GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS SAMSUN STEP BY STEP

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3 CONTENTS THE CITY WHERE THE SUN HAS RISEN HISTORY THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME, SAMSUN BRIEF HISTORY OF SAMSUN GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS SAMSUN STEP BY STEP LKADIM DISTRICT AM SOS ANCIENT CITY BARUTHANE / KALKANCA TUMULI DÜNDARTEPE / ÖKSÜRÜKTEPE MOUND BÜYÜK CAM (MOSQUE) YALI CAM (MOSQUE) KALE CAM (MOSQUE) HANÇERL CAM (MOSQUE) fieyh SEYY D KUDB DD N CAM VE TÜRBES (MOSQUE AND TOMB) SÜLEYMAN PASHA MEDRESES (MADRASAH) MATER DOLOROSA CATHOLIC CHURCH ACEM TEKKES (DERVISH LODGE) TAfiHAN (INN) BEDESTEN (BAZAAR) Ç FTE HAMAM (HAMMAM) fi FA HAMAMI (HAMMAM) ALEMDARZADE ÇEfiMES (FOUNTAIN) SAMSUN MUNICIPALITY BUILDING MUNICIPALITY DEPARTMENT OF CULTURE AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS PROVINCIAL DIRECTORATE OF CULTURE AND TOURISM REJ S GARA FABR KASI (TOBACCO FACTORY) THE FORMER TEKEL GENERAL DIRECTORATE BUILDING YOL- fi SYNDICATE BUILDING OLD BRITISH CONSULATE BUILDING ÇARfiI POLICE STATION ST KLAL LK T CARET MEKTEB (TRADE SCHOOL) FAZIL KADI PRIMARY SCHOOL SOCIAL SCIENCES COLLEGE ATATÜRK ANADOLU HIGHSCHOOL MUNICIPAL CONSERVATORY SELAN K BANKASI (BANK) Z RAAT BANKASI (BANK) contents

4 MERKEZ BANKASI (BANK) GARANT BANKASI (BANK) VARYETE S NEMASI (CINEMA) ESK SARAY HOTEL SAH L PALAS HOTEL SAMSUN CITY CLUB SAMSUN MENTAL HOSPITAL SAMSUN DOMICIL ARCHITECTURE SAMSUN ARCAHEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY MUSEUM GAZ MUSEUM CLOCK TOWER ATATÜRK ANITI (MONUMENT) ATATÜRK PARK LKADIM ANITI (MONUMENT) SAH L GEZ YOLU- COASTAL ALLEY BATI PARK, TELEFERIC AND BARUTHANE COASTS OF SAMSUN CAN K TOPTEPE TÜMÜLÜSLER (TUMULI) BANDIRMA SHIP MUSEUM AND THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE OUTDOOR MUSEUM DO U PARK (EAST PARK) MEfiE CULTURAL PARK KOZLU V LLAGE MOSQUE ATAKUM AKALAN KALES (CASTLE) BÜYÜK KOLPINAR TÜMÜLÜSÜ (TUMULUS) ATAKUM COASTS TEKKEKÖY TEKKEKÖY MA ARALARI (CAVES) KABACEV Z fielaleler (WATERFALLS) COSTAL ORMANI (FOREST) HACI OSMAN KORUSU (GROVE) KELTEPE K L SES (CHURCH) ATATÜRK S HOUSE ÇINARALAN K L SE CAM (CHURCH-MOSQUE) SHEIKH YUSUF ZEYNÜDD N CAM VE TÜRBES (MOSQUE AND TOMB) ÇIRAKMAN YELDE RMEN (WINDMILL) contents CONTENTS

5 CONTENTS ÇARfiAMBA YEfi LIRMAK GÖ CEL / GÖKÇEL CAM (MOSQUE) fieyhhab L CAM (MOSQUE) ESK KENT K L SES (CHURCH) BEDESTEN (OLD BAZAAR) TERME ÇAMLIK CAMPING M L Ç PINE GROVE YUKARI SÖ ÜTLÜ CAM (MOSQUE) AfiA I SÖ ÜTLÜ CAM (MOSQUE) SALIPAZARI GARPU KALES (CASTLE) ÇATAK AHMET A A V LLAGE WOODEN MOSQUE SAMZAMA KADEM TÜRBES (TOMB) AND TOPAL HACI TÜRBES (TOMB) ALBAK CAM & KÖPRÜSÜ (MOSQUE AND BRIDGE) AYVACIK AYVACIK DAMS ONDOKUZ MAYIS NEB YAN MOUNTAIN ENG Z CREEK AHfiAP CAM (MOSQUE) fieyh BEYK TÜRBES (TOMB) YÖRÜKLER HAMAMI (HAMMAM) TAfi KÖPRÜ (BRIDGE) BAFRA KIZILIRMAK RIVER BAFRA, KIZILIRMAK DELTA BIRD SANCTUARY BAFRA AKALAN fielaleler (WATERFALLS) ALTINKAYA DAM DERBENT DAM K ZTEPE MOUND ASAR KALE (CASTLE) MARTI KALES (CASTLE) BÜYÜK CAM (MOSQUE) TAYYAR PAfiA CAM (MOSQUE) ÇARfiI CAM (MOSQUE) EM R M RZA BEY TÜRBES (TOMB) contents

