REFERENCES. Armington, C. L., Reinikka, E. A., & Creighton, H. (1972). Student evaluation Threat of incentive? Nursing Outlook, 20,

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1 Effectiveness of Clinical Faculty 62 REFERENCES Abrami, P. C., d Apollonia, S., Cohen, P. A. (1990). Validity of student ratings of instruction: What we know and what we do not. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, Adams, D. A. (1992). The relationship between use of varying proportions of part-time faculty and full-time nursing faculty perceptions of workloads and collegial support (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, 1992). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 07A. American Association of University Professors (2002a). The American Association of University Professors: Academic freedom for a free society. Retrieved May 7, 2002 from American Association of University Professors (2002b). The annual report on the economic status of the profession : Uncertain times. Retrieved May 7, 2002, from American Association of University Professors (2002c). Part-time and non-tenure track faculty. Retrieved May 7, 2002, from Armington, C. L., Reinikka, E. A., & Creighton, H. (1972). Student evaluation Threat of incentive? Nursing Outlook, 20, Barham, V. Z. (1965). Identifying effective behavior of the nursing instructor through critical incidents. Nursing Research, 14, Berger, A., Kirshtein, R. & Rowe, E. (2001). Institutional policies and practices: Results from the 1999 national study of postsecondary faculty (NSOPF: 99), Institution survey. Statistical analysis report. (Report No. NCES ). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED457732) Bergman, K. & Gaitskill, T. (1990). Faculty and student perceptions of effective clinical students: An extension study. Journal of Professional Nursing, 6, Brown, S. T. (1981). Faculty and student perceptions of effective clinical teachers. Journal of Nursing Education, 20, Centra, J. A. (1994). The use of teaching portfolio and student evaluations for summative evaluation. Journal of Higher Education, 65, Clery, S. (1998). Faculty in academe. NEA Higher Education Research Center Update, 4 (4), 1-8.

2 Effectiveness of Clinical Faculty 63 Cline, L. (1993). Work to school transition: Part-time faculty bring expertise, challenges to college. Vocational Education Journal, 68 (2), 26-27, 49. Coalition on the Academic Workforce (2002). Summary of data from surveys by the Coalition on the Academic Workforce. Retrieved May 4, 2002, from Collinson, V. (1999). Redefining teacher excellence. Theory Into Practice, 38, Craig, M. P. (1991). Nursing students perceptions of interpersonal relationships with clinical instructors (Doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee, 1991). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 53. Darling-Hammond, L., Wise, A. E., & Pease, S. R. (1983). Teacher evaluation in the organizational context: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 53, detornyay, R. (1984). Evaluating teaching effectiveness. Journal of Nursing Education, 4, 177. Fedler, F. (1989). Adjunct profs grade higher than faculty at three schools. Journalism Educator, 44 (2), Feldman, K. A. (1986). The perceived instructional effectiveness of college teachers as related to their personality and attitudinal characteristics: a review and synthesis. Research in Higher Education, 24, Fisher, D. L. & Kent, H. B. (1998). Associations between teacher personality and classroom environment. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 33, Fong, C. M. & McCauley, G. T. (1993). Measuring the nursing, teaching, and interpersonal effectiveness of clinical instructors. Journal of Nursing Education, 32 (7), Freeland, R. S. (1998). Adjunct Faculty in the Community College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ) Gappa, J. M. & Leslie, D. W. (1997). Two faculties or one? The conundrum of parttimers in a bifurcated work force. New pathways: Faculty career and employment for the 21 st century working paper series, Inquiry #6. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ) Gien, L. T. (1991). Evaluation of faculty teaching effectiveness- Toward accountability in education. Journal of Nursing Education, 30,

3 Effectiveness of Clinical Faculty 64 Howell, D. C. (1997). Statistical Methods for Psychology (4 th ed.). Duxbury Press: Belmont, CA. Humphrey, L. E. L. (1987). Effective characteristics of associate degree nursing instructors: A critical incident study (Doctoral dissertation, East Texas State University, 1987). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 713. Jacobson, M. D. (1966). Effective and ineffective behavior of teachers of nursing as determined by their students. Nursing Research, 15, Jirovec, R. L., Ramanthan, C. S. & Alvarez, A. R. (1998). Course evaluations: what are social work students telling us about teaching effectiveness? Journal of Social Work Education, 34, Kiker, M. (1973). Characteristics of the effective teacher. Nursing Outlook, 21, 11, Knox, J. E. & Mogan, J. (1985). Important clinical teacher behaviors as perceived by university nursing faculty, students and graduates. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 10, Koon, J. & Murray, H. G. (1995). Using multiple outcomes to validate student ratings of overall teacher effectiveness. Journal of Higher Education, 66, Leslie, D. W. (1998). Part-time, adjunct, and temporary faculty: The new majority? (Report of the Sloan Conference on Part-Time and Adjunct Faculty). Arlington, VA: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ) Massarweh, L. J. (1999). Promoting a positive clinical experience. Nurse Educator, 24 (5), Meleca, C. B., Schimpfhauser, F., Witteman, J.K., & Sachs, L. (1981). Clinical instruction in nursing: a national survey. Journal of Nursing Education, 20 (8), Mogan, J. & Knox, J. (1983). Students perceptions of clinical teaching. Nursing Papers, 15, Mellander, G. A. & Mellander, N. (1999, July 27). Critical issues - - and therefore opportunities - - for community colleges. (Report to Congressman M. R. Owens, Congresswoman C. P. Meek, & to the Congressional Progressive Caucus & the Progressive Challenge). Fairfax, VA: National Center for Community College Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ) Mogan, J. & Knox, J. (1983). Students perceptions of clinical teaching. Nursing Papers, 15, 4-13.

