Geological Survey of Finland. Current Research

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Geological Survey of Finland. Current Research 2001-2002"

Transcription

1 Geological Survey of Finland Current Research edited by Sini Autio Geological Survey of Finland Espoo 2003

2 Autio, Sini (ed.) Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 36, 97 pages, 34 figures and 14 tables. The publication contains 10 articles outlining the current research at the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The articles are divided into 3 categories. At the end of the publication there is a list of publications by GTK staff in 2001 and An article in industrial mineral potential in Finland presents the high rate of the occurrence of the deposits. A scetch map shows the most promising exploration areas. The origin of the Petäiskoski carbonate veins at Juuka, eastern Finland has been studied to be associated with Svecofennian orogeny. Combined isotopic data indicate a hydrothermal process for the veins. Comparision on mechanical sieve size analyses and digital size analyses of Kemi chromite shows good correlation so, that size analysis of the ore using image manipulation can be used to predict ore breakage and mineral liberations can be obtained at certain grinds. Estimation of ferric iron, crystal water and calculation of chemical formulae for altered ilmenite from electron microprobe analyses, based on stoichiometric criteria. Silvery greyish nuggets from Ivalojoki placers, Finnish Lapland are interpreted as amalgamated gold nuggets resulting from historical gold recovery operations that utilized mercury. The store and long-term accumulation of iron, phosphorus and nitrogen in Finnish lake sediments are presented. The results of the Barents Ecogeochemistry project show, that local basic geology has a strong influence in element distribution in stream waters and in certain mosses. The inverse relationship between acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and total hardness of ground water is reconfirmed. Heavy metal enrichment factors for different analytical methods are studied and the results are compared. A case study on an ice-marginal deposit by airborne electromagnetic measurements is presented. Key words (GeoRef Thesaurus, AGI): Geological Survey of Finland, current research, programs, bibliography, Finland Sini Autio Geological Survey of Finland P.O. Box 96 FIN ESPOO, FINLAND ISBN ISSN Vammalan Kirjapaino Oy 2003

3 Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research , Edited by Sini Autio. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 36, CONTENTS Preface... 4 Mineral exploration and economic geology Industrial mineral potential in Finland, Olli Sarapää, Timo Ahtola, Jukka Reinikainen and Hannu Seppänen...5 The Petäiskoski carbonate veins at Juuka, eastern Finland, Matti Tyni, Kauko Puustinen, Juha Karhu and Matti Vaasjoki...13 Direct comparison on mechanical and digital size analyses of Kemi chromite, Finland Tegist Chernet and Jukka Marmo...17 Estimation of ferric iron, crystal water and calculation of chemical formulae for altered ilmenite from electron microprobe analyses, based on stoichiometric criteria, Tegist Chernet and Lassi Pakkanen...23 Mercury-rich coating on some gold nuggets from Ivalojoki placers, northern Finland, Kari A. Kinnunen...29 Environmental studies and geochemical applications Iron, phosphorus and nitrogen in Finnish lake sediments: their store and long-term accumulation, Hannu Pajunen and Jari Mäkinen...35 Barents Ecogeochemistry - a large geochemical baseline study of heavy metals and other elements in surficial deposits, NW-Russia and Finland, R. Salminen, I. Bogatyrev, V. Chekushin, S. P. Glavatskikh, V. Gregorauskiene, L. Selenok, M. Tenhola and O. Tomilina...45 Geochemistry of local ground water in relation to the incidence of chronic diseases, Anne Kousa and Maria Nikkarinen...53 Heavy metal enrichment factors for different analytical methods, Timo Tarvainen and Philipp Schmidt-Thomé...61 Geophysical applications Survey of a buried ice-marginal deposit by airborne EM measurements A case from Kyrönjoki valley plain in southern Ostrobothnia, Finland, P. Lintinen, I. Suppala, H. Vanhala and M. Eklund...67 Publications Papers published by Geological Survey of Finland staff in

4 Matti Sini Autio Tyni, Kauko (ed.) Puustinen, Juha Karhu and Matti Vaasjoki PREFACE The Geological Survey of Finland - GTK - performs its prime task by producing information to create conditions for sustainable raw materials supply and land use. GTK secures the mineral raw materials of the country with special reference to the constructing industry by indicating occurrences of industrial minerals and natural stones, as well as sand and gravel resources. The present Special Paper, for example, outlines the industrial-mineral potential of Finland and presents new geophysical methods for locating hidden Raimo sand-gravel Matikainen deposits. Increasing attention is paid to environmental studies with special Director reference General to geochemistry. GTK has been pioneer in regional geochemical studies and now plays a major role in genuine international cooperation in this field. An excellent example is given in the paper outlining results of the Barents Ecogeochemistry project, which is a large environmental baseline study of Northwest Europe extending from Finland to the Urals. Geochemistry of lake sediments in Finland and the Baltic Soil Survey project are presented. Geomedical applications of regional geochemical data explore new frontiers of geoscience by looking for the cause of chronic diseases in the geochemical features of the bedrock. This new Special Paper demonstrates that our research serves the society. Geoscience is changing by diversification and new applications, and GTK follows this trend being an active factor in service of society. Our publication record demonstrates that, besides massive data collection, GTK aims at innovative and high-level research. Professor Raimo Matikainen Director General 4

5 Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research , Edited by Sini Autio. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 36, 5 12, INDUSTRIAL MINERAL POTENTIAL IN FINLAND by Olli Sarapää, Timo Ahtola, Jukka Reinikainen and Hannu Seppänen Geological Survey of Finland, P.O. Box 96, FIN ESPOO, FINLAND Key words (GeoRef Thesaurus, AGI): industrial minerals, mineral exploration, potential deposits, titanium ores, ilmenite, marble deposits, resources, Kairineva, Kuovila, Hakala, Finland Introduction During the last five years the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has investigated industrial minerals, targeting in particular carbonate rocks in SW-Finland and ilmenite in western Finland. In 2001, the report of four industrial mineral deposits (Sarapää et al. 1999a, 2001): Hyypiämäki calcite, Iso-Sorro calcite-dolomite, Illo calcite deposit and the Peräneva ilmenite deposit were submitted to the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). Already in 2000, KTM sold the claim rights of the Järvenkylä calcite deposit to Nordkalk Co. and in 2002 Omya Oy acquired the rights of the Hyypiämäki and Nordkalk Co those of the Iso-Sorro deposit. The Norrlammala calcite marble deposit at Kemiö, owned by Omya Oy, is at present under evaluation for quarrying as an open-pit mine. By the end of 2002, the three economically interesting industrial mineral deposits of Kairineva ilmenite, Kuovila calcite-wollastonite and Hakala calcite were reported to the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The Peräneva and Kairineva ilmenite deposits were sold to the Kalvinit Oy. GTK s drilling program in 2002 covered the Mäntsälä (Kalkkisaari), Salmijärvi and Nummi-Pusula deposits for calcite and wollastonite and the Iso-Kisko deposit for ilmenite (Fig. 1). A newly defined exploration project, The studies of Industrial minerals in south and west Finland begins in Apart from the paper pigments minerals, it covers the rare elements (Ta, Be, Nb, Li) in granitic pegmatites. Industrial mineral potential in Finland Finland has a high potential for the occurrence of industrial mineral deposits. This is indicated by sixteen marble, ten industrial mineral and six industrial rock deposits that are currently in production. During last five years, GTK has located and studied twenty industrial mineral deposits in southern Finland by mapping and drilling. Eleven of them, nine marble and two ilmenite deposits are economically interesting and six of them have been sold to domestic and international industrial mineral enterprises (Table 1). The industrial mineral potential map of Finland shows the most promising exploration areas for industrial minerals (Fig. 2). They include paper pigment minerals, rare elements and fertilizer minerals (apatite, dolomite). High quality calcite marble deposits are found to occur adjacent to metavolcanic rocks in Finland and they are generally intensively folded and metamorphosed to high-grade (Reinikainen 2001). In western Finland there are small ilmenite-apatite-gabbro and ilmenite-gabbro bodies, for example at Koivusaarenneva, that contain a lot of magmatic ilmenite and ilmeno-magnetite is rare. (Kärkkäinen 1999). Therefore they seem to be good raw material for TiO 2 -pigment production (Kärkkäinen at al. 1997). The rare elements in granitic pegmatites are seen as several zones in Finland (Alviola et al. 1989, Alviola et 5