6 HIZIR BEY TÜRBES (TOMB) fi FA HAMAMI (HAMMAM) BEDESTEN (OLD BAZAAR) AL BEY ÇEfiMES (FOUNTAIN) HÜSEY N BEY ÇEfiMES (FOUNTAIN) BAFRA DEN Z FENER (LIGHTHOUSE) ÇET NKAYA KÖPRÜSÜ (BRIDGE) ALAÇAM ALAÇAM MANSIONS ALAÇAM BAY GEY K KOfiAN PROMENADE AND TOMB YAKAKENT LAKE ÇAM LAKE KUNDUZ BALIK P LAVTEPE TÜMÜLÜSÜ (TUMULUS) KAVAK KALE DORU U HÖYÜ Ü (MOUND) DERE CAM (MOSQUE) BEKDEM R KÖYÜ CAM (MOSQUE) ÇAKALLI HAN (INN) ÇAKALLI KÖPRÜSÜ (BRIDGE) PROMENADES ASARCIK AKYAZI KÖYÜ CAM (MOSQUE) KOfiACA KÖYÜ CAM (MOSQUE) AYAKLIALAN KÖYÜ K L SE KALINTISI (CHURCH RUINS) HAVZA HAVZA ATATÜRK HOUSE LERDÜ E / ÇAMYATA I TÜMÜLÜSLER (TUMULI) TAfi MEKTEP BUILDING S VR KESE CAM (MOSQUE) YÖRGÜÇ MUSTAFA BEY CAM (MOSQUE) fieyh SAVCI TÜRBES (TOMB) F RUZ A A MEDRESES (MADRASAH) HAVZA MARET (SOUP-KITCHEN) HAVZA THERMAL SPRINGS ASLANA ZI - KIZ GÖZÜ THERMAL SPRING KÜÇÜK HAMAM (HAMMAM) MAAR F HOTEL AND HAMMAM contents CONTENTS

7 CONTENTS TRADITIONAL DOMICIL ARCHITECTURE VEZ RKÖPRÜ TUMULI ESENKÖY ROCK TOMB TÜRKMEN VILLAGE KALE / TAfiKALE CAM (MOSQUE) ABDÜLGAN / NAMAZGÂH CAM (MOSQUE) BEDESTEN-CARAVANSERAI TAfiHAN (INN) ABDÜLKER M A A MEDRESES (MADRASAH) FAZIL AHMET PAfiA MEDRESES (MADRASAH) Ç FTE HAMAM (HAMMAM) KALE HAMAMI (HAMMAM) FOUNTAINS CLOCK TOWER KURT KÖPRÜSÜ (BRIDGE) KÖPRÜLÜ MEHMET PAfiA MONUMENT LAD K LAKE LAD K AND BIRD PARADISE TERSAKAN RIVER AKDA PLATEAU KÜPEC K PLATEAU LAKE BÜYÜKKIZO LU AND WATERFALL LAD K KALES (CASTLE) BÜLBÜL HATUN CAM (MOSQUE) fieyh SEYY D AHMED- KEB R TÜRBES (TOMB) ESK HAMAM (HAMMAM) HAMAMAYA I THERMAL SPRING CLOCK TOWER TRADITIONAL CULTURE HANDICRAFTS TRADITIONAL ATTIRE TRADITIONAL FOLK DANCES TRADITIONAL CUISINE VERBAL CULTURE CHRONOLOGY BIBLIOGRAPHY USEFUL INFORMATION MAPS contents

