TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT MANUAL 304 LADDER PRACTICES EXTENSION LADDERS EFFECTIVE: OCTOBER 2007

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1 TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT MANUAL 304 LADDER PRACTICES EXTENSION LADDERS EFFECTIVE: OCTOBER 2007 The Department utilizes 10-foot, 14-foot, 24-foot, and 35-foot extension ladders. Extension ladders differ from straight ladders in that they are made up of two or more sections (a bed section and one or two fly sections) and may have a halyard. They are generally heavier than straight ladders and may require more than one firefighter to carry and raise. The 10- and 14-foot extension ladders are Fresno attic ladders and are discussed in this Manual under Section , Specialty Ladders. The following includes directions on how to raise ladders perpendicular to buildings. As with all ladders, sufficient room may not be available to raise the extension ladder in this manner and the firefighters on scene must be able to adapt. In instances where a perpendicular raise cannot be performed, the ladder may be raised parallel to the building and then rotated 90 degrees, ensuring the halyard ends up in the proper location. 24-FOOT EXTENSION LADDER The 24-foot extension ladder is the longest of the three ladders carried on engine companies. It is also carried on all truck companies. It is deployed by one firefighter and used primarily to gain access to first-story roofs and second-story windows. How to Carry 24-Foot Extension Ladder Shoulder Carry 1. Remove ladder from apparatus. 2. Place ladder onto right shoulder, butt forward, with fly away from the firefighter. 3. Place right hand on bottom beam and left hand on top beam. 4. Balance ladder and adjust left hand so as not to obstruct vision. 5. Proceed to desired location, checking for obstructions. Page 1 of 20

2 How to Raise 24-Foot Extension Ladder 1. At proper location and distance from building, place spur of lower beam on ground and raise ladder to an almost vertical position. (See Figure 1.) Figure 1 2. Pivot ladder counter-clockwise until ladder is square with building. Then set spur of left beam on ground. (See Figures 2 and 3.) Figure 2 Figure 3 Page 2 of 20

3 3. When the ladder is balanced vertically, hook left foot around rear of left beam, placing left knee against front of left beam to help steady the ladder. Grasp the halyard with both hands, placing left forearm against the left beam. (See Figure 4.) Figure 4 4. While watching the top of ladder, pull down on halyard (hand-overhand) until desired height of fly section is reached. Vertical stability of ladder is easily maintained by pushing ladder away with left forearm or pulling in with the halyard. 5. Lock dogs on the desired rung of bed section by raising fly section until the pawls are slightly above the desired rung, then lowering fly section until both pawls engage the rung. 6. Place top of ladder against building by grasping beams with both hands at about shoulder height and placing a foot on the center of bottom rung while leaning the top of ladder in toward building. Page 3 of 20

4 7. While still grasping beams, remove left foot from bottom rung and rotate ladder 180 degrees. The halyard will be against the building. (See Figure 5.) Figure 5 8. Adjust ladder to the proper climbing angle. Lowering the Ladder 1. Move base of ladder halfway toward building using second and fifth rungs, and check for obstructions behind. 2. Reverse above operations, ensuring dogs are locked on the second rung of the bed section prior to moving the ladder and that the area is clear of hazards behind location. (See Figure 6). Figure 6 Page 4 of 20

5 Lifting a 24-Foot Extension Ladder From the Ground 1. With the ladder resting flat on the ground to the left, fly section on top, face tip of the ladder, standing approximately two-thirds the distance toward tip of the ladder. (See Figure 7.) 2. With back straight, squat and grasp nearest beam with left hand. (See Figure 8.) Figure 7 Figure 8 3. Lift the left hand, rotating the ladder onto the bottom beam and step close to the ladder. (See Figure 9.) 4. With back straight, lift ladder using legs and pivot right shoulder under bottom beam. Place right hand on bottom beam and keep left hand on the top beam. (See Figure 10.) Figure 9 Figure 10 Page 5 of 20

