1 Topical Fire report SerieS Volume 11, Issue 7 / February 2011 Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS These topical reports are designed to explore facets of the U.S. fire problem as depicted through data collected in the U.S. Fire Administration s (USFA s) National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS). Each topical report briefly addresses the nature of the specific fire or fire-related topic, highlights important findings from the data, and may suggest other resources to consider for further information. Also included are recent examples of fire incidents that demonstrate some of the issues addressed in the report or that put the report topic in context. Findings Between 2006 and 2008, an estimated 81,070 firefighter injuries occurred annually. Of this number, 39,715 occurred on the fireground and 4,880 occurred while responding/returning from an incident. The majority of fire-related firefighter injuries (87 percent) occur in structure fires. In addition, on average, structure fires have more injuries per fire than nonstructure fires. Thirty-eight percent of all fire-related firefighter injuries resulted in lost work time. Firefighter injury fires are more prevalent in July (10 percent) and peak between the hours of 2 and 5 p.m. Overexertion/Strain is the cause of 25 percent of fire-related firefighter injuries reported to NFIRS. Every occupation brings degrees of safety risk. At the fire scene, on the way to or from a fire, or even while training, firefighters face the chance of suffering an injury and possibly death. Each year, tens of thousands of firefighters are injured while fighting fires, rescuing people, responding to emergency medical incidents, responding to hazardous material incidents, or training for their job. Between the years of 2006 and 2008, there were an estimated 81,070 firefighter injuries of which 39,715 occurred on the fireground. 1 While the majority of injuries are minor, a significant number are debilitating and careerending. Such injuries exact a great toll on the fabric of the fire service. From the need to adjust staffing levels and rotations to accommodate injuries, to the focus of the fire service on injury prevention, injuries and their prevention are a primary concern. In addition, the fire service has done much to improve firefighter safety. Firefighter health and safety initiatives, incident command structure, training, and protective gear are but a few areas where time, energy, and resources have been well-spent. Nonetheless, firefighting is, by its very nature, a hazardous profession. Injuries can and do occur. This topical report addresses the details of firefighter injuries sustained at or responding to a fire incident, focusing on data submitted to the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) 2006 to The statistics presented are from the analysis of the 2006 to 2008 NFIRS, version 5.0 data. 2 Fire-Related by Property Type Eighty-seven percent of firefighter injuries reported to NFIRS from 2006 to 2008 were associated with structure fires (Figure 1). Three times as many firefighter injuries occur in residential structures than in nonresidential structures, tracking with overall residential/nonresidential fire incidence. Overall, firefighter injuries in residential structures account for 65 percent of firefighter injuries, a majority of which occur in residential building fires. 3 Building fires also make up more than half of the firefighter injuries in structure fires on nonresidential properties. Outside, vehicle, and other fires combined represent 13 percent of firefighter injuries from 2006 to U.S. Department of Homeland Security U.S. Fire Administration National Fire Data Center Emmitsburg, Maryland
2 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 2 Figure 1. Fire-Related by General Property Type, Structures on Residential Property Buildings Structures on Nonresidential Property Buildings Vehicle 4.0 Outside 8.3 Other Percent of Fire-Related Notes: The vehicle incident type includes all vehicular incidents regardless of the mobile property involvement. Total may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. Fire-Related per Fire Firefighters are nearly 13 times more likely to be injured in structure fires than in nonstructure fires (e.g., vehicle fires, outdoor fires) as shown in Table 1. Building fire injury rates are shown separately in Table 2. Table 1. Fire-Related Firefighter Injury Rates per 1,000 Fires by Incident Type ( ) Incident Type All Fires Structure 13.5 Residential 13.2 Nonresidential 14.9 Nonstructure 1.1 Vehicle Outside and other 1.0 Total/Overall 5.5 Note: The vehicle incident type includes all vehicular incidents regardless of the mobile property involvement. Table 2. Fire-Related Firefighter Injury Rates per 1,000 Building Fires by Incident Type ( ) Incident Type Fires Buildings 12.5 Residential 13.0 Nonresidential 10.5 When Fire-Related Occur As shown in Figure 2, firefighter injuries occur most frequently in the midday, peaking from 2 to 5 p.m. After 5 p.m., firefighter injuries decrease until midnight. A small peak is then seen from midnight to 5 a.m. After 5 a.m., the numbers of injuries decrease, reaching the lowest point between 6 and 7 a.m. After 7 a.m., the number of firefighter injuries gradually increase to the start of the peak at noon. The peak period (2 to 5 p.m.) accounts for 17 percent of firefighter injuries. 5 The time of injury profile tracks with the time of alarm for fires overall.