6 Olli Sarapää, Timo Ahtola, Jukka Reinikainen and Hannu Seppänen Fig. 1. Location of the studied marble deposits and marble mines in southwest Finland on a geological map. al. 2001, Mäkitie et al. 2001). The potential for kaolin and talc deposits (Pekkala & Niemelä 1997, Niemelä 2001) is the highest in mid-eastern (Sarapää 1996, 1997, 1999, Sarapää et al. 1996) and northern Finland (Pekkala & Sarapää 1989, Lintinen 2000) and possible in mid-west Finland as well. The latter is based on the new interpretation of the low-altitude geophysics and ground gravimetric measurements. Kairineva ilmenite deposit in mid-west Finland GTK discovered and explored the Kairineva ilmenite deposit during The aim of the study was to find raw material for the domestic TiO 2 -pigment industry. The Ministry of Trade and Industry released in 2002 an International Tender Notice to awaken companies interest for further exploration of the Kairineva deposit. The deposit is located at Halsua three kilometres southwest of the Peräneva deposit and five kilometres southwest of the Koivusaarenneva deposit (Fig. 3). Claim rights of those two deposits are at present owned by Kalvinit Oy. The Kairineva deposit was located by systematic ground geophysics (gravity high, magnetic high, and reverse electromagnetic anomaly) and by drilling. It is a magmatic titanium ore deposit in Svecofennian mafic intrusion. Layered mafic intrusions (1881 Ma) with ilmenite ores and magmatic stratigraphy were emplaced into granitoids at the contact zone of the Central Finland Granitoid Complex (Kärkkäinen 1999, Kärkkäinen & Sarapää 2002). The Kairineva deposit is a vertical and folded sheet that is composed of strongly disseminated and massive oxide ore bodies within the gabbro. The length of deposit is 400 metres and it is 50 metres wide. The total indicated resources are 5.4 Mt with the average grade of 20wt% ilmenite and 9% magnetite. The estimate extends down to 75 metres from the surface. Based on the gravity studies the ilmenite rich units continue at least to the depth of 170 m, and accordingly the inferred resources are 10 million tons. Based on a gravity estimate the inferred resources of the Kairineva deposit are 40 Mt. Ilmenite and magnetite at Kairineva occur as indi- 6

7 Industrial mineral potential in Finland Fig. 2. Map of industrial mineral potential in Finland. vidual grains (Fig. 4), but ilmeno-magnetite grains are rare. Magnesium and chromium contents in ilmenite are very low, as well as vanadium and niobium (Table 2). Magnetite contains 0.86% vanadium, which is higher than that of the magnetite of the Otanmäki Ti- Fe-V-ore. The mineralogy and structure of the Kairineva ilmenite ore is similar to that of Koivusaarenneva and Peräneva, which means that ilmenite concentrate of commercial quality can be produced by using traditional beneficiation methods. The Kälviä-Halsua area seems to have an excellent potential for gabbro-hosted ilmenite deposits of high quality ilmenite. The demand of ilmenite concentrate in Finland is growing because Kemira Pigments Co. 7

8 Olli Sarapää, Timo Ahtola, Jukka Reinikainen and Hannu Seppänen Table 1. Mineral resources of the studied marble deposits in southern Finland. Deposit Resources/ Ore content ISO-Brightness Current stage Owner depth <20 µm Norrlammala Under evaluation Omya Oy Calcite marble 7.1 Mt/75 m 78.2% calcite % for open-pit mine Genböle Calcite marble 5.3Mt/100m 87.1% calcite % GTK Illo Open for tender GTK Calcite marble 5.8Mt/80m 77.4% calcite % 9.4Mt/120m -"- 12.9Mt/160m -"- Järvenkylä Calcite marble 1.9 Mt/75 m 80.3% calcite % Nordkalk Co. 3.2Mt/125m 82.4% calcite 7.7Mt/300m - - Kalkkimäki Open for tender GTK Calcite marble 2.0Mt/75m 81.6% calcite % in 2003 Calc-dolo marble 3.7Mt /75m 70.1% carbonate % Woll-calc marble 2.0Mt/75m 14.7% wollastonite 57.5% calcite Iso-Sorro Calcite marble 2 Mt/ 75 m 70% calcite % Dolomite marble 6 Mt/100 m 55% dolomite, 30% calcite Nordkalk Co. Hyypiämäki Calcite marble 17Mt/100 m 76% calcite % Feasibility studies Omya Oy or 7.2 Mt 86.7 % calcite Kuovila Open for tender GTK Calcite marble 39Mt/125 m 75% calcite % in 2003 or 20.2 Mt 81.8 % calcite Woll-calc marble 9 Mt/125 m 54% calcite, 15% wollastonite Hakala Open for tender GTK Calcite marble 1.3 Mt/125 m 84% Calcite % in 2003 Fig. 3. The ilmenite deposits (black) of the Kälviä-Halsua area on the gravity and ground magnetic map. 8

9 Industrial mineral potential in Finland Fig. 4. Ilmenite from the Kairineva deposit, DH 503, m, on polished slab (left) and microphotograph (right), in which oxide minerals are grey and silicate minerals black, scale bar 0.5 mm. Table 2. Chemical composition of the Kairineva ilmenite by microprobe analysis. N Minimum Maximum Mean TiO FeO tot MnO MgO Cr V has a plan to increase the capacity of the Pori TiO 2- plant from the present TPA to TPA. Kuovila calcite-wollastonite marble deposit GTK explored the Kuovila calcite-wollastonite marble deposit in the years for its suitability as a raw material for paper pigment. The deposit has been quarried as a small scale open-pit mine in the early 1900 s. The Kuovila deposit is located in southwestern Finland within the 1.9 Ga Uusimaa Belt, which is composed of high-grade metamorphic felsic and mafic volcanic rocks, mica gneisses and granites. Exploration included geological mapping, magnetic and gravimetric ground surveys and the drilling of 52 holes, altogether 5398 metres. The Kuovila deposit, bordered by felsic and mafic volcanic rocks, which is Fig. 5. The Kuovila calcite-wollastonite deposit in the Pohja district of southwestern Finland. 9

10 Olli Sarapää, Timo Ahtola, Jukka Reinikainen and Hannu Seppänen composed of two lenses, which are m wide and about 1850 m long (Fig. 5). The deposit is covered by a 3-15m thick sandy till layer. The indicated resources of the Kuovila deposit estimated to the depth of 50 m to 125 m are 39 Mt calcite marble with 75% calcite and 9 Mt wollastonite-calcite marble with 54% calcite and 15% (10-60 %)wollastonite. The Kuovila deposit comprises alternating, m thick layers of calcite and calcite-wollastonite rock, which are separated by 3-10 m thick felsic and mafic volcanic rock layers. Within the deposit there are occasionally layers of diopside-garnet rock and granite. Calcite marble is typically coarse-grained, light gray or white in colour with thin silicate interlayers. Calcite content of the calcite marble ranges from 60 to 95% and calcite in the marble is low in magnesium, iron and manganese. Thin silicate interbeds are composed of quartz, feldspars, diopside and phlogopite. The wollastonite-calcite rock occurs in the border zone of the deposit and also as individual layers. It is composed of alternating beds of calcite, quartz, wollastonite, diopside and garnet. Laboratory scale benefication tests from the core samples were carried out at GTK and they produced concentrates containing over 99% calcite. After fine-grinding, the ISO-brightness of minus 30 microns fraction of the calcite concentrates is % and yellowness %, which correspond with the commercial GCC products (Table 1). Preliminary laboratory scale benefication tests of the wollastonite-calcite marble produce a concentrate with about 74% wollastonite. Hakala calcite marble deposit The Hakala calcite marble deposit, a few hundred metres from the Järvenkylä deposit, is situated 35 km southeast of the coastal city of Turku and twenty kilometers west of the city of Salo. The Hakala deposit consists of four almost vertical calcite marble layers (Fig. 6). Total length of the deposit is about 500 metres. There is granite, granite pegmatite and skarn intercalations between the calcite marble layers. The country rocks consist of granites, granite pegmatites and granodiorites. The indicated mineral resources estimate of the Hakala deposit to the depth of 125 m is 1.3 Mt with 84% CaCO 3. The resource estimate is based on geological mapping and on 25 drill holes, altogether 2780 metres. The calcite marble of the Hakala deposit is coarse grained and generally white or light gray in colour. Mineralogically it is very pure and contains over 90% calcite. Accessory minerals are diopside, quartz, tremolite, wollastonite and sphene. No dolomite or graphite has been detected in the deposit. Calcite marble is chemically pure, 55% of the analysed samples contain over 90% CaCO 3. Magnesium and iron Fig. 6. A block diagram of the Hakala calcite marble deposit. The length of the deposit is about 500 metres. 10