6 5. Walk down ladder until right shoulder reaches balance point. Lift butt of ladder off ground and proceed with carry. Butt of ladder should be slightly lower than tip as firefighter proceeds. (See Figure 11.) Figure 11 Lowering Ladder From Shoulder Carry to Ground 1. Tilt lower beam forward and place butt of ladder on ground. (See Figure 12.) 2. Walk ladder down until firefighter approaches tip of ladder. (See Figure 13.) Figure 12 Figure Maintain grip on the top beam, pivot body to the right, and lower ladder to ground. Page 6 of 20

7 4. Place the bottom beam on ground using leg muscles while keeping back straight. (See Figure 14.) Figure Step to the right and lower top beam to the ground. Note: When all steps are completed, the bed of ladder should be resting on ground. 35-FOOT EXTENSION LADDER The 35-foot extension ladder is carried on all truck companies. It is usually bedded in apparatus on its beam with the butt end of the ladder to the rear of the apparatus. The ladder may have either solid- or truss-beam construction and comes in both two and three sections. The 35-foot extension ladder is primarily used to gain access to second-story roofs and third-story windows. Under optimum conditions, the 35-foot extension ladder is carried and raised by three firefighters. A two-person method of deployment is also utilized. The ladder is carried to the desired location in a flat position, at arm s length. The firefighter at the base directs and vocalizes all operations with this ladder. Three-Person Method: Carrying the 35-Foot Extension Ladder 1. The command firefighter takes a position at the first rung at the base of the ladder, on either the right or left side. This firefighter will be referred to as the base firefighter. 2. The firefighter at the middle takes a position midway between the base and top end of the ladder, on the side opposite from the base firefighter. Page 7 of 20

8 3. The firefighter at the rear takes a position at the last rung at the tip end of the ladder and on the same side of the ladder as the base firefighter. 4. At the command of the base firefighter, all firefighters lift the ladder simultaneously by grasping the rungs with the palms of the hands facing forward. (See Figure 15.) 5. Carry ladder to desired location. (See Figure 16.) Figure 15 Figure The base firefighter directs, properly locates, and spots the base of ladder. Place ladder flat on the ground. 7. If needed, rotate ladder 180 degrees toward the middle firefighter so that halyard is on top. (See Figure 17.) Figure 17 Page 8 of 20

9 Note: The base firefighter guides the ladder while enroute to location, using free hand to prevent injury to bystanders. Three-Person Method: Raising Ladder Perpendicular to Building 1. Base firefighter directs team in properly spotting the ladder. Base firefighter must ensure the ladder will be in the correct raising position with the halyard on top. 2. Base firefighter heels ladder by standing on bottom rung, crouching down, and grasping a convenient rung with both hands. (See Figure 18.) 3. Beam firefighters position themselves approximately two-thirds of the way up from the base, facing toward the tip of the ladder. They then kneel down and grasp the closest beam with their inside hands (See Figure 19.) Figure 18 Figure 19 Page 9 of 20

10 4. At the command of the base firefighter, the beam firefighters raise the ladder overhead, simultaneously pivoting under the ladder toward the butt end. (See Figure 20.) 5. The beam firefighters walk the ladder up with both hands on the beams. At the same time, the base firefighter helps by leaning back and walking his/her hands up the rungs as the ladder comes to a vertical position. (See Figure 21.) Figure 20 Figure As ladder reaches a vertical position, the base firefighter dismounts and grasps the beams. The two beam firefighters grasp the beams on the opposite side, crossing each others arms for better control of the ladder. Each places their outside foot against the outer portion of the beam for support. (See Figure 22.) Figure The base firefighter grasps the halyard with both hands and raises the fly section. Page 10 of 20

11 8. The beam firefighters, looking up, will check for proper height as the base firefighter pulls the halyard. When the fly section is high enough, the beam firefighters give the command ladder high, and the base firefighter will then lock the fly. (See Figure 23). Figure 23 Note: The base firefighter is obligated to give a warning as the fly section is raised so no fingers are injured during this evolution. 9. The beam firefighters remain in position after the fly is raised. The base firefighter grasps the beams with both hands, about shoulder height, and takes a boxer s stance with one foot forward for balance. The beam firefighters place their inside feet on the bottom rung. 10. The beam firefighters, using the weight of their bodies to prevent base of the ladder from sliding out, lower the top of the ladder against the building with the firefighter at the base maintaining ladder balance at all times. (See Figure 24.) Figure 24 Page 11 of 20