3 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 3 Figure 2. Fires Resulting in by Time of Alarm ( ) 8.0 Percent of Fires Fires Resulting in Fires Mid-1AM 1AM-2AM 2AM-3AM 3AM-4AM 4AM-5AM 5AM-6AM 6AM-7AM 7AM-8AM 8AM-9AM 9AM-10AM 10AM-11AM 11AM-12PM 12PM-1PM 1PM-2PM 2PM-3PM 3PM-4PM 4PM-5PM 5PM-6PM 6PM-7PM 7PM-8PM 8PM-9PM 9PM-10PM 10PM-11PM 11PM-Mid Note: Total may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. Time of Alarm Figure 3 illustrates that firefighter injuries are highest in the summer and lowest in the fall. The summer peak occurs during July (10 percent). Firefighter injuries are lowest in Percent of Fires October (7 percent). The month of injury profile tracks with the time of alarm for fires overall. Figure 3. Fires Resulting in by Month ( ) January February March April 8.4 May 8.8 June Month 9.8 July 8.9 August 7.1 September October November 8.1 Fires Resulting in Fires December Cause and Nature of Fire-Related Twenty-five percent of all firefighter injuries are caused by overexertion/strain as shown in Figure 4. The next four leading causes combined account for approximately 58 percent of firefighter injuries: exposure to hazard (20 percent), contact with object (firefighter moved into/onto) (16 percent), slip/trip (12 percent), and fall (10 percent). Not surprisingly, the leading nature of injury is strain, closely associated with overexertion/strain as the cause of the injury (Figure 5).
4 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 4 Figure 4. Fire-Related by Cause of Injury ( ) Overexertion/Strain 24.9 Exposure to hazard 20.0 Contact with obect 15.8 Slip/Trip 12.0 Fall Cause of injury, other Struck or assaulted 7.4 Jump Percent of Fire-Related Notes: Only includes injuries where cause of injury was provided. Total may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. Figure 5. Fire-Related by Nature of Injury, Strain Wound/Bleeding Burns Other Dizziness/Exhaustion/Dehydration Asphyxiation/Respiratory Fracture/Dislocation Cardiovascular Sickness None Percent of Fire-Related Notes: Only includes injuries where nature of injury was provided. Total may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. Severity of Fire-Related More than half of firefighter injuries (62 percent) result in no lost work time as shown in Table 3. These injuries are treated on scene with first aid or treated after the incident by a physician either at a medical facility or in a doctor s office. About 38 percent of firefighter injuries result in lost work time. The majority of the lost work time injuries (95 percent of lost work time injuries or 36 percent of all firerelated firefighter injuries) are moderate in severity. Severe or life-threatening injuries account for 2 percent of firefighter injuries.