11 Industrial mineral potential in Finland contents are low, generally MgO < 0.4%, Fe 2 O 3 < 0.2%. Beneficiation tests of the calcite marbles give 94-95% ISO-brightness values. Because the deposit has potential for underground mining, more detailed drilling is recommended to verify the continuation of the deposit in deeper levels. Conclusion This paper presents briefly the essential results of most recent studies on marble (Reinikainen 1997, Reinikainen et al. 1999, Sarapää et al. 1999b, 2001) and ilmenite deposits (Kärkkäinen & Sarapää 2002, Kärkkäinen 1999) in southwestern and western Finland. They have potential to be further studied and developed by domestic and international industrial mineral companies operating in Finland (Pekkala 1998, 1999, 2001, Laurén 1999, 2001, 2002). A conclusive table of industrial mineral resources and their technical properties is also included. Apart from these, a map of industrial mineral potential is presented and it gives an overview of industrial minerals sector in Finland (see also Pekkala & Reinikainen 1999, Pekkala & Seppänen 2002). A comprehensive list of the relevant papers of industrial minerals in Finland is also added herein. REFERENCES Alviola, R Rare element pegmatites in Finland. In: Lahti, S. I. (ed.) Symposium Precambrian granitoids. Petrogenesis, geochemistry and metallogeny, August 14-17, 1989, Helsinki, Finland. Excursion C 1: Late orogenic and synorogenic Svecofennian granitoids and associated pegmatites of southern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland. Guide 26, Alviola, R., Mänttäri, I., Mäkitie, H., & Vaasjoki, M Svecofennian rare-element granitic pegmatites of the Ostrobothnia region, western Finland: their metamorphic environment and time of intrusion. In: Mäkitie, H. (ed.) Svecofennian granitic pegmatites ( Ga) and quartz monzonite (1.87 Ga), and their metamorphic environment in the Seinäjoki region, western Finland. Geological Survey of Finland. Special Paper 30, Kärkkäinen, N Titanium ore potential of small mafic intrusions based on two examples in western Finland. Houghton, MI: Michigan Technological University. 193 p. Kärkkäinen, N., Sarapää, O., Huuskonen, M., Koistinen, E.& Lehtimäki, J Ilmenite exploration in western Finland, and the mineral resources of the Kälviä deposit. In: Autio, S. (ed.) Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research Geological Survey of Finland. Special Paper 23, Kärkkäinen, N. & Sarapää, O Kälviän-Halsuan ilmeniittiesiintymät. Vuoriteollisuus 60 (4), Laurén, L Industrial minerals maintain growth despite some setbacks. Kemia 26 (6), Laurén, L Solid performance by industrial minerals. Kemia 28 (6), Laurén, L Nordkalk diversifies output from its limestone deposits. Vuoriteollisuus 60 (4), Lintinen, P Kaoliinitutkimukset Sodankylän Suolakaarkossa Geological Survey of Finland, unpublished report M19/3732/2000/1/82 9 p., 7 app. Mäkitie, H., Kärkkäinen, N., Lahti, S. I.. & Alviola, R Compositional variation of granitic pegmatites in relation to regional metamorphism in the Seinäjoki region, western Finland. In: Mäkitie, H. (ed.) Svecofennian granitic pegmatites ( Ga) and quartz monzonite (1.87 Ga), and their metamorphic environment in the Seinäjoki region, western Finland. Geological Survey of Finland. Special Paper 30, Niemelä, M Talc-magnesite deposits in Finland. In: Radvanec, M., Gondim, A. C. & Németh, Z. (eds.) IGCP 443: magnesite and talc: geological and environmental correlations. Mineralia Slovaca 33 (6), Pekkala, Y Finland: paper pigments lead growth. Industrial Minerals 374, Pekkala, Y Industrial minerals - consumption and perspectives in Finland. In: Shchiptsov, V. V., Skamnitskaya, L. S. & Danilevskaya, L. A. (eds.) Industrial minerals: deposits & new developments in Fennoscandia: proceedings of the international conference, Petrozavodsk Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center. Institute of Geology, Pekkala, Y The potential of industrial minerals in Fennoscandia. In: 3rd Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining, Rovaniemi, December 3-4, 2001: final programme and event documentation. [S.l.]: European Union, European Regional Development, 7 p. Pekkala, Y. & Sarapää, O Kaolin exploration in Finland. In: Autio, S. (ed.) Geological Survey of Finland. Current Research Geological Survey of Finland. Special Paper 10, Pekkala, Y. & Niemelä, M Vuolukivi - elämää tulikiven lämmössä. Summary: Soapstone - life in the heat of firestone. Vuoriteollisuus 55 (1), Pekkala, Y. & Reinikainen, J. P Paperin mineraaliset raaka-aineet - käyttö ja kehitysnäkymät Suomessa. Summary: Mineral raw materials in paper - consumption, and perspectives in Finland. Vuoriteollisuus 57 (2), Pekkala, Y., & Seppänen, H Perspectives on the Finnish industrial mineral industry. In: Scott, P. W. & Bristow, C. M. (eds.) Industrial Minerals and Extractive Industry Geology. 36 th forum of the Geology of Industrial Minerals and 11 th Extractive Industry Geology Congress, Bath, England, 7 th -12 th May, 2000, Geological Society of London, Reinikainen, J. P., Carbonate rock units in the Svecofennian Uusimaa Belt, SW Finland. In: Autio, S. (ed.) Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research Geological Survey of Finland. Special Paper 23, Reinikainen, J. P Petrogenesis of Paleoproterozoic marbles in the Svecofennian Domain, Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Report of Investigations p., 1 app., 2 app. maps. Reinikainen, J. P., Ahtola, T. & Seppänen, H Paleoproterozoic sedimentary carbonate rocks in the Uusimaa Belt, southwestern Finland, Svecofennian Domain. In: Shchiptsov, V. V., Skamnitskaya, L. S. & Danilevskaya, L. A. (eds.) Industrial minerals: deposits & new developments in Fennoscandia: proceedings of the international conference, Petrozavodsk Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center. Institute of Geology, 45. Sarapää, O Proterozoic primary kaolin deposits at Virtasalmi, southeastern Finland. Espoo: Geological Survey of Finland. 152 p., 6 app. Sarapää, O Genesis and properties of Virtasalmi kaolin deposits, SE Finland. In: Papunen, H. (ed.) Mineral 11

12 Olli Sarapää, Timo Ahtola, Jukka Reinikainen and Hannu Seppänen deposits: research and exploration - where do they meet? Proceedings of the Fourth Biennial SGA Meeting, Turku/ Finland/11-13 August Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, Sarapää, O Genesis of Virtasalmi kaolin deposits, SE Finland. In: Shchiptsov, V. V., Skamnitskaya, L. S. & Danilevskaya, L. A. (eds.) Industrial minerals: deposits & new developments in Fennoscandia: proceedings of the international conference, Petrozavodsk Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center. Institute of Geology, Sarapää, O., Kuivasaari, T., Niemelä, M., Pekkala, Y. & Reinikainen, J Kaolin deposits in the Virtasalmi area, Southeastern Finland; Geology, technical properties and possible uses. In: Sarapää, O. Proterozoic primary kaolin deposits at Virtasalmi, southeastern Finland. Espoo: Geological Survey of Finland, p Sarapää, O., Kärkkäinen, N., Reinikainen, J. P., Ahtola, T., Appelqvist, H. & Seppänen, H. 1999a. New results from calcite and ilmenite exploration in Finland. In: Autio, S. (ed.) Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research Geological Survey of Finland. Special Paper 27, Sarapää, O., Lohva, J., Lehtimäki, J., Kärkkäinen, N. & Jokinen, T. 1999b. Geophysical exploration of pigment mineral deposits (kaolin, calcite, ilmenite) in Finland. In: EAGE 61st conference and technical exhibition, Helsinki, Finland, 7-11 June 1999: extended abstracts book. Vol. 2: Poster presentations. Houten: European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, 4 p. Sarapää, O., Reinikainen, J. P., Seppänen, H., Kärkkäinen, N. & Ahtola, T Industrial minerals exploration in southwestern and western Finland. In: Autio, S. (ed.) Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research Geological Survey of Finland. Special Paper 31,

13 Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research , Edited by Sini Autio. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 36, 13 16, THE PETÄISKOSKI CARBONATE VEINS AT JUUKA, EASTERN FINLAND by Matti Tyni 1), Kauko Puustinen 2), Juha Karhu 3) and Matti Vaasjoki 2) 1) Malmikaivos Oy, present address: Korvenkuja 7, FIN VOLTTI, FINLAND 2) Geological Survey of Finland, P.O. Box 96, FIN ESPOO, FINLAND 3) Department of Geology, FIN University of Helsinki, FINLAND Key words (GeoRef Thesaurus, AGI): carbonate rocks, veins, geochemistry, chemical composition, isotopes, Archean,Petäiskoski, Finland Introduction Malmikaivos Oy observed, in the course of mineral exploration in 1988, that the first kimberlites it had found seemed to lay along a line extending towards NNE from Tuusniemi. A roughly corresponding line could be observed as a lineament on satellite photographs, which gave rise to interest in the northern extension of the kimberlite line. The area had already earlier been of prospective interest, as Outokumpu Oy had in the 1950s several exploration claims along Petäisjoki northwards from Keskimmäinen Jokilampi up to the latitude of Petäiskoski. Among other things, a barite-bearing target close to the Panjavaara farm, which lies c. 1.8 km SE of Petäiskoski had been investigated. Both lead isotopic measurements (Kouvo 1958, Kouvo & Kulp 1961) and mineralogical studies (Papunen 1967) were carried out on the target, but it has not been possible to find the exact location later on. In addition, the mineral catalogue for Finland (Laitakari 1967) lists (oral communication by Viluksela, Vuorelainen & Huhma 1961) a bastnaesite- and galena-bearing target on the western boundary of the Juuka parish. According to the map name, the location could be 4-5 km NE of Panjavaara and Petäiskoski. One target of Malmikaivos Oy lay close to the boundary of the Rautavaara parish c. 25 km WNW of the Juuka church, at a place where a forestry track crosses Petäisjoki (Fig. 1). An ash sample was collected from the campfire site of the bridging party, and it exhibited clearly anomalous contents of Ba. Also the heavy mineral fractions of soil samples from the immediate surroundings displayed clearly elevated REE levels. Up to 50 cm large, red, galena-bearing carbonate boulders were found in the forest, and some outcrops contained similar, but very narrow and sharpedged veins. As the find was not a kimberlite, the company soon abandoned the investigation. However, the region is still generally of prospective interest. Especially the boggy area north of the rapids could be investigated by till sampling. Some rock samples collected from the vicinity of Petäiskoski and suspected of being magmatic in origin have formed the material for this study. Locality description Petäiskoski lies within an Archean granite-gneiss area. In addition to the felsic gneisses, there occurs also a narrow amphibolite belt, which appears on the aeromagnetic map as a c. 1.5 km long, N-S striking anomaly. According to the regional geochemical mapping, a Ba-La till anomaly stretches for c. 5 km NE from 13