12 Note: The beam firefighters watch for falling debris and glass. The base firefighter never looks up during this phase because of the possibility of falling debris. 11. The beam firefighters adjust the ladder for the proper climbing angle using the second and fifth rungs. (See Figure 25.) Note: Base firefighter must maintain control of the halyard. The halyard is then wrapped around two convenient rungs and secured with a clove hitch and overhand safety, ensuring that both sections of the halyard are captured (Figure 26). Figure 25 Figure 26 Two-Person Method: Carrying the 35-Foot Extension Ladder 1. The base firefighter takes a position at the first rung at the base of the ladder, on either the right or left side. 2. The second firefighter takes a position at the last rung at the tip end of the ladder and on the opposite side of the ladder as the base firefighter. Page 12 of 20

13 3. At the command of the base firefighter, both firefighters lift the ladder simultaneously by grasping the rungs with the palms of the hands facing forward. (See Figure 27.) Figure Carry ladder to desired location. The command firefighter directs, properly locates, and spots the base of ladder. Place the ladder flat on the ground. 5. If needed, rotate ladder 180 degrees on the command of the base firefighter so that halyard is on top. Two-Person Method: Raising Ladder Perpendicular to Building Raising a 35-foot extension ladder with two firefighters utilizes the same basic steps as the three-person method. The two-person method still requires one firefighter be positioned at the base of the ladder, but only one firefighter (tip firefighter) will be at the beams to raise the ladder. 1. Base firefighter directs the proper spotting of the ladder. Base firefighter must ensure the ladder will be in the correct raising position with the halyard on top. 2. The base firefighter heels ladder by standing on bottom rung, crouching down, and grasping a convenient rung with both hands. 3. The tip firefighter kneels down and grasps the beams. Page 13 of 20

14 4. At the command of the base firefighter, the tip firefighter stands and raises the ladder overhead. (See Figure 28.) 5. Tip firefighter walks the ladder up with both hands on beams. At the same time, the base firefighter is helping by leaning back and walking his/her hands up the rungs as the ladder comes to a vertical position. (See Figure 29.) Figure 28 Figure As ladder reaches a vertical position, the base firefighter dismounts and grasps the beams. The tip firefighter grasps the beams on the opposite side. 7. Both firefighters place their left foot along the outside of the beam. The base firefighter grasps the halyard with both hands and raises the fly section. (See Figure 30.) Figure 30 Page 14 of 20

15 8. The tip firefighter, looking up, will check for proper height as the base firefighter pulls the halyard. When the fly section is high enough, the tip firefighter gives the command high, and the base firefighter will then lock the fly. Note: The base firefighter is obligated to give a warning as the fly section is raised so no fingers are injured during this evolution. 9. The tip firefighter remains in position after the fly is raised. The base firefighter grasps the beams with both hands, about shoulder height, and takes a boxer s stance with one foot forward for balance. The tip firefighter places his/her left foot on the center of the bottom rung. (See Figure 31.) 10. With tip firefighter using the weight of his/her body to prevent base of ladder from sliding out, top of ladder is lowered against building. Base firefighter maintains ladder balance at all times. Note: The tip firefighter watches for falling debris and glass. The base firefighter never looks up during this phase because of the possibility of falling debris. 11. Both the tip and base firefighters adjust the ladder for the proper climbing angle using the second and fifth rungs. (See Figure 32.) Figure 31 Figure 32 Note: The halyard is then wrapped around two convenient rungs and secured with a clove hitch and overhand safety. Page 15 of 20

