6 Use of Low Impact Development Techniques in an Urbanized Watershed Infill and Retrofit Applications

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1 6 Use of Low Impact Development Techniques in an Urbanized Watershed Infill and Retrofit Applications David Pohl, Ph.D., P.E. Weston Solutions, Inc.

2 Presentation Outline Storm Water Regulatory Overview Tiered Approach to BMP Implementation Where does LID Fit? LID Retro-fitting - Challenges and Opportunities LID Retro-fitting LID Strategies and Concepts LID Retro-fit and Infill Treatment BMPs Design Concepts

3 Regulatory Framework Stormwater NPDES Permits San Diego LID Requirements Pollutant Load Reduction Emphasis Integration with SUSMP and Hydromodification TMDLs

4 TMDL Challenges for City Impaired Waterways Often in Built-out Areas Multiple Pollutants and Sources Variability of Stormwater Flows and Concentrations Reductions May Require Treatment

5 Treatment BMP Technology Challenges

6 Tiered BMP Strategy Tier I Non-Structural Tier II Structural (Street Sweeping, LID, Infiltration) Tier III Treatment

7 Tier II Runoff and Treatment Volume Reduction

8 LID Techniques Applied to Retrofit & Infill Development LID Site Development BMPs Limited LID Treatment or Pollution Control BMPs Designed to Infiltrate, Filter or Treat Integrated into Watershed Program to Meet Water Quality Goals

9 LID Implementation Challenges Low Permeability Soils Topography Slope Stability Adjacent Structures and Infrastructure Maintenance

10 LID Opportunities - City of San Diego s LID Pilot Program Target Higher Priority Watersheds Phased Implementation allows Assessment before Large Scale Implementation Coordination with New City Projects and Scheduled Maintenance Collaboration with Projects under SUSMP Effectiveness Assessment Improve on Designs

11 Infill and Retrofit Design Approach Conduct Geotechnical Investigation Infiltration Rates Depth to Groundwater Existing Structures Existing Infrastructure/Utilities Slope Stability Expansive Soils Preferential Pathways Keep water away from structures, utilities and slopes Apply multiple LID techniques to capture, infiltrate and re-use storm water

12 Geotechnical Investigation

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17 Retrofit and Infill Strategies Results of Phase 1 Geotechnical Investigations Confirmation of Low Permeability Soils on Mesas Rely on less infiltration and more on: Biorentention (evapotransipiration) Amended soil layers and underdrains (treatment prior to discharge) Collection and Reuse

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19 Mira Mesa Library - Rain Barrel Component

20 Mira Mesa Library - Integrated LID Retrofit Project

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23 Retrofit and Infill Strategies Dual -Use Sites (parks/recreational facilities) re-use of storm water more open space complementary systems Focus on further downstream sites near receiving waters higher permeably soils larger infiltration systems collaborate with habitat enhancement projects

24 LID Pollution Control BMPs Multi-use Sites

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28 Retrofit and Infill Strategies Residential Retro-fit Strategies Use of City Right-of-Way Goal is to reduce volume of storm water that may require further treatment Implement in coordination with Outreach Programs sustainability of project Use low maintenance and aesthetic biorentention approaches Keep infiltration away from houses and utilities Consider maintenance issues trash, cleanouts, vegetated areas

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31 LID Pollution Control BMPs Design Considerations Required Storage Volume - Depends on Design Treatment Volume or Flow Design Treatment Sizing Criteria Depends on Specific Application and Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers Depends on Location and Water Quality Issues and Linkage to Watershed Activity Strategy Site Conditions will Drive Design and LID Treatment Capacity

32 Potential Approach LID Pollutant Control BMP Potential Regulatory Drivers Pre-development Infiltration Rates Volume-Based BMPs 24- Hour 85 Percentile (San Diego) Flow-Based 0.2 Inch/Hour Max Flow for 85 Percentile (San Diego) Storm Water Permits for New Significant Construction Projects Treatment Control BMP Storm Water Permits 3-Year 6-Hour Storm Event TMDL Metals CTR 1 Exceedance/3 Years Larger Storms Integrated TMDL Multiple Constituents Pollutograph- Based

33 LID Pollution Control BMPs Design Considerations Retrofit and Infill Development Application of Design Storm Approaches Need to Consider Site Specific Conditions More Challenging Site Conditions Require Additional Engineering System Components Sites Characterized as Least Favorable May not be Suitable for LID Cost Consideration Cost Benefit Analysis

34 Site Constraints Low Permeability Soils Shallow Groundwater Site A Favorable Site B Site C Least Favorable Possible Engineering Components Increase storage by increasing depth and porosity of sub-base layers and amending sub-soils Evaluate potential mounding and migration of constituents to verify BMP will not impact groundwater

35 Site Constraints Adjacent to Existing Structures Space is Limited Adjacent to Existing Infrastructure/ Utilities Site A Favorable Site B Site C Least Favorable Possible Engineering Components Provide underdrains and/or liners to prevent seepage from damaging existing structures Evaluate the potential to provide greater storage below ground or provide storage through green roofs, rain barrels or other rain collection techniques Provide underdrains and/or liners to prevent seepage from damaging existing structures

36 Site Constraints Site A Favorable Site B Site C Least Favorable Possible Engineering Components Proximity to Foundation Provide underdrains and/or liners to prevent seepage from damaging existing structures Potential Slope Stability Issues Evaluate the potential for increased pore water pressure from increased infiltration Presence of Expansive Soils Provide underdrains and/or liners to prevent seepage from damaging existing structures. Rely on evapotranspiration as primary function rather than infiltration

37 LID Pollution Control/Treatment BMP Cost Effectiveness Increasing Cost Increased Runoff Volume / Pollutant Load Reduction

38 Programmatic BMP - Cost Effectiveness Analysis Increasing Cost Structural Treatment Train BMP LID Treatment BMP Site B LID Treatment BMP Site A Aggressive Street Sweeping 30% 60% 80% Increasing Stormwater Volume / Pollutant Load Reduction Achieved Load Reduction Goal

39 LID Pollution Control BMPs Design Considerations Retrofit and Infill Development Need to Consider Climatic Conditions Southern California Low Annual Precipitation Long Hot Dry Weather Season Intensified in Urban Areas LID Bioretention, Filters, Bio-swales, Greenroofs Extreme Conditions Need for Irrigation

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41 QUESTIONS?

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