14 Matti Tyni, Kauko Puustinen, Juha Karhu and Matti Vaasjoki Fig. 1. Location of the Petäiskoski area at Juuka in eastern Finland. Panjavaara (Geological Survey of Finland 1990). Around Petäiskoski, some sampling sites also exhibit elevated contents of Pb and Th. This is in accordance with the aerogeophysical -radiation map, which shows a clear U anomaly at Petäiskoski, a weak extension of which continues for 1.5 km SE (Geological Survey of Finland 1991). In contrast, no radiation anomaly exists at Panjavaara. Petrography, mineralogy and chemical composition Macroscopically, the rock is coarse-grained and partially breccia-like. The dominating colour is an intense brick red with paler patches and dark green amphibole schlieren. The main minerals are calcite (0-2 % Sr), bastnaesite (0-20 % Sr) and barite. Strontianite, galena, alkali amphibole and quartz occur as accessory minerals. The chemical composition of one sample from the Petäiskoski occurrence is shown in Table 1, from which the anomalously high levels of Sr, Ba and REE are evident. Isotopic studies Because the composition of the Petäiskoski carbonate vein resembles that of carbonatites, its oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions were investigated. Also a bastnaesite sample from Panjavaara was analysed, and results for both samples are reported in Table 2. The carbon isotopic compositions of the samples are almost identical within experimental uncertainty, but are markedly more negative than the average mantle value of 5. According to Deines (1989) 91 % of undisturbed carbonatites fall within the composition range from 2 to 8. Thus the carbon isotopic data does not support a carbonatitic origin of the Petäiskoski vein, although a mantle origin cannot be completely ruled out. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the Petäiskoski and Panjavaara samples differ greatly from each other. One possible reason could be differences in crystallization temperatures and reactions with external fluids. According to this interpretation, the Petäiskoski calcite would represent a much later and more altered phase than the Panjavaara bastnaesite. The lead isotopic compositions of samples G20-14

15 The Petäiskoski carbonate veins at Juuka, eastern Finland Table 1. Chemical composition of the carbonate rock at Petäiskoski. (%) (ppm) (ppm) SiO Co 1 La TiO Cu 40 Ce Al 2 O Ga 8 Pr Fe 2 O Nb 1 Nd MnO 0.27 Ni 22 Sm 651 MgO 0.63 Pb 855 Eu 115 CaO Sb 1 Gd 384 SrO 2.28 Sc 4 Tb 40 BaO 3.87 Sn 10 Dy 38 Na 2 O 0.28 Ta 0 Ho 4 K 2 O 0.07 T h 83 Er 8 P 2 O U 2 Tm 1 CO V 11 Yb 5 SO Zn 40 Lu 1 Cl 0.03 Zr 4 Y 123 REE-Ox Total Table 2. Carbon andoxygen isotopic analyses. Locality Nro Mineral d 13 C d 18 0 (PDB) (SMOW) Petäiskoski C-490 Calcite Panjavaara C-235 Bastnaesite Table 3. Lead isotopic data ongalenas Sample Locality 206 Pb/ 204 Pb 207 Pb/ 204 Pb 208 Pb/ 204 Pb G20 Panjavaara G500 Petäiskoski Data normalized to the accepted values of SRM 981. Fig. 2. Lead isotopic composition of the Petäiskoski and Panjavaara galenas in relation to other data from Finland. 15

16 Matti Tyni, Kauko Puustinen, Juha Karhu and Matti Vaasjoki Panjavaara and G500-Petäiskoski are presented in Table 3, which demonstrates that the two samples are almost identical within experimental error. Figure 2 shows the results in relation to other galena data from Finland. The striking feature is that the Petäiskoski and Panjavaara leads have isotopic compositions similar to the Svecofennian orogenic leads rather than the Archean or Karelian signatures typical of their geological environment (cf. Vaasjoki 1981). This is the first time such a lead isotopic composition has been recorded from the Karelian domain. At their face value, the lead isotopic results seem to suggest a closer relationship to the Svecofennian orogeny than would be assumed from the geographic location. Conclusion The mineralogy and geochemistry of the Petäiskoski carbonate veins are unique for their geological environment and are suggestive of a carbonatitic origin. However, the carbon isotopic results seem to rule out a pure mantle source, while the oxygen isotope data indicate a large difference in crystallization conditions for calcite and bastnaesite. The galena lead isotopic composition is also unique for the Karelian domain, and thus the combined isotopic data are possibly indicative of a hydrothermal process closely associated with the Svecofennian orogeny. REFERENCES Deines, P Stable isotope variations in carbonatites. In: Bell, K. (ed.) Carbonatites: Genesis and evolution. London: Unwin Hyman, Geological Survey of Finland Map sheet Geochemical maps 1 : , till. Geological Survey of Finland Map sheet Aerogeophysical maps 1 : Kouvo, O Radioactive age of some Finnish Precambrian minerals. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin p. Kouvo, O. & Kulp, J. L Isotopic composition of Finnish galenas. Annales of the New York Academy of Sciences 91, Laitakari, A Suomen mineraalien hakemisto - Index of Finnish minerals with bibliography. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin p. Papunen, H On the barytes of Finland. Comptes Rendus de la Société Géologique de Finlande 39, Vaasjoki, M The lead isotopic composition of some Finnish galenas. Geological Survey of Finland. Bulletin p. 16

17 Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research , Edited by Sini Autio. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 36, 17 21, DIRECT COMPARISON ON MECHANICAL AND DIGITAL SIZE ANALYSES OF KEMI CHROMITE, FINLAND by Tegist Chernet and Jukka Marmo Geological Survey of Finland, P.O. Box 96, FIN ESPOO, FINLAND Key words (GeoRef Thesaurus, AGI): chromite ores, crushing, chromite, grain size, size distribution, sieving, image analysis, Elijärvi, Finland Introduction General Chromite ore samples from the Länsiviia open pit of the Elijärvi Mine, Kemi, Finland, were taken for grain/ particle size determination of the chromite in the ore. The samples were selected from a relatively less fractured area. Seven to ten cm long pieces of chromite ore samples were treated by electric shock crusher at the Forschungs - Zentrum, Karlsruhe, GmbH, Germany. The objective of this approach is to get liberated chromite grains in order to analyse the size distribution of chromite in the ore using sieve and image analysis. Polished sections were also prepared directly from the ore samples for size analyses by image processing. The study comprises three steps: - sieve analyses of chromite from crushed ore, - image analyses of chromite from crushed ore, and - image analyses of chromite in the unbroken ore. The aim was to investigate the correlation between sieve and image analysis on the one hand, and the correlation of the image size analyses of unliberated chromite in the rock and liberated chromite in the crushed ore on the other hand. The ultimate goal, of course, was to find a better control in predicting mineral liberations at certain grinds. The direct comparison of sieve and image analyses is considered to be possible because of the simple crystal shape and morphology of chromite. The crystal habits of chromite include octahedrons, often with dodecahedral faces modifying the edges of the octahedron to the point of rounding the crystal. Here, wellformed crystals are common and chromite is usually found as massive or granular aggregates and disseminated. Minerals forming acicular, bladed, fibrous, platy, prismatic, tabular, pseudomorphic crystals may need correction factors (Higgins 2000), if comparing sieve and image analysis is to be possible at all. Application of electric shock crusher Compared to all other crushing (e.g., gyratory, roll, impact, etc.) and grinding (conventional tumbling mills) techniques, where the breakage forces are applied by compression or impact, the electric shock crusher separates materials along loose ends such as grain boundaries and fractures. The advantage of this method is to liberate chromite grains along the natural grain boundaries and existing deep fractures without unnecessary breakage of particles. After crushing, chromite grains/particles are expected to show a similar grain/ particle size as in the rock. The principle of operation is well described by 17