16 Lowering the Ladder Perpendicular to Building 1. Two firefighters move base of ladder halfway toward building using second and fifth rungs. 2. Check for obstructions behind. 3. Reverse above operations, ensuring that pawls are locked on the second rung of the bed section prior to moving the ladder. Two- or Three-Person Method: Raising Ladder Parallel to Building At times there will not be sufficient room to raise the ladder perpendicular to the building. In such situations, the 35-foot extension ladder may be raised parallel to the building. The process is the same as the perpendicular raising method, except for the following steps. 1. With the 35-foot extension ladder in a vertical position, parallel to the building, both the base and tip or beam firefighters will have to rotate the ladder. All firefighters will be holding onto the beams. 2. The base firefighter will give the direction to tilt the ladder on the inside beam towards the building. (See Figure 33.) 3. At the direction of the base firefighter, the ladder will then be rotated 90 degrees toward the base firefighter. This will result with the base firefighter having his/her back to the building and the halyard in front of him/her. (See Figure 34.) Figure 33 Figure The remainder of the evolution is identical to the perpendicular raise. Page 16 of 20

17 Two- or Three-Person Method: Lowering the 35-Foot Ladder From Building 1. Using two firefighters and utilizing the second and fifth rungs, move base of ladder about halfway towards the building. 2. Base firefighter unties halyard. 3. Base firefighter places both hands on beams, at shoulder height, standing in a boxer s stance. Assisting firefighters place inside foot on bottom rung and grasp beams as previously described. 4. The base firefighter helps push the top of ladder away from the building while the other firefighters pull the ladder to a vertical position. 5. All firefighters remove feet from bottom rung. 6. Lower the fly section making sure the halyard does not slide through hands. Note: The base firefighter is obligated to give a warning as the fly section is lowered so no fingers are injured during this evolution. 7. Rotate ladder, if needed, to facilitate lowering. 8. Base firefighter stands on bottom rung and grasps a convenient rung with both hands. 9. Beam firefighters or tip firefighter lower ladder by moving hands along beams hand-over-hand towards the tip of the ladder. Note: While the ladder is being lowered, the base firefighter leans back and moves hands down the rungs hand-over-hand toward the butt of ladder. 10. With three firefighters, the base firefighter gives the command shoulder ladder when the beam firefighters reach approximately two-thirds of the way towards the tip. With the two-person method, the tip firefighter proceeds back towards the tip, with the base firefighter giving the shoulder ladder command just prior to the firefighter reaching the tip. Page 17 of 20

18 11. Beam firefighters lower ladder beam onto their inside shoulders, pivot toward tip of ladder, grasping upper beam, and lower ladder in flat position to ground. With two-person method, tip firefighter squats, lowering ladder to ground. LADDERING FIRE ESCAPES Raising Extension Ladder to Fire Escape 1. Align the ladder vertically with the outside edge of the fire escape balcony and horizontally with the fire escape stairs. Ensure base of ladder is about 18 inches out from the railing, with the ladder beams in line with the fire escape stairs. (See Figure 35.) 2. Raise ladder until the tip of the fly section is about one-and-one-half rungs above the top fire escape railing. (See Figure 36.) 3. Lock the fly section and lay the tip of the ladder into the fire escape railing, (rotate ladder if needed) in line with the fire escape stairs. (See Figure 37.) Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Page 18 of 20

19 4. On fire escapes with two top rails, lock the tip of the ladder into the railing. Move the base of the ladder out until the tip of the ladder drops under the top horizontal railing of the fire escape. Push the ladder base back in toward the building to ensure the ladder tip locks in on the fire escape. (See Figure 38.) On fire escapes with only one top rail, rest the ladder on the top rail and secure the ladder to the top rail using a hose strap. Place a lark s foot around the rung and a clove hitch on the top rail. (Figures 39 and 40.) Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Page 19 of 20

20 Lowering Ladder From Fire Escape 1. To lower the ladder from the fire escape, untie hose strap if utilized, move the base of the ladder out slightly to unlock the tip end of the ladder from the fire escape railing. Bring the ladder to a vertical position and lower the fly section. Lower the ladder. MOVING A RAISED LADDER HORIZONTALLY If it should become necessary to move a raised ladder a short distance, as from one window to another, it may be moved without lowering the ladder. If the ladder is 20 feet or less and does not have a raised fly section, one firefighter may move it. When the ladder length is greater than 20 feet, the ladder should be lowered and raised in its new position. 1. Raise ladder to a vertical position as previously described. 2. Using two firefighters, if needed, grasp second and fifth rungs, lift base of ladder, balance, and move to desired location. (See Figure 41.) Figure 41 Page 20 of 20

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