5 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 5 Table 3. Severity of Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries ( ) Table 4. Percent of Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries by Gender ( ) Severity Percent of Fire-Related First aid only, no lost time 26.4 Treated by physician, no lost time 35.1 Moderate severity, lost-time injury 36.4 Severe, lost-time injury 1.7 Life threatening, lost-time injury 0.4 Total Note: Only includes injuries where severity was included. Fire-Related by Age and Gender Table 4 shows the percent of firefighter injuries based on gender. A majority of all firefighter injuries, 95 percent, are sustained by males. This statistic is consistent with the composition of the fire service during this period males constituted 95 percent of firefighters between 2004 and Age Gender Percent of Fire-Related Male 95.0 Female 5.0 Total Figure 6 shows two different profiles of firefighter injuries by age and gender. The left graphic shows male and female injuries as a percent of the total injuries (all bars add to 100 percent). The right graphic shows the age distribution of injuries by gender (each distribution adds to 100 percent). Both graphs show that male firefighter injuries peak between ages and female firefighter injuries peak between ages and Overall, one-third of all injuries (33 percent) occur to firefighters aged Figure 6. Fire-Related by Age and Gender ( ) Male Female Percent of Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries Notes: Only includes incidents where age and gender were provided. Totals may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. The types of injuries incurred by firefighters vary with age. The leading causes of injury among younger firefighters relate to exposure to hazards, while among older firefighters, overexertion/strains are the most common injuries. These results relate to physical fitness variations with age and the effect of age on type of assignments, among other factors. Age Male Female Percent of Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries Fire-Related by Affiliation and Age Injuries to career firefighters are the largest share (66 percent) of the reported injuries (Table 5). Nationally, only 28 percent of the fire service is career firefighters. 7
6 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 6 Table 5. Fire-Related by Affiliation ( ) Affiliation Percent of Fire-Related Career 65.5 Volunteer 34.5 Total Note: Only includes injuries where affiliation was provided. As shown in Figure 7, injuries to career firefighters tend to occur in midcareer (ages 30 45) with the peak between ages 35 and 39. Injuries to volunteers, on the other hand, are sustained predominately by the younger members of the organization. Firefighters under the age of 25 account for 29 percent of injuries in the volunteer service. Figure 7. Career and Volunteer Fire-Related by Age ( ) 25.0 Percent of Fire-Related Career Volunteer Age Notes: Only includes injuries where the age of the firefighter was between 15 and 99 and affiliation was provided. Totals may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. Career firefighters also experience proportionally more losttime injuries than their volunteer counterparts (approximately 2 to 1) as shown in Table 6. Volunteer firefighters, on the other hand, receive far more no lost-time injuries. Table 6. Overall Comparison of Fire-Related Firefighter Injury Severity by Affiliation ( ) Part of Body Injured in Fire-Related Forty-one percent of firefighter injuries were to the upper and lower extremities (torso, arms/hands, and legs/feet) (Figure 8). The head and shoulder regions account for an additional 26 percent of injuries. Affiliation Severity No Lost-time Lost-time Total Overall Career Volunteer Note: Only includes injuries where affiliation and severity were provided.
7 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 7 Figure 8. Fire-Related by Part of Body Injured ( ) Upper extremities Lower extremities Head area Neck, throat, shoulder Multiple body parts Thorax Internal None Spine Abdomen, pelvis, hip area Other part of body Note: Only includes injuries where part of body injured was provided. Location of Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries and Type of Activity When Injured Ninety-five percent of all firefighter injuries occur at the scene (Table 7). Fifty percent of these injuries occur outside the structure and 45 percent occur inside the structure. All other locations produce far fewer injuries. As shown in Figure 9, the largest percent of firefighter injuries occur while extinguishing the fire/neutralizing the incident (51 percent). This is followed by suppression support and other incident scene activity, which make up 25 percent and 8 percent of firefighter injuries, respectively Percent of Fire-Related Table 7. Location of Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries ( ) Location Where Injured Percent At scene, outside structure 50.4 At scene, inside structure 44.6 At fire department location 2.4 En route/returning 1.6 Location, other 1.0 Total Note: Only includes injuries where type of location when injury occurred was provided. Figure 9. Fire-Related by Type of Activity ( ) Extinguishing fire/neutralizing incident Suppression support Other incident scene activity EMS/Rescue Driving or riding vehicle Access or egress Operating fire department apparatus Administrative activity Activity, other Station activity Note: Only includes injuries where type of activity was provided Percent of Fire-Related
