and yur bld glucse is ver 250, test yur urine ketnes. If yu dn t have ketnes, d sme light exercise. If yu take insulin, ask yur diabetes prvider if yu shuld take extra insulin when yur bld sugar ges t high. Stick t yur meal plan. Call yur dctr fr advice.

6 Lw Bld Glucse (Hypglycemia) REASONS bld glucse (sugar) can g t lw Yu ate t little r t late Yu tk mre diabetes medicine than usual Yu exercised mre Yu started taking sme ther kind f medicine SIGNS f lw bld glucse Shaky/Jittery Sweaty Weak Hungry Headache Slurred speech Pass ut ACTIONS yu can take Test yur bld glucse t see hw lw it really is. If belw 70, eat r drink smething with 15 grams carb. 3-4 glucse tablets ½ cup juice r regular cke 2-3 peppermints (r ther hard candy) 2-3 Tablespns raisins Wait 15 minutes and retest yur bld sugar If still belw 70, repeat treatment. If bld glucse ges belw times per week, call yur dctr

7 Fds with Carbhydrate Carbhydrates: 1 Carb Chice = 15 grams Chse per meal Starch/Bread Fruit/Fruit Juice Milk/Ygurt Sweets & Desserts Animal crackers, 8 Bagel, 1/4 Beans, 1/2 cup Bread, 1 slice Bread reduced calrie, 2 slices Biscuits, 1 small Cereal unsweetened, 3/4 cup Chips, 12 Crn bread, 2 square Crutns, 1 cup Crn, 1/2 cup English Muffin, 1/2 French Fries, 1/2 cup (12) Granla, 1/4 cup Graham Crackers, 3 Grits, 1/2 cup Lima beans, 1/2 cup Lentils, 1/2 cup Melba tast, 4 slices Oatmeal, 1/2 cup Pasta, 1/3 cup Peas, 1/2 cup Ptat, 1/2 cup Ppcrn, 3 cups Pretzels, 1/2 cup Pancake, small 4 Pita small Rll, small Raisin bread, 1 slice Rice, 1/3 cup Squash winter, 1 cup Sweet Ptat, 1/2 cup Saltine crackers, 6 Stuffing, 1/3 cup Trtilla, 1 slice Apple, 1 small Applesauce, 1/2 cup Apples dried, 4 rings Apricts fresh, 4 whle Apricts dried, 8 halves Apricts canned, 1/2 cup Banana, 1 small Blackberries, 3/4 cup Blueberries, 3/4 cup Cherries fresh, 12 Cherries canned, 1/2 cup Dates, 3 Figs fresh, 2 medium Figs dried, 1 ½ Fruit ccktail, 1/2 cup Meln, 1 cup cubed Grapefruit large, 1/2 Grapes small, 17 Kiwi, 1 Mang small, 1/2 cup Nectarine small, 1 Orange small, 1 Peach med, 1 Pear large, 1/2 Plums small, 2 Pineapple fresh, 3/4 cup Pineapple canned, 1/2 cup Raisins, 2 tbsp. Raspberries, 1 cup Strawberries, 1 ¼ cup Tangerines, small Watermeln, 1 ¼ cup cubes Fruit juice, 1/2 cup Fat Free & 1%, 1 cup Buttermilk, 1 cup Evaprated fat-free milk, 1/2 cup Sy milk, 1 cup Ygurt fat-free, 2/3 cup Ygurt regular, 1/3 cup Gat s milk, 1 cup Kefir, 1 cup Use Sparingly Angel fd cake 1/12, 2 carbs Cake unfrsted, 2 square Brwnie unfrsted, 2 square Cake frsted, 1 square Ckies sugar free, 3 small Cupcake Frsted, 1 small Ice cream, 1/2 cup Dughnut glazed, 2 carbs Fruit cbbler, 1/8 cup Gelatin regular, 1/2 cup Hney, 1 tbsp Jam r jelly regular, 1 tbsp. Muffin, 1/4 Pudding regular, 1/4 cup Vanilla wafers, 5 Sprt Drinks, 1 cup Sft drinks, regular, 1/2 cup Syrup regular, 1 tbsp.

