Software Engineering CSCI Lesson 9 Project Management Part 1- Planning & Estimating. February 23, 2015

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1 Lesson 9 Project Management Part 1- Planning & Estimating February 23, 2015

2 Projects and Project Managers Project a [temporary] sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification. Project manager - the person responsible for supervising a systems project from initiation to conclusion 2

3 Project Management vs. Process Management Project management the process of scoping, planning, staffing, organizing, directing, and controlling the development of an acceptable system at a minimum cost within a specified time frame. Process management the activity of documenting, managing, and continually improving the process of systems development. 4

4 * Measures of Project Success 5

5 Causes of Project Failure Failure to establish upper-management commitment to the project Lack of organization s commitment to the methodology Taking shortcuts through or around the methodology Poor expectations management 6

6 * Project Management Functions 7

7 Project Management Tools & Techniques Gantt chart a bar chart used to depict project tasks against a calendar. PERT chart a graphical network model used to depict the interdependencies between a project s tasks. 8

8 Gantt Chart 9

9 Microsoft Project Gantt Chart 10

10 PERT Chart 11

11 Microsoft Project PERT Chart 12

12 Project Management Life Cycle 13

13 Activity 1 Negotiate Scope Scope the boundaries of a project the areas of a business that a project may (or may not) address. Includes answers to five basic questions regarding: Statement of work a narrative description of the work to be performed as part of a project. Common synonyms include scope statement, project definition, project overview, and document of understanding. 14

14 Statement of Work I. Purpose II. Background A. Problem, opportunity, or directive statement B. History leading to project request C. Project goal and objectives D. Product description III. Scope A. Stakeholders B. Data C. Processes D. Locations IV. Project Approach A. Route B. Deliverables V. Managerial Approach A. Team building considerations B. Manager and experience C. Training requirements (continued) 15

15 Statement of Work (concluded) V. Managerial Approach (continued) D. Meeting schedules E. Reporting methods and frequency F. Conflict management G. Scope management VI. Constraints A. Start date B. Deadlines C. Budget D. Technology VII. Ballpark Estimates A. Schedule B. Budget VIII. Conditions of Satisfaction A. Success criteria B. Assumptions C. Risks IX. Appendices 16

16 Activity 2 Identify Tasks Work breakdown structure (WBS) a graphical tool used to depict the hierarchical decomposition of the project into phases, activities, and tasks. Milestone an event signifying the completion of a major project deliverable. 17

17 Homework The linked Project Schedule Summary contains a list of Milestones and Deliverables for the Course Project. You are to use the information in the Project Schedule Summary to create a Work Breakdown Structure and a Gantt Chart for the course project which contains a task for each of the deliverables in the Project Schedule Summary. Your Gantt Chart shall use the milestone due dates specified in the table, and include intermediate due dates for the tasks listed under each milestone, indicating dependencies between tasks as appropriate. Your WBS and Gantt chart shall be created using your choice of Project Management software programs (Microsoft Project, Open Workbench, Project.Net, etc.). 18

18 Activity 3 Estimate Task Durations 1. Estimate the minimum amount of time it would take to perform the task the optimistic duration (OD). 2. Estimate the maximum amount of time it would take to perform the task the pessimistic duration (PD). 3. Estimate the expected duration (ED) that will be needed to perform the task. 4. Calculate a weighted average of the most likely duration (D) as follows: D = (1 x OD) + (4 x ED) + (1 x PD) 6 OD ED 3.33 days = (1 x 2 days) + (4 x 3 days) + (1 x 6 days) 6 PD 19

19 Metrics for the Size of a Product Task Duration based on size of product. Various methods for estimating size of product to be built: Lines of code (LOC, KDSI, KLOC) FFP Function Points Expert Judgement by Analogy Algorithmic Cost Estimation Models 20

20 * Lines of Code (LOC) Alternate metric Thousand delivered source instructions (KDSI) Problems with using LOC to estimate size of product: Estimation based on LOC is therefore doubly dangerous To start the estimation process, LOC in the finished product must be estimated The LOC estimate is then used to estimate the cost of the product an uncertain input to an uncertain cost estimator Object-Oriented & Classical Software Engineering, S. Schach, The McGraw-Hill Companies,

21 * FFP Metric For cost estimation of medium-scale data processing products The three basic structural elements of data processing products: Object-Oriented & Classical Software Engineering, S. Schach, The McGraw-Hill Companies,

22 FFP Metric (cont.) Given the number of files (Fi), flows (Fl), and processes (Pr) The size (S), cost (C) are given by S = Fi + Fl + Pr C = b S The constant b (efficiency or productivity) varies from organization to organization Object-Oriented & Classical Software Engineering, S. Schach, The McGraw-Hill Companies,

23 Function Points Based on the number of inputs (Inp), outputs (Out), inquiries (Inq), master files (Maf), interfaces (Inf) For any product, the size in function points is given by FP = 4 Inp + 5 Out + 4 Inq + 10 Maf + 7 Inf This is an oversimplification of a 3-step process Object-Oriented & Classical Software Engineering, S. Schach, The McGraw-Hill Companies,

24 Analysis of Function Points Like FFP, maintenance can be inaccurately measured It is possible to make major changes without changing: The number of files, flows, and processes; or The number of inputs, outputs, inquiries, master files, and interfaces In theory, it is possible to change every line of code without changing the number of lines of code Object-Oriented & Classical Software Engineering, S. Schach, The McGraw-Hill Companies,

25 Expert Judgment by Analogy Experts compare the target product to completed products Guesses can lead to hopelessly incorrect cost estimates Experts may recollect completed products inaccurately Human experts have biases However, the results of estimation by a broad group of experts may be accurate Object-Oriented & Classical Software Engineering, S. Schach, The McGraw-Hill Companies,

26 Bottom-up Approach Break the product into smaller components The smaller components may be easier to estimate However, there are process-level costs When using the object-oriented paradigm Independence of classes assists here However, interactions among classes complicate the estimation process Object-Oriented & Classical Software Engineering, S. Schach, The McGraw-Hill Companies,

27 Algorithmic Cost Estimation Models A metric is used as an input to a model to compute cost and duration An algorithmic model is unbiased, and therefore superior to expert opinion However, estimates are only as good as the underlying assumptions Examples SLIM Model Price S Model COnstructive COst MOdel (COCOMO) Object-Oriented & Classical Software Engineering, S. Schach, The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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