8 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 8 Factor Contributing to Injury in Fire- Related When a factor was specified as contributing to the firefighter s injury, fire development fire progress, smoky conditions, and the like and slippery and uneven surfaces account for 53 percent of firefighter injuries, with fire development as the leading factor contributing to injury (Table 8). The third and fourth general factors contributing to injury include other factor and collapse or falling object making up 21 and 15 percent, respectively. Table 8. General Factor Contributing to Fire- Related ( ) General Factor Contributing to Injury Percent Fire development 30.5 Slippery or uneven surfaces 22.2 Other factor 20.6 Collapse or falling object 15.4 Holes 4.1 Vehicle or apparatus issue 3.4 Lost, caught, trapped, or confined 2.9 Civil unrest/hostile acts 0.9 Total Note: Only includes injuries where a factor contributing to injury was provided. Protective Equipment Failure in Fire- Related Very few of the firefighter injuries reported to NFIRS indicate problems with firefighter protective gear only 9 percent indicate protective gear failures as a factor in the injury. Modern equipment and equipment standards, combined with current equipment replacement cycles, may preclude protective equipment failures. Firefighter gloves with wristlets, positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), and hoods account for 32 percent of equipment problems. Responses and Physical Condition Prior to Injury in Fire-Related Most firefighters (83 percent) reported being well-rested before their injury this applies to both minor and severe injuries as shown in Table 9. Table 9. Firefighter Physical Condition Prior to Fire-Related Injury ( ) Physical Severity Condition Overall Prior to Injury No Lost-time Lost-time Rested Fatigued Ill or injured Physical condition, other Total Notes: Only includes injuries where the physical condition and severity of injury were provided. Totals may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. The number of fire department responses attended prior to the injury, however, does appear to result in more severe injuries. Table 10 shows that firefighters with one or more responses in the immediate 24-hour period prior to the time of injury have a higher percentage of lost-time injuries than firefighters who reported no prior responses. It is important to note, however, that 71 percent of all firefighter injuries occur when a firefighter has had no prior responses. Table 10. Responses Prior to Fire-Related ( ) Number of Severity Responses Total Overall Prior to Injury No Lost-time Lost-time No prior responses One prior response Two prior responses Three prior responses Four or more prior responses Overall Total Notes: Only includes injuries where number of responses prior to injury and severity of injury were provided. Overall percentage total may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. Type of Medical Care for Fire-Related Regardless of the apparent severity of an injury, it is a common safety precaution to transport an injured firefighter to a hospital. Sixty-three percent of the reported firefighter injuries are treated at hospitals (Figure 10). Another 28 percent are treated but not transported. Very few firefighters seek medical care for fire-related injuries at a doctor s office.
9 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 9 Figure 10. Fire-Related by Where Treated ( ) Hospital 63.0 Not transported 27.9 Doctor's office 5.2 Station or quarters 2.4 Taken to, other 1.0 Residence Percent of Fire-Related Notes: Only includes injuries where treatment information was provided. Total may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. Examples The following are some examples of firefighter injuries reported by the media: October 2009: A fire on the second floor and attic of a single-family home in Los Angeles, CA, resulted in one firefighter injury. The firefighter received first degree burns to his left upper arm and right hand, and second degree burns to his left ear. He was treated on scene before being sent to the hospital. A total of 51 Los Angeles Fire Department personnel were sent to the fire. 8 March 2010: A firefighter fell 30 feet from the roof of a 2 1/2-story vacant house in Chicago, IL, while trying to extinguish an attic fire. The firefighter suffered a back injury and a few small fractures. He was fortunate not to break his femur or ankles as he landed on his feet. 9 February 2010: An apartment fire in Fairfax County, VA, injured two firefighters. The fire started on a third floor balcony and spread to the third floor attic and roof areas. The two firefighter injuries occurred when the third floor roof collapsed. One of the firefighters fell from a burning balcony on the third floor, while the other suffered injuries from the fire. Neither of the firefighter injuries was life-threatening. Improper disposal of fireplace ashes was the cause of the fire. 10 April 2010: In Potomac, MD, a firefighter was injured in a house fire when the second-story ceiling collapsed as the firefighters were evacuating the home. The fire, which was caused by a gas stove on the first floor, began at about 12:30 a.m. 11 NFIRS Data Specifications for Fire-Related Data for this report were extracted from the NFIRS annual Public Data Release (PDR) files for 2006, 2007, and Only version 5.0 data were extracted. All fires were included. Incident Type is determined by the following categories: Incident Type Description 100, 163 Other fires Structure fires Vehicle fires , Outside Note that Incident Type 110s were not included in the analysis. Buildings are defined as structure fires with the following criteria: For Incident Types : 1 Enclosed building, 2 Fixed portable or mobile structure, and Structure Type not specified (null entry).