8 Sevgi Bridge

9 Atatürk House - Tekkeköy

10 THE CITY WHERE THE SUN HAS RISEN Samsun is the place where the first step towards the liberation and foundation of the Turkish Republic is set. In other words, the sun for the liberation and foundation has risen in Samsun. Samsun, being an important culture and trade centre and hosting different cultures and civilizations from the day of the first habitation up until today, lives and keeps alive its richness of 5500 years history as a brand city. The evidences found during the excavations which following the excavations of Bafra kiztepe and Tekkeköy, continue in Vezirköprü Oymaa aç where Nerik, Hittites sacred city, is traced, shall add value to the historical richness of Samsun and of our country. When you arrive in Samsun, while you are taking a journey in the past with the Amazon Warriors and the Treasures of Amisos, you experience the excitement of coming aboard together with the Great Leader Atatürk and his comrade in arms from SS Band rma at Tütün Wharf. Besides of having many artifacts from Seljuks, Principalities and the Ottoman period, Samsun, experiencing the pride of being the city where the sacred liberation movement of our country has started, takes important actions on living and keeping alive these values provided and committed to it by the history. In respect of its geographical position, Samsun has been a center of attraction at Black Sea throughout the history. It is a metropolitan, distinguished from the other cities in the Black Sea and Central Anatolia Region by means of its social, cultural, economical, health and education potentials. In addition to this, with its warmhearted people, wilderness, spas, plateaus and the new investments, it is taking important steps in order to become a tourism centre. Samsun, with its background, strategic position, and the resources, which can be used in the name of development and its identity as a substantial city, is a determinant city in its region. With this aspect, it will become a meeting centre for the countries around the Black Sea in regards with many subjects, among them the cultural ones being in the first place. In this introductory booklet you will witness the stages our city has passed from past to present furthermore you will be witnessing our works in order to bring the achievements of modern-days to Samsun besides the historical, natural, sociocultural and economical values. I would like to thank to every one who contributed efforts in the preparation of this booklet, which I believe is going to make a huge contribution to the publicity of our city, which is at all points in great development, and give my love and regards. Hasan Basri GÜZELO LU Governor of Samsun

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12 HISTORY

13 14 A view from Samsun Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Period, Coins THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME, SAMSUN The texts from the Ancient Ages state that Samsun s firstly name was Enete. At the beginning of the 6th century BC., a group of people from Miletus originating from Sinope, captures a small site called Amisos and establish emporion (marketplace). In the first half of the 6th century BC, Cappadocians came and settled in Amisos. In the middle of the 6th century BC Cappadocian leader lets the Phokaians Ancient Phokaia to settle in Amisos. In 437 BC a group of colonists who came previously from Athens to Sinope settle in Amisos in the leadership of Athenokles and change its name as Peiraieos. Eventhough Roman Emperor Pompeius changed the city s name to Pompeiopolis when he came to Amisos in 64 BC, this name has not lasted and in the following periods and the name of the city has been used as Amisos. The emerging of the name Samsun, as it is used today, is after the Turks ruled the place. While the name Samsun is used in the Turkish resources from 12th and 13th century, in the western resources of the same years the name Sampson is registered. It is known that both the word Samsun and the word Sampson are derived from Amisos. In case of the resources from Ottoman period, it is noticed that the word Samsun is used eventhough there are spelling differences. However during this period, although the city s name is mentioned to be Samsun, the name Canik has been used as the name of the sanjak the city is governed by. The city, which became during the republican period a province by means of administrative regulation, is in our days also called Samsun. history BRIEF HISTORY OF SAMSUN The findings acquired as a re-

14 Idol, Early Bronze Age sult of the surveys on the many hills and tumuli in Samsun show that the region was widely inhabited during the Early Bronze Age. During the researches done in the region of Samsun, it has been determined that the earliest human traces in the region appear in Tekkeköy. In consequence of the researches done in the rock shelters, caves and flat habitations in the region, artifacts belonging to Lower Paleolithic Era, Mezolithic Era, Bronze Age and Hittite Period are captured. Outdoor habitations in this area are seen earliest in the Late Chalcolithic Period. While the habitations during the Late Chalcolithic Early Bronze Age are in the neighborhood of Basra, Kavak, Havza; the habitations during the Middle Bronze Age gain intensity on the west and the south of Bafra. In case of Late Bronze Age, because of the Kaska invasions, there hasn t been any habitation. Likewise the excavations in Vezirköprü, Oymaa aç tumulus present significant results in regards with the localization of Nerik, Woman Statuette, Hellenistic Period the cult city of the Hittites in the north, and the Hittite researches. The city-states developed in West Anatolia on the Aegean Sea costs especially Miletus and Phokaia, have built various cities at the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. One of these cities built up for trade purposes, is Amisos. Giresun (Kerassos) and Sinop (Sinoppe) are also among these cities built up in this manner. The city which got stronger with the day to day developing Black Sea trade, has subsisted until the Persian invasion in 550 BC. In the new organization made by the Persian Emperor Dareios I ( BC), Samsun and the surroundings have remained within the borders of Satrapy of Cappadocia (military governorate). The Persians who couldn t be influenti- Skull, Early Bronze Age history 15