18 Tegist Chernet and Jukka Marmo Bluhm et al. (2000) and Sjomkin, et al. (1995). The process is disintegration of solid material through pulsed electric discharges. The material immersed in water is subjected to high voltage pulses up to several hundreds of kilovolts. Water has excellent breakage strength when the pulse voltage rises quickly, and these bring about the concentration of electric field in the solids. The electrical energy in the material then creates very high pressure, which leads to the fragmentation of the material along grain boundaries and existing fractures. As a result, composite materials and minerals can be decomposed in to separate components. Particle size analyses of chromite in the crushed ore (Sieve analysis) Mechanical sieving and sieve size analyses The electric shock treatment gave unexpectedly good results. Most of the chromite grains were liberated and show perfect crystal shape/structure. Grains with deep fracturing broke along the fractures, which still show the actual particle size of chromite in the ore. As a result of mechanical wet sieving in to 11 narrow fractions, 99% of the crushed ore is less than 800 microns (Table 1). Observing all the fractions, chromite appeared to be considerably liberated in the fractions less than 400 microns, above which finegrained chromite (<45 microns) is embedded in coarsegrained silicates and carbonates. Table 2. Heavy liquid separation of each sieve fraction less than 400 microns. Particle size Heavy Light Heavy Light (microns) (wt%) (wt%) (cum wt%) (cum wt%) >400, if any < and a separate frequency plot is shown in Figure 1. Sieve fractions between microns (21% of the sample) contain only about 1-3% free chromite particles and as a result were not treated by heavy liquid. In this fraction almost every grain of silicate/carbonate contains chromite crystals as inclusions. In terms of the cumulative distribution, about 85% of chromite particles are less than 400 microns (Fig 1). Due to fine particle adhesion, repeated heavy liquid separation was needed for fractions less than 63 microns. Therefore, the results for <63 microns are approximate. In the fraction 400 to 250 microns, almost all chromite grains have perfect crystal shape without being broken. Broken pieces and flakes of chromite particles started to appear in the fractions bellow 250 microns, and increase gradually along with decreasing grain size, especially in the fraction 90-63microns. Most of these liberated particles, however, appear the same as in the rock. Table 1. Wet mechanical sieve fractions. Sieve size Wt (%) Cum. (microns) wt% > < Heavy liquid separation and sieve size analyses of chromite concentrate Liberated chromite was separated from the rest of the gangues, which consists of silicates and carbonates using heavy liquid. The result is shown in Table 2, Particle size analyses of chromite in the concentrate and in the ore (Image analysis) Image analysis and principle Image analysis is a technique for characterizing, classifying and comparing images by using numerical values for properties of features in images (Lastra R., et al. 1998). Performing image analysis includes image acquisition, image processing (e.g., enhancement, segmentation and binary image processing), image analysis (measurements, quantitative data), and evaluation or representation of the results. In this study, the acquired images are processed and individual measurements are done for each feature in the images (object specific), which includes area, length, width and sphericity of each feature. Several images were taken from petrographic microscope as colour images using a colour video camera and frame grabber. Using KS-400 version 3 image analysis software, a segmentation routine is per- 18

19 Direct comparison on mechanical and digital size analyses of Kemi chromite, Finland Cum wt% Cum wt% Particle size (microns) Fig. 1. Frequency and cumulative particle size distribution of heavy liquid separated chromite concentrate. Fig 2. Image of chromite ore overlapped with honeycomb structure for grain boundary reconstruction. formed manually to segment images of chromite grains/particles into separate binary images. It is performed by detecting and setting the lower and upper gray levels for chromite. When chromite occurs in masses or clustered where grain boundaries and deep fractures are poorly delineated, a grain boundary reconstruction technique was used to produce discrete grains (Fig. 2). Chromite concentrate Polished sections were made from size fractions microns of the chromite concentrates. This fraction constitutes 36% of the heavy fractions (<400 microns). The selection of this fraction is on the basis of best liberation, and silicates here are rare. Particle sizes of discrete grains/particles of chromite were analysed from the reconstructed images. The area and maximum and minimum ferets of each particle were measured. About 10,000 separate features were analysed from the given fractions. Measurement data is given in Table 3. Table 3. Particle/grain size distribution of chromite grains/particles according to image analyses (selected sieve fractions microns). Particle size No. of grains No. of grains (microns) measured in % < > total

20 Tegist Chernet and Jukka Marmo Chromite in the unbroken ore Particle/grain size of chromite was also analysed directly from the ore (from the Länsiviia open pit). The analyses include all sizes in the ore. Very fine-grained chromites (<50 microns), however, are scrapped for the reason of comparison to that of the concentrate. Most of these fines are embedded in the coarsegrained gangue minerals within the fraction microns, which is not included in the chromite concentrate (<400 microns). About 4500 grains/particles are measured and the results are tabulated in Tables 4 and 5. Table 4. Particle/grain size distribution of the chromite from the unbroken ore using image analyses (calculated from ferets average). Particle size No. of No. of Weight Weight (microns) grains grains (%) (gm) (%) < > Table 5. Particle/grain size distribution of the chromite from the unbroken ore using image analyses (calculated from area diameter). Particle size No. of No. of Weight Weight (microns) grains grains (%) (gm) (%) < > Comparison According to image analyses results of the selected sieve fraction ( ), about 90.8% of the grains/ particles fall between microns (see Table 3). About 10,000 features analysis is considerable for making comparison. Although the quality of the images, orientation and shape factors affect the similarity, the result generally shows good correlation between mechanical sieve size analyses and digital size analyses. Further data manipulations and estimating the sampling error might lead to an even better correlation. Although not enough work has yet been done on the liberated chromite particles/grains to fully compare image analyses results of the liberated chromite and chromite from unbroken ore, basic conclusions can be drawn from about 4500 features analysed. As shown in Table 2 and Figure 1, over 57 wt% of the heavy fraction (chromite concentrate, all < 400microns) is between microns. Considering the image analyses result (Table 5), 56wt% of chromite particles/ grains analysed in the ore are between microns. Keeping in mind the fact that the present size of most chromite in the ore is similar to that of chromite in the crushed ore, image size analysis of chromite in the ore yields similar size distribution as if it were done by sieve. Furthermore, it was studied which of the feature analyses would match best with the sieve analysis. Both area diameter and feret average of chromite grains/particles in the ore are measured and plotted. Ferets, which imply maximum and minimum length of particles, are measured by the software and the average is calculated using excel. As shown in Figure 3, the sieve analysis frequency distribution of chromite concentrate almost overlaps the plot of ferets average represented by number of grains percent rather than calculated as weight percent. On the other hand, area diameter calculated as weight percent almost overlaps to that of sieve analysis rather than area diameter calculated as number percent (Fig. 4). As a result, the percent of the number of particles calculated from ferets average and the weight percent calculated from area diameter correlate more closely to that of sieve analysis represented by weight percent. Conclusions Chromite grains were almost completely liberated in grain sizes below 400 microns. In order to compare sieve size and image size of chromite particles, chromite in the concentrate should appear in size similarly as in the ore. Disintegrating chromite using high intensity electrical pulses turned out to be the only way to liberate chromite along existing boundaries. Simple microscope observation indicated chromite in the original rock (ore) and chromite as a product of electric shock crusher to be correlated. The size analysis result shows considerable correlation between mechanical sieve size analyses and digital size analyses. Moreover, image size analyses of chromite in the ore were found to be correlated to that of the sieve analysis of chromite concentrate. The ferets average represented by number percent and the area diameter represented as weight percent are more closely correlated to the 20

The Engebøfjellet Rutile project, a new high grade source in Europe

The Engebøfjellet Rutile project, a new high grade source in Europe The Engebøfjellet Rutile project, a new high grade source in Europe Rome, March 19th, 2009 Ivar S. Fossum, CEO Exploration and production of high-end minerals and metals Nordic Mining ASA N-0250 Oslo Norway

More information

The Falun Projects in Bergslagen, South-central Sweden

The Falun Projects in Bergslagen, South-central Sweden The Falun Projects in Bergslagen, South-central Sweden Outline Executive Summary The Bergslagen District The Falun Copper Mine Company activities / Claims Samuelsdal Holmen Mårtanberg The Scandinavian

More information

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

Mining Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turcja **

Mining Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turcja ** Górnictwo i Geoinżynieria Rok 33 Zeszyt 4 2009 Savas Özün*, Ümit Atalay*, Yusuf Kagan Kadıoğlu** INVESTIGATION ON POSSIBILITY OF OPAQUE MINERALS REMOVAL FROM FOID BEARING ROCK 1. Introductıon Feldspathoids

More information

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1 Minerals in granite The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals Figure 2.1 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring solid Specific chemical composition Crystal structure

More information

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background?