10 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 10 For Incident Types 111, 112, and : 1 Enclosed building, and 2 Fixed portable or mobile structure. Incident Type 112 is included prior to 2008 as previous analyses have shown that Incident Types 111 and 112 were used interchangeably. As of 2008, Incident Type 112 is excluded. Aid Types 3 (mutual aid given) and 4 (automatic aid given) are included to allow for proper counting of firefighter injuries. Residential and nonresidential are defined by: Residential Property Use Nonresidential Property Use except The analyses contained in this report reflect the current methodologies used by the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA). The USFA is committed to providing the best and most current information on the United States fire problem, continually examining its data and methodology to fulfill this goal. Because of this commitment, data collection strategies and methodological changes are possible and do occur. As a result, analyses and estimates of the fire problem may change slightly over time. Previous analyses and estimates on specific issues (or similar issues) may have used different methodologies or data definitions and may not be directly comparable to the current ones. To request additional information or to comment on this report, visit feedback/index.jsp Notes: 1 Injury estimates are from the National Fire Protection Association s (NFPA) in the United States 2008, Michael J. Karter, Jr. and Joseph L. Molis, October 2009, and previous reports in the series. An average of the NFPA estimate of firefighter fireground injuries was taken for the 3-year period. A portion of the NFPA estimate of injuries categorized as responding to or from an incident (which includes, but is not limited to fires) should be added to the estimate shown here. The 3-year average of the NFPA estimate of firefighter injuries incurred while responding to or returning from an incident is 4, Firefighter injuries reported to NFIRS may be the result of operations at the fire scene or responding to or returning from an incident. 3 In NFIRS, version 5.0, a structure is a constructed item of which a building is one type. In previous versions of NFIRS, the term residential structure commonly referred to buildings where people live. To coincide with this concept, the definition of a residential structure fire for NFIRS 5.0 has, therefore, changed to include only those fires where the NFIRS 5.0 Structure Type is 1 or 2 (enclosed building and fixed portable or mobile structure) with a residential property use. Such fires are referred to as residential buildings to distinguish these buildings from other structures on residential properties that may include fences, sheds, and other uninhabitable structures. Confined fire incidents that have a residential property use, but do not have a structure type specified, are presumed to be buildings. Nonconfined fire incidents without a structure type specified are considered to be invalid incidents (structure type is a required field) and are not included. 4 For the analysis in Table 1, all vehicular incidents are included. This includes mobile property not involved in ignition, but burned, mobile property involved in ignition and burned, and mobile property involved in ignition but did not itself burn. 5 For the purposes of this report, the time of the fire alarm is used as an approximation for the general time the fire started. However, in NFIRS, it is the time the fire was reported to the fire department. 6 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, as reported in: Michael J. Karter, Jr. and Gary P. Stein. U.S. Fire Department Profile through 2008, National Fire Protection Association, October Michael J. Karter, Jr. and Gary P. Stein. U.S. Fire Department Profile through 2008, National Fire Protection Association, October Brian Humphrey. Firefighter Injured Tackling Atwater Village Blaze, lafd.blogspot.com, October 21, blogspot.com/2009/10/firefighter-injured-tackling-atwater.html (accessed April 27, 2010).
11 TFRS Volume 11, Issue 7/Fire-Related Reported to NFIRS Page 11 9 Carlos Sadovi and Deanese Williams-Harris. Firefighter injured in fall at South Side blaze, chicagobreakingnews.com, March 23, (accessed April 27, 2010). 10 Fairfax County Firefighters Injured in Fair Oaks Apartment Fire, news.synavista.com, February 11, news.synavista.com/fairfax-county-firefighters-injured-in-fair-oaks-apartment-fire/ (accessed April 27, 2010). 11 Jeanette Der Bedrosian. Firefighter injured while battling Potomac house fire, gazette.net, April 11, gazette.net/stories/ /montnew75627_32577.php (accessed August 8, 2010).