4 Effectiveness of Clinical Faculty 65 Mogan, J. & Knox, J. E. (1987). Characteristics of best and worst clinical teachers as perceived by university nursing faculty and students. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 12, Morgan, L. (1997). Effective clinical teaching as perceived by first and second year nursing students in a career ladder program. A comparative study (Master s thesis, Bellarmine College, 1997). Masters Abstracts International, 35, Morton, P. G. (1987). Student evaluation of teaching: Potential and limitations. Nursing Outlook, 35, Nehring, V. (1990). Nursing clinical teacher effectiveness inventory: A replication study of the characteristics of best and worst clinical teachers as perceived by nursing faculty and students. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, Ory, J. C. (1991). Changes in evaluating teaching in higher education. Theory into Practice, 30, O Shea, H. S. & Parsons, M. K. (1979). Clinical instruction: Effective and ineffective teacher behaviors. Nursing Outlook, 27, Parker, L. S. & Magnesen, V. A. (1986). Is it wizardry or magic? What makes an outstanding teacher? Innovation Abstracts, 8,1. Pedhazur, E. J. & Schmelkin, L. P. (1991). Measurement, Design, and Analysis: An Integrated Approach. Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ. Renaud, D. R. & Murray, H. G. (1996). Aging, personality, and teaching effectiveness in academic psychologists. Research in Higher Education, 37, Rouche, J. E., Rouche, S. D., & Milliron, M. D. (1995). Strangers in their own land: Part-time faculty in American community colleges. Washington, D.C.: Community College Press. Scanlan, J. M. (1996). Clinical teaching: The development of expertise. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manitoba, 1996). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (04B), Sherman, G. (2001, Oct.). The future of nursing as a profession: What the numbers are telling us. Paper presented at the meeting of the Virginia Nurses Association, Richmond, VA. Sieh, S. & Bell, S. K. (1994). Perceptions of effective clinical teachers in associate degree programs. Journal of Nursing Education, 33,

5 Effectiveness of Clinical Faculty 66 Smith, R. A. & Cranton, P. A. (1992). Students perceptions of teaching skill s and overall effectiveness across instructional settings. Research in Higher Education, 33, Soehnlen, J. K. (1994). Phenomenological investigation of role perceptions of the parttime clinical nurse educator (Doctoral dissertation, University of Akron, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International, 56 (01B). Spangler, M. S. (1990). Part-time faculty: Recognizing an unprotected minority. Los Angeles, CA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ) Suskie, L. A. (1996). Questionnaire Survey Research (2 nd. ed.). Florida State University: Tallahassee, FL. Teven, J. & McCroskey, J. (1997). The relationship of perceived teacher caring with student learning and teacher evaluation. Communication Education, 46, 1-9. Twigg, H. P. (1989, November). Uses and abuses of adjunct faculty in higher education. Paper presented at a national conference on the Community Colleges Humanities Association, Washington, DC. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ) Virginia Tech Center for Survey Research (2001). Virginia Nurses Survey, Available: Walker, P. A. (1998, May 29). The economic imperatives for using more full-time and fewer adjunct professors. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 44, 38, B6. [Online serial]. Available: 38.dir/38b00601.htm Walsh, D. J. & Maffei, M. J. (1994). Never in a class by themselves: an examination of behaviors affecting the student-professor relationship. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 5, White, L. C. (1997). Perceptions of effective clinical teachers in practical nursing programs (Doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58, Wood, V. & Matthewman, J. (1988). Performance of nursing instructors: An examination of four tools. Nurse Education Today, 8, Zimbler, L. J. (2001). Background characteristics, work activities, and compensation of faculty and instructional staff in postsecondary institutions (NCES ). Washington D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics.

6 Effectiveness of Clinical Faculty 67 Zimmerman, L. & Westfall, J. (1988). The development and validation of a scale measuring effective clinical teaching behaviors. Journal of Nursing Education, 27,

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