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background? Chapter 3 Atoms Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks A Review of Chemistry: What geochemistry tells us Clicker 1 Chemistry Background? A. No HS or College Chemistry B. High School

More information

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds

More information

Mineral Exploration Report on the Work carried out on Claims Karhu 1 and Karhu 6, Kaavi

Mineral Exploration Report on the Work carried out on Claims Karhu 1 and Karhu 6, Kaavi Mining Law 19 1 Mineral Exploration Report on the Work carried out on Claims Karhu 1 and Karhu 6, Kaavi Mining Register numbers: 7791/1 7815/1 Mining Law 19 2 Introduction This report describes diamond

More information

Stop 2 hannukainen, kolari. Tero Niiranen Northland Exploration Finland Oy, Rovaniemi, Finland. Pasi Eilu Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland

Stop 2 hannukainen, kolari. Tero Niiranen Northland Exploration Finland Oy, Rovaniemi, Finland. Pasi Eilu Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland Stop 2 hannukainen, kolari Tero Niiranen Northland Exploration Finland Oy, Rovaniemi, Finland Pasi Eilu Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland introduction The Kolari region is in the western part

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Why? Chemists are concerned with mass relationships in chemical reactions, usually run on a macroscopic scale (grams, kilograms, etc.). To deal with

More information

Drake Resources Limited Quarterly Activity Report June 2007

Drake Resources Limited Quarterly Activity Report June 2007 Drake Resources Limited Quarterly Activity Report June 2007 HIGHLIGHTS New projects and targets continue to be identified in the Zinifex-Drake base metal alliance in Sweden, Canada and Australia With the

More information

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC VOCABULARY where APPLICABLE!

More information

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: KEY Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring, inorganic substance which has a definite chemical composition What would be the opposite of this? man-made,

More information

For personal use only

For personal use only January, 202 Silver Swan Group Limited December 20 Quarterly Activities Report HIGHLIGHTS STAKEWELL Gold Project: Drilling intersected high and low grade gold mineralisation at Kohinoor, including surface

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical

More information

P1: Rock identification (I)

P1: Rock identification (I) P1: Rock identification (I) Examine the rocks specimens provided with the aid of these notes. All the rocks come from Ireland, as detailed on the attached map. Answer the short question on each specimen

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers Key Questions & Exercises Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers 1. The atomic weight of carbon is 12.0107 u, so a mole of carbon has a mass of 12.0107 g. Why doesn t a mole of

More information

Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids.

Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids. Metamorphic Rocks, Processes, and Resources Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids. Protolith or parent rock is

More information

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Minerals Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.

More information

Mineral Exploration Report on the Work carried out on Claim Silmäsuo 1, Kaavi

Mineral Exploration Report on the Work carried out on Claim Silmäsuo 1, Kaavi Mining Law 19 1 Mineral Exploration Report on the Work carried out on Claim Silmäsuo 1, Kaavi Mining Register number: 7752/1 Mining Law 19 2 Introduction This report describes diamond exploration work

More information

REPORT OF WORK GUIDELINES

REPORT OF WORK GUIDELINES REPORT OF WORK GUIDELINES The following guidelines apply to a report of work submitted under section 56(1) of the Mining Act (http://laws.gnb.ca/en/showdoc/cs/m-14.1). 1 (1) A report of work shall be submitted

More information

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core Crust: low density rocks Mantle: high density rocks Core: very high density metal core mechanical) layering mechanical layers lithosphere: rigid & strong asthenosphere: plastic & weak mesosphere: plastic

More information

For personal use only

For personal use only EXCELLENT RESULTS FROM EARLY METALLURGICAL TEST WORK ON YANGIBANA SAMPLES Hastings Rare Metals Limited ASX Code: HAS Level 25, 31 Market Street Sydney NSW 2000 PO Box Q128 Queen Victoria Building NSW 1225

More information

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas

Igneous Geochemistry. What is magma? What is polymerization? Average compositions (% by weight) and liquidus temperatures of different magmas 1 Igneous Geochemistry What is magma phases, compositions, properties Major igneous processes Making magma how and where Major-element variations Classification using a whole-rock analysis Fractional crystallization

More information

CHAPTER-3: EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

CHAPTER-3: EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE CHAPTER-3: EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 58 3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE This chapter presents the experimental set up used to carryout characterization of the samples, granulometry studies and pellet firing studies.

More information

Chalcophile and Key Element Distribution in the Eastern Goldfields: seismic traverse EGF01. Aleks Kalinowski Geoscience Australia, pmdcrc Y2 project

Chalcophile and Key Element Distribution in the Eastern Goldfields: seismic traverse EGF01. Aleks Kalinowski Geoscience Australia, pmdcrc Y2 project pmd CR C Chalcophile and Key Element Distribution in the Eastern Goldfields: seismic traverse EGF01 predictive mineral discovery Aleks Kalinowski Geoscience Australia, pmdcrc Y2 project Aleks.Kalinowski@ga.gov.au

More information

Forward-Looking Statements

Forward-Looking Statements Forward-Looking Statements Except for historical information, this presentation may contain certain forward-looking statements. These statements may involve a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties

More information

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change CLASS TEST GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change MARKS: 45 TIME: hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You may

More information

Minerals. Author: Rebecca Brindley

Minerals. Author: Rebecca Brindley Minerals Author: Rebecca Brindley CHAPTER 1 Minerals 1 Minerals Quartz: What is a Mineral? There are five things that must be true for a substance to be classified as a mineral. The five items are as follows:

More information

What is a mineral?? A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure

What is a mineral?? A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure What is a mineral?? A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions,

More information

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes

Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle Smith & Pun, Chapter 3 Processes link types Plate tectonics is driving force If we look closely we see

More information

New Discoveries in the Relationship Between Macro and Micro Grindability

New Discoveries in the Relationship Between Macro and Micro Grindability Paper for the CIM AGM, Toronto, ON May 13, 29 11:2AM Page 1 of Authors: John Starkey, Starkey & Associates Inc. and Mike Samuels, Fortune Minerals Limited ABSTRACT New Discoveries in the Relationship Between

More information

ROME RESOURCES LTD. 205 16055 Fraser Highway Surrey, B.C. V4N 0G2

ROME RESOURCES LTD. 205 16055 Fraser Highway Surrey, B.C. V4N 0G2 Page 1 of 6 ROME RESOURCES LTD. 205 16055 Fraser Highway Surrey, B.C. V4N 0G2 FAX# (604) 507-2187 TSX-VEN Symbol RMR; Frankfurt: 33R WEB: www.romeresources.com CH Valoren No 699 171 Email: info@romeresources.com

More information

Rock Type Identification Flow Chart

Rock Type Identification Flow Chart Rock Type Identification Flow Chart SEDIMENTARY AMORPHOUS No Crystals or Clasts fairly hard very soft hard & cherty vague crystals SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS - VOLCANIC CLASTS Broken pieces of rocks or minerals

More information

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon.

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. The Earth is made up of rocks and minerals. The core of the Earth is molten rock. On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. Sometimes

More information

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10.

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10. Lab 2: Mineral Lab notes. Minerals are inorganic, solid, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical compositions, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structures. Chemical

More information

McLemore, V.T., 2014, Geology and mineral deposits in the Capitan Mountains district: New. Mexico Geological Society, Guidebook 65, p. 60-61.

McLemore, V.T., 2014, Geology and mineral deposits in the Capitan Mountains district: New. Mexico Geological Society, Guidebook 65, p. 60-61. McLemore, V.T., 2014, Geology and mineral deposits in the Capitan Mountains district: New Mexico Geological Society, Guidebook 65, p. 60-61. GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS IN THE CAPITAN MOUNTAINS DISTRICT,

More information

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?

More information

Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and

Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and freezes solid. Can be intrusive (formed deep in the earth) or extrusive (formed at the surface of the earth). Magma: : Molten

More information

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law The Periodic Table and Periodic Law Section 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table In your textbook, reads about the history of the periodic table s development. Use each of the terms below just

More information

Distribution of Chemical Elements In Urban Sediments in Slovenia (Extended Abstract)

Distribution of Chemical Elements In Urban Sediments in Slovenia (Extended Abstract) Robert SAJN and Simon PIRC Distribution of Chemical Elements In Urban Sediments in Slovenia (Extended Abstract) The goal of the study work was to assess the distribution of chemical elements in anthropogenic

More information

MINES AND ENERGY MINISTRY OF COLOMBIA. Geological Survey of Colombia National Mineral Agency of Colombia

MINES AND ENERGY MINISTRY OF COLOMBIA. Geological Survey of Colombia National Mineral Agency of Colombia MINES AND ENERGY MINISTRY OF COLOMBIA Geological Survey of Colombia National Mineral Agency of Colombia STRATEGIC MINING AREAS AN OPPORTUNITY TO INVEST IN COLOMBIA Toronto, March 2013 AGENDA 1. GEOLOGICAL

More information

INTERPRETATION ADDENDUM CANADIAN MINING COMPANY INC. SUITE 2300-1066 WEST HASTINGS STREET VANCOUVER, BC V6E 3X2 3D INDUCED POLARIZATION

INTERPRETATION ADDENDUM CANADIAN MINING COMPANY INC. SUITE 2300-1066 WEST HASTINGS STREET VANCOUVER, BC V6E 3X2 3D INDUCED POLARIZATION INTERPRETATION ADDENDUM FOR CANADIAN MINING COMPANY INC. SUITE 2300-1066 WEST HASTINGS STREET VANCOUVER, BC V6E 3X2 3D INDUCED POLARIZATION ON THE SAN BERNARDO PROJECT EL GOCHICO GRID Approximate Location:

More information

Corrosion. Chemistry. Grade 10-12 LEARNING OUTCOMES DESCRIPTION MATERIALS READINESS ACTIVITIES. Science

Corrosion. Chemistry. Grade 10-12 LEARNING OUTCOMES DESCRIPTION MATERIALS READINESS ACTIVITIES. Science Science Grade 10-12 Classroom Individual reading DESCRIPTION The characteristic red color of Prince Edward Island soil can be explained by a chemical reaction. The process is known as corrosion or rusting.