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EMS POLICIES AND PROCEDURES POLICY #: 13 EFFECT DATE: xx/xx/05 PAGE: 1 of 4 *** DRAFT *** SUBJECT: TRIAGE OF TRAUMA PATIENTS *** DRAFT *** APPROVED BY: I. PURPOSE Art Lathrop, EMS Director Joseph A. Barger,
HEALTH AND SAFETY REDUCING ACCIDENTS IN KITCHENS HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT SPRING 2006 CONTENTS 1. WHAT CAUSES ACCIDENTS?...2 2. WHO GETS INJURED?...2 3. SLIPS...2 4. TRIPS...3 5. SCALDS AND BURNS...3 6. MACHINERY
In The Curriculum of Associate Degree in Fire & Rescue Techniques Consists of (72 Credit Hours) as follows: SERIAL NO. First Second Third REQUIREMENTS University Requirements Engineering Program Requirements
Restricted work due to workplace injuries: a historical perspective In anticipation of upcoming data on worker characteristics and on case circumstances surrounding workplace injuries that result in job
TOWN OF WAYLAND POSITION DESCRIPTION Title: Department: Appointing Authority: Affiliation: Assistant Fire Chief Fire Fire Chief Non-Union Grade: N-9 Personnel Board Approved: 02/29/16 Summary of Duties
DAUPHIN FIRE DEPARTMENT Dedicated to the Protection of Life and Property Recruitment Package EST. 1901 Are you interested in serving your community? The and its members have been serving the citizens for
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State of Oregon Department of Public Safety Standards and Training NFPA Fire Fighter II Task Book Task Book Assigned To: Name DPSST Fire Service # Department Name Date Initiated Signature of Department
OFFICE OF THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL DELAWARE Data Entry in NFIRS 5.0 Step by Step Instructions State NFIRS Program Manager Lily Medina Office of the State Fire Marshal Delaware Fire Service Center 1537 Chestnut
FIRE LOSS STATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN RELATING FAILURE AND BUILDING DAMAGE TO THE BUILDING CODE OBJECTIVES P.L. Senez*, K.D. Calder, Hsing H (Isabella) Li Sereca Fire Consulting Ltd., Canada INTRODUCTION
TEXAS STATE FIRE MARSHAL'S OFFICE Firefighter Fatality Investigation Investigation Number FY 12-04 Firefighter William Richard Danes Brazos County Precinct 3 Volunteer Fire Department May 17, 2012 Texas
E PLURIBUS UNUM NATIONAL TRA SAFE T Y N S PORTATION B OAR D National Transportation Safety Board Washington, D.C. 20594 Safety Recommendation Date: February 15, 2002 In reply refer to: R-02-4 Mr. Garry
THE CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF MISSISSAUGA FIRE & EMERGENCY SERVICES FEES AND CHARGES BY-LAW 292-14 WHEREAS section 2 of the Fire Protection and Prevention Act, 1997, S.O. 1997, c.4, as amended, authorizes
Smoke Alarms in U.S. Home Fires Marty Ahrens September 2011 National Fire Protection Association Fire Analysis and Research Division Smoke Alarms in U.S. Home Fires Marty Ahrens September 2011 National
Workers Compensation All work-related injuries or illnesses must be reported. If the injury is an emergency, arrange for appropriate medical treatment. The employee has the right to select his or her own
Note Taking Guide Firefighter Survival and Rescue Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute University of Maryland Steven T. Edwards, Director Fall 2012 Copyright 2012 by the Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute.
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OSHA s Focus Four Mitigating Jobsite Hazards By Pete Rice, CSP, CIH, REHS Construction is among the most dangerous industries in the country. In 2010, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicate
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(RIT) This section identifies the appropriate AHJ Occupational Health and Safety Regulation that pertains to RIT. It further defines the various levels of RIT, procedures for deployment and suggested equipment