15 Treasure of Amisos, Golden Earring, Hellenistic Period 16 al in Samsun (Amisos), Sinop (Sinoppe) and Giresun (Kerassos) have lost their power with the march of Alexander the Great into Anatolia. Mithridates IV, king of Pontus, who started getting stronger at the beginning of the 4th century BC, has reached the Black Sea coast by ruling Yeflil rmak and the surroundings. During this period, Samsun has developed economically due to the sea trade and the city has shown progress in respect of general appearance. In 88 BC, the king of Bithynia, provoked by Rome, attacked the lands of Mithridates. Mithridates won the battle and marched forward to West Anatolia. Head of Augustus, 1 st Century B.C. history When Mithridates has lost the battle which he entered in 71 BC against Roman Army, the Black Sea coasts are conquered by Rome. Roman sovereignty has pursued even though it has been attacked from time to time. After the 50 s BC, Trapezos (Trabzon) on the east has gradually gained importance. Even though the Eastern Black Sea coasts and Trabzon have been exposed to Got attacks, Samsun has not been affected by them. After the separation of the Roman Empire in two in 395, it came under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine). During this period Amisos has been transformed into eparchy centre. The wars started between the Byzantines and the Muslim Arabs have also affected Amisos. As a matter of fact, during a raid by Emir of Malatya, Ömer B. Abdullah, Amisos has been captured in 863. However, Byzantine Army beating Ömer B. Abdullah has taken it back and the city has remained in the Byzantine control until it has

16 been conquered by the Turks. Samsun is one of the first conquests of the Turks who spread into the Anatolia after the Victory of Malazgirt (1072). After that date, Samsun again came under the control of Byzantine. The Danishmends, who surrounded the city in 1086, couldn t get the city from Byzantines but they have built up another city very close to it. They have called this city New Samsun or Muslim Samsun. In the course of time, trade and amity relations have been established between these two cities. Samsun, which became Muslim after being conquered by the Seljuk emperor K l ç Arslan II, has been passed to the control of Seljuk. The old Samsun remained under the control of the Genoese and the Byzantines. Even though the Trapezos Greek Empire had surrounded Samsun from time to time, they couldn t have conquered it. Samsun, which was under the control of seignior state of Eretna in the 14th century, went afterwards under the Mosaic, Roman Period control of Kubado ullar. When the city has been handed over to Bayezid I, the control of Ottomans has started in Samsun. After having conquered New Samsun, The Ottomans didn t touch the Old Samsun. Old Samsun with the taxes collected from the Genoese was an important income channel for the Ottoman State. Old Samsun which remained under the control of the Genoese until 1419 has be- Statuette, Hellenistic Period history 17

17 18 Church Relief, Byzantine Period en evacuated after a fire disaster. Çelebi Mehmet Khan, who took advantage of this state of the city, has annexed the city to the Ottoman lands. From this date on, the city developing under the control of the Ottoman, has got various monuments and buildings with reconstruction works. Evliya Çelebi, one of the important pilgrims of the 17th century, states that the inhabitants of Samsun (population) were occupied with shipping and hemp production, and the Castle of Samsun was a solid building built of stone at the seacoast. Evliya Çelebi calling attention to that Samsun had tasty water, states that the houses were with tiling, vineyards and orchards, but that the educational institutions were very few. He says that the hemp cords produced for moorings were sufficient for the whole world. As the result of the loss of Crimean by the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca 1774, the commercial importance of Samsun has also fairly degraded. However, from the mid 19th century onwards Samsun and Canik Sanjak started developing again. The facts that the plantation is becoming widespread and steamship operation also starting in the Black Sea have been important factors on this development. The commercial and economical potential of the city and the sanjak has developed as evenly as the population has increased. In the great fire of 1896 the city is destroyed almost completely. Bell Buckle, Ottoman Period history

