1 Rev. Brasil. Genet. IV, 4, (1981) (Brazil. J. Genetics) GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMBINING ABILlTV FOR VIELD IN A DIALLEL CROSS AMONG 18 MAIZE POPULATIONS (Zea mays L.) VaIdemar Naspolini Filho, Elto Eugenio Gomes e Gama, Ronaldo Torres Vianna and José Roberto Môro ABSTRACT A study was carried out on diallcl crosses among 18 maize populations. An analysis was conducted on ear weight data using Griffing's Method 2, Model I to determine general and specific combining ability effects. General combining ability (GCA) was found to be significant but specific combining ability (SCA) was not. Both location x GCA and location x SCA interactions were found to bc significant. Thc rcsults showed that populations CMS 06 and CMS 05 have the highest GCA effects. The cross (CMS 07 x CMS 10) gave the highest SCA cffect. INTRODUCTION Population improvement and hybridization are major factors in successful maize breeding programs, especially in developing countries where both population and hybrid seeds are in similar demando The yield traits of exotic introductions can be improved by introgression of their germ plasm with high-yielding local cultivars or by the direct use of well-identified introduced potentialities. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo - EMBRAPA,CaixaPostal, 151,35700 Sete Lagoas, MG, Brasil.
2 572 Naspolini et ai. The breeding procedure to be applied should be based on a good understanding of the inheritanee of quantitative agronomie traits estimated by diallel eross analysis. Different methods have been proposed by Yates (1947), Hayman (1954, 1958, 1960) and Griffing (1956). The objeetive of this study was to estimate general and specifie eombining ability effeets for yield for erosses of introdueed populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diallel set of 18 populations and their FI hybrids were used in this study. Parental populations are shown in Table III. Only two of these are cornposites developed at the CNPMS, Sete Lagoas, MG, using three Brazilian eultivars plus one exotic introduetion. They are: CMS 06 (Maya, Centralmex, Dentado Composto and Tuxpeão 1), and CMS 07 (Cateto Colombia, Cateto Sete Lagoas, Flint Composto and Mezcla Amarilla) with dent and flint endosperm, respeetively. The remaining 16 populations are exotie materiais introdueed from CIMMYT (Mexieo). A quadratie rectangular 1"3x 14 lattiee was used at each of two loeations: Sete Lagoas (MG) and Piraeieaba (SP) in 1978/79. Experimen tal plots eonsisted of two rows 5 meters long and 75 em apart. Hills within rows were 50 em apart, with two plants per hill after thinning. Yield is reported ear weight (Kg/ha). The data were analyzed statistieally by analysis of varianee, and the statistieal proeedure described by Griffing (1956), Method 2, Model I, was used to estimate general and speeific eombining ability. as RESULTS AND DlSCUSSION The eombined analysis of varianee for ear weight is shown in Table I. General eombining ability was highly signifieant (P < 0.01) but specifie combining ability was not. This agrees with lthe results obtained by Sprague and Tatum (1942) in a study on unseleeted materials, where genetie effeets were more important for general eombining ability than for speeifie eombining ability. Gamble (1962) and Robinson et ai. (1949) also obtained similar results for grain yield. In the present study, treatment x loeation interaetion was signifieant and eould be attributed mostly to a highly signifieant general eombining ability x loeation interaetion. This suggests that the general eombining ability effeets were not eonsistent over the two environments. The
3 Combining Ability for Yield in Maize 573 specific combining ability X location interaction was highly significant. This was due to a failure of the magnitude of these effects to be relatively the same over the two environments. Tablc I -Combincd analysis of variancc of total 'ear weight of 18 populations ofcom and thcir 153 population crosses grown at two locations. Sourcc d.f. M.S. Locations (L) 1 Trcatments (T) 170 General (G) 17 Spccific (S) 153 T x L 170 G x L 17 S x L 153 ERROR ** ** ** I ** 405p3.70**, ** **Significant at the 0.01 probability levei. The mean yields for total ear weight of 18 parents and their possible crosses are shown in Table 11.Analysis of variance (Table I) showed no significance for SCA, therefore an average heterosis of 10.88% was obtained for mean yield of population crosses., The estimates of general combining ability and mean yield for total ear weight of each population are presented in Table III. It can be seen that 10 out of 18 populations had above-average yields and population CMS 06 had the highest yield. Populations CMS 05 and CMS 06 exhibited the híghest general combining ability effects followed by CMS 04, CMS 10, CMS 03, CMS 14, CMS 12,.CMS 11, CMS 15 and CMS 07. The large mean square for general combining ability suggests that. the general combining ability effects are the important thing to consider for an interpopulation breeding program, principally for synthesizing composites using these populations. The significance of general combining ability indicates that these populations were different for frequencies of additive favorable alleles.