More information

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed?

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed? CHAPTER 4 1 The Rock Cycle SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does

More information

Lecture 5. elements (Figure 1). In addition, there are many ways of classifying trace elements.

Lecture 5. elements (Figure 1). In addition, there are many ways of classifying trace elements. Lecture 5 Nomenclature for Trace Element Classification We have already grouped elements into two classes, major elements and trace elements (Figure 1). In addition, there are many ways of classifying

More information

Environmental risk managements of mine wastes (from planning to aftercare) Marja Liisa Räisänen ELY-centre for Kainuu

Environmental risk managements of mine wastes (from planning to aftercare) Marja Liisa Räisänen ELY-centre for Kainuu Environmental risk managements of mine wastes (from planning to aftercare) Marja Liisa Räisänen ELY-centre for Kainuu Mine wastes, what they are? Environmental characteristics, characterization How to

More information

Composition. Physical Properties

Composition. Physical Properties Composition Physical Properties Summary The Earth is a layered planet The layers represent changes in composition and physical properties The compositional layers are the Crust, Mantle and Core The physical

More information

EXTENSIVE GOLD IN SOILS TARGET IDENTIFIED AT MOMBUCA GOLD PROJECT, SE BRAZIL

EXTENSIVE GOLD IN SOILS TARGET IDENTIFIED AT MOMBUCA GOLD PROJECT, SE BRAZIL 9 July 2015 EXTENSIVE GOLD IN SOILS TARGET IDENTIFIED AT MOMBUCA GOLD PROJECT, SE BRAZIL Open ended target zone up to 1.5km long identified Key Points Prospectivity of Centaurus recently secured Mombuca

More information

Using the PDF for material identification using elemental data. from XRF and SEM EDS.

Using the PDF for material identification using elemental data. from XRF and SEM EDS. XRF and SEM EDS Using the PDF for material identification using elemental data from XRF and SEM EDS. XRF and SEM EDS What? The Powder Diffraction File contains data on pure solid state compounds of well

More information

REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EARTH SCIENCES (PGDES)

REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EARTH SCIENCES (PGDES) REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EARTH SCIENCES (PGDES) (See also General Regulations) The Postgraduate Diploma in Earth Sciences is a postgraduate diploma awarded for the satisfactory completion

More information

REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EARTH SCIENCES (PGDES)

REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EARTH SCIENCES (PGDES) REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EARTH SCIENCES (PGDES) (See also General Regulations) The Postgraduate Diploma in Earth Sciences is a postgraduate diploma awarded for the satisfactory completion

More information

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units!

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! CHEM 10113, Quiz 2 September 7, 2011 Name (please print) All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! IA Periodic Table of the Elements VIIIA (1) (18) 1 2 1 H IIA

More information

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES BUILDING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SESSIONS APPENDIX B: EXERCISES Molecular mass, the mole, and mass percent Relative atomic and molecular mass Relative atomic mass (A r ) is a constant that expresses the ratio

More information

THE ROLE OF METALLURGY IN ENHANCING BENEFICIATION IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MINING INDUSTRY

THE ROLE OF METALLURGY IN ENHANCING BENEFICIATION IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MINING INDUSTRY THE ROLE OF METALLURGY IN ENHANCING BENEFICIATION IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MINING INDUSTRY Marek Dworzanowski, Presidential Address, SAIMM AGM, 22 August 2013 CONTENTS Introduction Definitions Phases of metallurgical

More information

Hydrothermal Solutions and Ore Deposits

Hydrothermal Solutions and Ore Deposits Hydrothermal Solutions and Ore Deposits Physical Chemistry of Minerals and Aqueous Solutions D.M. Sherman, University of Bristol Chalcophiles, Lithophiles, Siderophiles.. Lithophile = oxides, silicates

More information

GTK Geophysics. Deep electromagnetic sounding, Western Greenland, 2013

GTK Geophysics. Deep electromagnetic sounding, Western Greenland, 2013 GTK Geophysics Deep electromagnetic sounding, Western Greenland, 2013 Heikki Vanhala, 2014 Geophysicists in GTK Rovaniemi kokkola Northern Finland Office Kuopio & KP Espoo Academic degree: M.Sc. 25 Dr.

More information

IUCLID 5 COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: IRON ORES, AGGLOMERATES [EINECS NUMBER 265 996 3, CAS NUMBER 65996 65 8] IRON ORE PELLETS

IUCLID 5 COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: IRON ORES, AGGLOMERATES [EINECS NUMBER 265 996 3, CAS NUMBER 65996 65 8] IRON ORE PELLETS IUCLID 5 COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: IRON ORES, AGGLOMERATES [EINECS NUMBER 265 996 3, CAS NUMBER 65996 65 8] IRON ORE PELLETS INTRODUCTION Each REACH registrant is required to file its

More information

RIDDARHYTTAN RESOURCES PRESS RELEASE August 11, 2003

RIDDARHYTTAN RESOURCES PRESS RELEASE August 11, 2003 1 RIDDARHYTTAN RESOURCES PRESS RELEASE August 11, 2003 New drill holes in the Suurikuusikko area, Finland, have further intersected high gold grades over considerable widths, increasing the depth extent

More information

Nanoparticle Deposition on Packaging Materials by the Liquid Flame Spray

Nanoparticle Deposition on Packaging Materials by the Liquid Flame Spray Nanoparticle Deposition on Packaging Materials by the Liquid Flame Spray Hannu Teisala a, Mikko Tuominen a, Mikko Aromaa b, Jyrki M. Mäkelä b, Milena Stepien c, Jarkko J. Saarinen c, Martti Toivakka c

More information

h e l p s y o u C O N T R O L

h e l p s y o u C O N T R O L contamination analysis for compound semiconductors ANALYTICAL SERVICES B u r i e d d e f e c t s, E v a n s A n a l y t i c a l g r o u p h e l p s y o u C O N T R O L C O N T A M I N A T I O N Contamination

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

Achtung, Folientest, nicht für den Produktiveinsatz geeignet. Blötberget Iron Ore Project From Resource and Mining History to Present

Achtung, Folientest, nicht für den Produktiveinsatz geeignet. Blötberget Iron Ore Project From Resource and Mining History to Present From Resource and Mining History to Present 30.11.2015 Folie 1 DMT-Präsentation Project Location From Berlin 1100 km by road (13 hours) 1.5 hours by plane to Stockholm plus 2.5 hours by car Introduction

More information

2010-2011 PROSPECTING REPORT. Broken Hill Property. EVENT # 4844124 TENURE # 600988 Tenure Name: Broken Hill. New Westminster Mining Division Map 092H

2010-2011 PROSPECTING REPORT. Broken Hill Property. EVENT # 4844124 TENURE # 600988 Tenure Name: Broken Hill. New Westminster Mining Division Map 092H 2010-2011 PROSPECTING REPORT Broken Hill Property EVENT # 4844124 TENURE # 600988 Tenure Name: Broken Hill New Westminster Mining Division Map 092H Central Coordinate Reference 121 24 06.2 W Longitude

More information

Leapfrog : new software for faster and better 3D geological modelling

Leapfrog : new software for faster and better 3D geological modelling Leapfrog : new software for faster and better 3D geological modelling Paul Hodkiewicz, Principal Consultant (Geology), SRK Consulting, 10 Richardson Street, West Perth WA 6005, Australia, phodkiewicz@srk.com.au

More information

GEOL 414/514 CARBONATE CHEMISTRY

GEOL 414/514 CARBONATE CHEMISTRY GEOL 414/514 CARBONATE CHEMISTRY Chapter 6 LANGMUIR SOLUBILITY OF CALCITE CaCO 3 in nature: calcite & aragonite Reaction with strong acid: CaCO 3 + 2H + Ca +2 + H 2 O + CO 2 Reaction with weak acid: CaCO

More information

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES Purpose John J. Thomas Frequently, people cannot visualize the mineral associations that form the sequences of igneous rocks that you find in the earth's crust and what happens

More information

CATALOGUE REFERENCE MATERIALS

CATALOGUE REFERENCE MATERIALS IPT Institute for Technological Research CATALOGUE REFERENCE MATERIALS 2014 Laboratory of Metrological References IPT s Reference Materials www.ipt.br/nmr.htm Av. Prof. Almeida Prado n0 532 Predio 31 Cidade

More information

Round and Round the Rock Cycle

Round and Round the Rock Cycle Round and Round the Rock Cycle Objectives The student will identify the processes that cause the three different types of rocks to form and identify rock samples from each type. Suggested Grade Level Fifth

More information

Europe s Rare Earth Deposits, Mineralogy and Beneficiation

Europe s Rare Earth Deposits, Mineralogy and Beneficiation EURARE: Development of a sustainable exploitation scheme for Europe s REE ore deposits Europe s Rare Earth Deposits, Mineralogy and Beneficiation MINERALS IN THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY (MINCE) / Espoo 26-27.11.