8 Fds with Very Little r N Carbhydrate Vegetables Meat/ Meat Substitutes Fats Free Fds All yu want Artichke Artichke Artichke hearts Asparagus Beans, green Bean, spruts Beets Brccli Brussels spruts Cabbage Carrts Cauliflwer Celery Cllards greens Cucumber Egg plant Green nins Leeks Mushrms Okra Onins Pea Pds Peppers Radishes Salad green Sauerkraut Spinach Summer Squash Tmat Tmat sauce and juice Turnips Water chestnuts Watercress Zucchini Size f palm f hand r deck f cards Meat Beef Prk Lamb Veal Pultry Fish Sandwich meats/ht dgs Shellfish Game Duck Pheasant Venisn Buffal Meat Substitutes Cheese Cttage cheese Eggs Tfu Size f end f thumb Avcad Bacn Butter Canla Oil Chitterlings Ccnut Ccnut milk Cream Cream cheese Fatback Margarine Maynnaise Nuts Almnds Cashews Pecans Walnuts Hazelnuts Olive Oil Olives Peanut butter Peanut il Salad dressing Sesame seeds Shrtening r lard Sur cream Candy, sugar free Jell, sugar free Gum, sugar free Jam r jelly, light Sugar substitutes Syrup, sugar free Cndiments Ketchup Hrseradish Lemn juice Lime juice Mustard Pickle relish Pickles Sy sauce Salsa Tabasc sauce Tac sauce Vinegar Wrcestershire sauce Drinks Builln Carbnated mineral water Club Sda Cca Pwder, unsweetened Cffee Diet sft drinks Drink mixes, sugar free (crystal light) Tea unsweetened Tnic water ½ cup cked r 1 cup raw

9 Sick Day Management Take care f yurself when yu re sick. Being sick can make yur bld glucse g t high. Here are sme tips n what t d: Check yur bld glucse level every 4 hurs. Write dwn the results. Keep taking yur diabetes medicine. Yu need it even if yu can t keep fd dwn. Drink at least ne cup (8 unces) f water r ther calrie-free, caffeine-free liquid every hur while yu re awake. If yu can t eat yur usual fd, try eating r drinking ne r tw f the easy carbhydrate fds belw every 2-3 hurs. ½ cup (4 unces) regular 7 up r ginger ale 1 regular ppsicle r ½ cup f regular jell ½ cup (4 unces) Gatrade 6 saltine crackers r 1 slice dry tast ½ cup applesauce In peple with type 1 diabetes, when bld glucse is very high, the bdy prduces ketnes. Ketnes can make yu very sick. Test yur urine fr ketnes if yu have Type 1 diabetes and yur bld glucse is ver 240 yu can t keep fd r liquids dwn Call yur health care prvider right away if yur bld glucse has been ver 240 fr lnger than a day yu have mderate t large amunts f ketnes in yur urine yu feel sleepier than usual yu have truble breathing yu can t think clearly yu thrw up mre than nce yu ve had diarrhea fr mre than 6 hurs

10 Diabetes and Alchl Alchl can make yur bld glucse g t high OR t lw. If yu chse t drink alchl, nly drink it ccasinally and when yur diabetes and bld glucse levels are well-cntrlled. Alchl cntains almst as many calries as fat and is prcessed in yur bdy similar t fat. It is a gd idea t check with yur dctr if yu are verweight r have high bld pressure r high triglyceride levels befre drinking alchl. D nt drink if yu are pregnant r trying t becme pregnant. If yu are in dubt abut whether drinking alchl is safe fr yu, check with yur dctr r diabetes educatr. Effects f Alchl n Diabetes Here are sme ther ways that alchl can affect diabetes: Mderate amunts f alchl (1-2 drinks) can cause bld sugar t rise. But alchl can als decrease yur bld sugar level unpredictably smetimes causing it t drp int dangerus levels especially if yu take insulin r diabetes medicatin. Beer and sweet wine cntain carbhydrates and may raise bld glucse. Alchl stimulates yur appetite, which can cause yu t vereat and may affect yur bld glucse cntrl. Alchl may increase triglyceride levels and/r bld pressure. Alchl can cause flushing, nausea, increased heart rate, and slurred speech which may make it harder t recgnize symptms f lw bld glucse. Diabetes and Alchl Cnsumptin Ds and Dn'ts Peple with diabetes shuld fllw these alchl cnsumptin guidelines: Men shuld nt drink mre than tw drinks f alchl in a ne-day perid. Wmen shuld nt drink mre than ne drink f alchl in a ne-day perid. (Example: drink = 5-z glass f wine, 1 1/2-z "sht" f liqur r 12-z beer). Drink alchl nly with fd, nt n an empty stmach. Drink slwly. Avid "sugary" mixed drinks, sweet wines, r crdials. Mix liqur with water, club sda r diet sft drinks. D nt drive after drinking alchl. Be careful with medicine, fd and testing after drinking, since it can alter judgment.

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