5 Combining Ability for Yield in Maize 575 Tablc III -Mcan total ear weight(kgfha) and estimates of general combining ability effects (gi) for cach of 18 populations tested in two locations. Population Mcan yield (Kgfha) g İ (Kg/ha) 01 CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS 02 II CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS CMS ' _ x The estimates of speeifie eombining ability effeets and mean yield of the best 20 population erosses are shown in Table IV. The best eross eombination, which exhibited maximum specific combining ability effect for ear yield, was CMS 07 x CMS 10, involving a Brazilian eomposite and an introdueed population. Henee, the best interpopulation cross involved parents of different origino This is in agreement with the data reported by Singh et ai. (1977) who showed that higher specific combining ability effects ean be obtained by crossing materiais of greater genetie diversity. However, maximum heterosis occurs at an optimal of intetmediate levei of genetic diversity, as suggested by MoU et ai. (1965).
6 576 Naspolini et ai. Table IV -Estimatcs of spccific combining ability cffects (sij) for total ear weight and mean yield (Kg/ha) of the 20 best crosscs among 18 populations ovcr two locations. Crosscs Sij (Kg/ha) Mcan Yicld (Kg/ha) 01. CMS 07 x CMS CMS 17 x CMS CMS 21 x CMS CMS 21 x CMS CMS 17 x CMS CMS 23 x CMS CMS 16 x CMS CMS 14 x CMS CMS 16 x CMS CMS 21 x CMS CMS 16 x CMS CMS 02 x CMS CMS 15 x CMS CMS 04 x CMS 03 1'5.CMS 22 x CMS CMS 03 x CMS CMS 01 x CMS CMS 04 x CMS CMS 05 x CMS CMS 16 x CMS A AI Standard Error (Sij - Sik)* Standard Error (5ij - skl )** "for i *j,k; j * k ** for i * j, k, I; j * k, 1 and k * 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thc authors are grateful to Dr. Roland Vcncovsk y and Dr. Magno A. Patto Ramalho for helpful advicc.
7 Combining Ability for Yield in Maize 577 RESUMO Efetuou-se um estudo dos cruzamentos dialélicos entre 18 populações de milho. Os dados de peso de espiga foram analisados de acordo com o Método 2, Modelo I, de Griffing, para se determinarem os efeitos das capacidades geral e específica de combinação. Produção (peso de espiga) foi altamente significativa (P < 0.01) para capacidade geral de combinação (CGC), mas não para capacidade específica de combinação (CEC). Produção, também, foi altamente significativa para as interações local x CGC e local x CEC. Os resultados mostraram que as populações CMS 06 e CMS 05 apresentaram os maiores efeitos de CGC. No cruzamento CMS 07 x CMS 10 evidenciou-se o maior efeito da CEC. REFERENCES Gamble, E.E. (1962). Gene effects in com (Zea may s L.). I1I-Relative stability of the gene effects in different environments. CanoJ. Planto Sei 42: Griffing, B. (1956). Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing systcm. Aust. J. Biol. Sei. 9: Hayman, BJ. (1954). Thc theory and analysis of diallel crosses. Geneties 39: Hayman, B.1. (1958). Thc theory and analysis of diallel CTOSseS. 11.Geneties 43: Hayman, BJ. (1960). Thc theory and analysis of diallel cresses. Hl. Geneties 45: Robinson, H.F., Comstock, R.E. and Harvey, P.E. (1949). Estimates of heritability and the degree of dominance in com. Agron. J. 41: Sprague, G.F. and Tatum, L.A. (1942). General and specific combining ability in single crosses of corn. J. Am. Soe. Agron. 34: Singh, T.P., Jha, P.B. and Akthar, S.A. (1977). A diallel cross analysis of some quantitative traits in maize. Mysore J. Agrie. Sei. 11: Yates, E. (1947). Thc analysis of data from ali possible reciprocal crosses between a set of parentallines. Heredity 1: (Received October 20, 1980)
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