More information

Ch6&7 Test. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch6&7 Test. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch6&7 Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following does NOT change the form of existing rock? a. tremendous pressure c.

More information

GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100

GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 1. Chose a subdiscipline of geology and describe how mineralogy plays a central role in that field. (2 pts) Looking for reasonable answers

More information

Exploration. Exploration methods

Exploration. Exploration methods Exploration Activities related to establishing a mineral deposit through geological, geophysical and geochemical methods. It is preceded by Prospecting and followed by Planning & Development. Geological

More information

CENTAURUS DELIVERS MAIDEN 77Mt INFERRED RESOURCE FOR JAMBREIRO IRON ORE PROJECT, BRAZIL

CENTAURUS DELIVERS MAIDEN 77Mt INFERRED RESOURCE FOR JAMBREIRO IRON ORE PROJECT, BRAZIL 27 October 2010 CENTAURUS DELIVERS MAIDEN 77Mt INFERRED RESOURCE FOR JAMBREIRO IRON ORE PROJECT, BRAZIL LIFTS COMPANY RESOURCE INVENTORY IN BRAZIL TO OVER 130Mt, PROVIDING A STRONG FOUNDATION FOR PLANNED

More information

Queensland Mining Corporation L I M I T E D. Maiden JORC Resources Estimate for Horseshoe Copper Deposit, Duck Creek, South Cloncurry District

Queensland Mining Corporation L I M I T E D. Maiden JORC Resources Estimate for Horseshoe Copper Deposit, Duck Creek, South Cloncurry District ASX Release 12 October 2012 Maiden JORC Resources Estimate for Horseshoe Copper Deposit, Duck Creek, South Cloncurry District Total mineral resource at Duck Creek Project area of 960,000t @ 1.47% Cu (0.2%

More information

UKRIGS Education Project: Earth Science On-Site Funded by Defra's Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund, administered by English Nature.

UKRIGS Education Project: Earth Science On-Site Funded by Defra's Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund, administered by English Nature. UKRIGS Education Project: Earth Science On-Site Funded by Defra's Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund, administered by English Nature. This website and all of its contents are the copyright of UKRIGS and

More information

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS Introduction Igneous rocks form from the cooling and crystallization of molten rock material. This can occur below the surface of the earth forming intrusive rocks

More information

Chemical and Morphological Comparison of Erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey

Chemical and Morphological Comparison of Erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Chemical and Morphological Comparison of Erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey By Heather A. Lowers, David T. Adams, Gregory P. Meeker,

More information

Earth Materials: Minerals. Mineral Properties. Mineral Properties. Some optical properties. Three general categories:

Earth Materials: Minerals. Mineral Properties. Mineral Properties. Some optical properties. Three general categories: 1 2 Earth Materials: Minerals What is a mineral? Properties/characteristics of different types of minerals Mineral structures and bonding Major categories of minerals Importance and uses of minerals What

More information

Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Stabilized Flue Gas Desulfurization Material

Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Stabilized Flue Gas Desulfurization Material Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Stabilized Flue Gas Desulfurization Material W. Wolfe 1, C.-M. Cheng 1, R. Baker 1, T. Butalia 1, J. Massey-Norton 2 1 The Ohio State University, 2 American Electric

More information

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL ZONE MODEL FOR COMPOSITE THIN FILMS IN MAGNETIC RECORDING MEDIA APPLICATION

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL ZONE MODEL FOR COMPOSITE THIN FILMS IN MAGNETIC RECORDING MEDIA APPLICATION EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL ZONE MODEL FOR COMPOSITE THIN FILMS IN MAGNETIC RECORDING MEDIA APPLICATION Hua Yuan and David E. Laughlin Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon

More information

CIM DEFINITION STANDARDS - For Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves

CIM DEFINITION STANDARDS - For Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves CIM DEFINITION STANDARDS - For Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves Prepared by the CIM Standing Committee on Reserve Definitions Adopted by CIM Council on November 27, 2010 FOREWORD CIM Council, on

More information

Weathering, Erosion, and Soils. Weathering and Erosion. Weathering and Erosion

Weathering, Erosion, and Soils. Weathering and Erosion. Weathering and Erosion Weathering, Erosion, and Soils 1 The Grand Canyon, a landscape shaped by weathering and erosion 2 Weathering vs. erosion Types of weathering Physical Chemical Rates of weathering and erosion Climate Rock

More information

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide

Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Earth Science - SOL 5.7 Science Study Guide Rocks are classified based on how they were formed. The three types of rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Igneous rock forms when magma (liquid

More information

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals.

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. 2.21 Ionic Bonding 100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. Forming ions Metal atoms lose electrons to form +ve ions. Non-metal

More information

CATALOGUE OF PRODUCTS

CATALOGUE OF PRODUCTS Sklopísek Střeleč, joint stock company produces high quality glass, foundry, technical, filtration and sport sands, fine milled silica flour. The Střeleč area represents the largest deposit of prime quality

More information

Rock Mechanics I Course CEE9577. Properties of Rocks

Rock Mechanics I Course CEE9577. Properties of Rocks Rock Mechanics I Course CEE9577 Properties of Rocks Rock as an Engineering Material Rock as an Engineering Material It differs from other engineering materials in that it contains discontinuities such

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

Kevitsa Mine a Big Ni Cu PGE Mine in Central Finnish Lapland

Kevitsa Mine a Big Ni Cu PGE Mine in Central Finnish Lapland Kevitsa Mine a Big Ni Cu PGE Mine in Central Finnish Lapland Krister Söderholm Kevitsa Mining/FirstQuantum MineralsLtd Ltd. Cautionary Note Concerning Forward-Looking Statements Some of the statements

More information

Sabina Gold & Silver Corp.

Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. Creating precious metals opportunities in the Canadian North November 2011 Hackett River Camp, looking to west 1 Forward Looking Statements This presentation includes certain

More information

Aurvista Gold Plans Significant Exploration Program at Douay

Aurvista Gold Plans Significant Exploration Program at Douay NEWS RELEASE For Immediate Issue June 14, 2016 Aurvista Gold Plans Significant Exploration Program at Douay Ø The main gold target is the largely untested northwestern section of the Porphyry Zone; the

More information

THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing elements of the periodic table. LAB: Discovering properties of compounds. POST:

More information

Asbestos Presence in a Factory that Produced Asbestos-Containing Products

Asbestos Presence in a Factory that Produced Asbestos-Containing Products Asbestos Presence in a Factory that Produced Asbestos-Containing Products Hana Fajkovi Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 95, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, e-mail: (hanaf@geol.pmf.hr)

More information

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia.

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia. Please read chapters 10 and 5 CHAPTER 5 Sedimentary Rocks 1) Sedimentary rocks A) form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment. B) are widespread on the continents and ocean floor. C) are common

More information

For personal use only

For personal use only Investigator Resources Limited Date: 7 th February 2012 up to 2.25% Ag at the new Paris prospect in South Australia First assays received for new drilling on Paris Line 7 with all three holes assayed returning

More information

Matt Harris, Golder Associates (NZ) Ltd. The value of geophysics as a non-intrusive method for site characterisation

Matt Harris, Golder Associates (NZ) Ltd. The value of geophysics as a non-intrusive method for site characterisation Matt Harris, Golder Associates (NZ) Ltd. The value of geophysics as a non-intrusive method for site characterisation Presentation Outline What is geophysics and how can it help me? Electrical Resistivity

More information

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks?

The rock cycle. Introduction. What are rocks? The rock cycle This Revision looks at the three types of rock: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. It looks at how they are formed, the weathering of rocks and the way one form of rock turns into another,

More information

INSTITUTE OF SEISMOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI REPORT S-62 LITHOSPHERE 2014

INSTITUTE OF SEISMOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI REPORT S-62 LITHOSPHERE 2014 INSTITUTE OF SEISMOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI REPORT S-62 LITHOSPHERE 2014 EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION AND EVOLUTION OF THE LITHOSPHERE IN FENNOSCANDIA PROGRAMME AND EXTENDED ABSTRACTS

More information