18 During the World War I the trade has been paralyzed and the city suffered a lot. In 1915 the Russian battleships have cannoned the city. In the last years of the war and during the deliberation years, in the neighborhood of Samsun the movements of Pontus gangs have been striking. After the Montreux Armistice, a British Indian Force of 4000 people has occupied the City but these forces have left the country during the War of Independence. Samsun, taking an important role during the Turkish War of Independence, has become one of the most significant symbols of the process after Atatürk s first arrival to the city on May 19, Mustafa Kemal Pafla, who came to Samsun as the 9th Army Gazi Museum Inspector, has stayed at M nt ka Palace Hotel which today is serving as Gazi Museum. During the first 4-5 days he has spent in Samsun, he has prepared a Samsun Report containing his first observations. After that, Mustafa Kemal Pafla, who went to Havza, has organized a meeting there protesting the invasion of Izmir. Following that, Havza Memorandum has been issued and sent by telegraph to the whole country. After the proclamation of the Republic, Atatürk has come to Samsun on September 20, 1924 one more time. Samsun, which became a province in 1925, with the important steps taken in the succeeding years, became Turkey s one of the developed cities. War of Indepedence Monument 19 history

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20 GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS

21 22 Ayvac k Dam Samsun, located in the middle part of the Black Sea coast line, between the deltas where Yeflil rmak and K z l rmak rivers flow into the sea, has an area of km 2. The geographical coordination are N latitude, E longitude. The neighbors of Samsun, which has the Black Sea on its north, are Ordu in the east, Sinop in the west, Tokat and Amasya in the south, Çorum in the southwest. With regards to landforms Samsun shows three characteristics. First one is the highlands in the south, the second is the plateaus between the highlands and the coastal line, the third is the coastal plains between the plateaus and the coastal line. On the coastal plains formed in the delta regions of the rivers K z - l rmak river and Yeflil rmak river, the plains of Bafra and Çarflamba are located, which have the highest agricultural potential of Turkey and are the highest plains of Turkey. The Black Sea shores of the lands of Samsun City are covered with plains while the inner parts running towards the south are covered with mountain ranges which are not too high. The region is between the Black Sea coasts and the mountains inside, running parallel along these coastlines. These mountains follow the east-west direction in Ünye- Çarflamba part, east-south and west-northwest direction in Samsun-Bafra part. There are two main mountain ranges running from east to west and appearing to be the extension of each other. The one on the east is called Canik Mountains and the one on the west is called Çangal Mountains. The west ends of Canik Mountains, of which a large part is within the city of Ordu, are on the lands of Samsun. These mountain ranges which have a low attitude do not hinder the transportation between the Black Sea and the inner parts. The Çangal Mountains entering the Samsun borders from the west end is largely in the city borders of Sinop. The average altitude of Çangal geographical characteristic

22 Mountains is 1500 m. The altitude of Akda, which is the highest mountain of Samsun, is 2062 m. Akda, located between the Ladik district and Amasya has a rich forest structure. Yeflil rmak, when flowing into the Black Sea at Cape Civa, forms the very substantial alluvial Çarflamba plain. The Çarflamba plain, starting in Kirazl k, has an area of hectares. Thanks to the water channels which have been built by DS (General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works), 70% of the land has been made eligible for agriculture. The remaining 30% is forested, reedy and marshy land. The river Yeflil rmak rises in the Köse Mountains (2801m) in Sivas and flows into the Black Sea at Çarflamba - Civa Cape. Yeflil rmak river, which divides Çarflamba from the middle in two, has a length of 519 km. K z l rmak river reaching Bafra splits into several tributaries in Bafra. The river flowing into the sea at the Bafra Cape, forms large and alluvial lands behind. The Akda Mountain, Ladik plain having an irrigation area of hectares is one of the most fertile lands of Turkey. In the north of the plain, irrigated by the water channels which have been built by DS, stock-breeding is done. K z l rmak, which is the longest river of Turkey, has a length of 1151 km. K z l rmak rising in K z l Da in Sivas, forms a wide arch in Central Anatolia. The river splitting in tributaries on the west of Bafra flows into the Black Sea at Bafra Cape. Delice, Devres and Gök rmak are among the most important tributaries of K z l rmak. According to the measurements done near Bafra, its width during the most dry period is 46 m, and its depth 1.30 m. Terme Creek, rising in Black Forest, is an important stream with a width up to 30 m and gives live to paddy fields. In the region, Hasan U urlu, Suat U urlu, Bafra, Alt nkaya and Derbent Dams are serving. The Dams built for energy production and irrigation purposes, are also resorts where fresh 23 geographical characteristic

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