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1 DEPLOYING IP TELEPHONY OVER SATELLITE LINKS Rnald Tegl, Ulla Bimbacher, Ott Kudelka Institute f Cmmunicatin Netwrks and Satellite Cmmunicatins, Graz University f Technlgy, Graz, Austria Abstract- IP Telephny is ne f the fastest grwing technlgies. It is based n the TCP/IP prtcl suite. Hwever t prvide the same services and service qualities like legacy telephny netwrks, special care has t be taken fr the IP netwrk design. The TCP/IP prtcl suite is als increasingly used fr satellite cmmunicatins, which ffers wide-area bradband cnnectins t any pint within the satellite's ftprint. In rder t implement Vice ver IP (VIP) ver satellite links, the netwrk design has additinally t cnsider the physical characteristics f the link. This paper presents the implementatin f VIP ver satellite links, which are als used in parallel fr data transfer and vide cnferencing. Quality f Service (QS) is thereby the key technlgy t enable the cmbinatin f data and vice services. It is investigated which level f service quality can be achieved bth n the LAN and n the Satellite Link by using QS mechanisms available in ff-the-shelf ruters and switches. This paper includes a presentatin f the basic technlgies, the architectural design and an in-depth discussin f the cnfiguratin used. Finally, the resulting service quality is discussed. Index Terms-DiffServ, Satellite Cmmunicatin, QS, VIP. I. INTRODUCTION Data netwrks based n the IP prtcl are capable t transprt nearly any type f service, starting frm simple data transfer t real-time services like vide cnferencing and telephny services. Currently, IP Telephny is ne f the fastest grwing technlgies. Hwever t prvide the same services and service qualities like legacy telephny netwrks, special care has t be taken fr the IP netwrk design. Lcal area netwrks (LANs) ffering hundreds r thusands f MBit/s prvide enugh bandwidth t supprt delay and jitter sensitive services like Vice ver IP (VIP). The required Quality f Service (QS) is thereby enabled by simple bandwidth ver-prvisining and keeping the netwrk lad lw. In wireless netwrks and satellite cmmunicatin netwrks in particular, bandwidth is a scarce resurce and has t be used very efficiently. TCP/IP prtcls are als increasingly used fr satellite cmmunicatins, which ffer wide-area bradband cnnectins t any pint within the satellites' ftprint. In rder t implement VIP ver satellite links, netwrk design has t prvide the required QS by ther means than bandwidth ver-prvisining, taking als int accunt the physical characteristics f the link. Off-the-shelf netwrk cmpnents like ruters and switches are already supprting QS technlgies (e.g. DiffServ, evaluatin f TS field, pririty queuing). At the Institute f Cmmunicatin Netwrks and Satellite Cmmunicatins f Graz University f Technlgy several satellite grund statins with indr and utdr equipment and Cisc netwrking devices are available fr testing. Currently research fcuses n the implementatin f all-ip netwrks ver satellite. QS is thereby the key technlgy t enable the cmbinatin f data and vice netwrk services. This paper presents the implementatin f VIP by using QS mechanisms readily available in standard Cisc ruters and switches. The satellite link is als used in parallel fr data transfer and vide cnferencing. It is investigated, if the perceived quality f vice and vide cmmunicatin can be increased by emplying IP QS mechanisms. After presenting the basic technlgies, the architectural design and an indepth discussin f the cnfiguratin used, the resulting service quality is discussed finally. II. LAYER 2 CHARACTERISTICS AND SERVICES REQUIREMENTS T carry vice ver different netwrk technlgies, their characteristics need t be cnsidered. Legacy Public Switched Telephny Netwrks (PSTN) are centrally cntrlled netwrks which establish circuit switched cnnectins between simple and cheap end-user devices. In mdem telephny netwrks, a packet-switched backbne is used t carry the vice digitally. These netwrks are designed t prvide a guaranteed vice service quality. Lcal Area Netwrks (LAN), like Ethemet fllw a cmpletely different apprach. They ffer plenty f bandwidth X/05/$ IEEE 624

2 (10, 100, 1000 r mre Mbit/s) t all hsts attached but n central cntrl. Mdem Ethernet netwrks, based n twisted pair r fibre ptics add full duplex cnnectins withut the risk f cllisins. By using switches, packet-switched pintt-pint cnnectins are available. On switched netwrks, it is pssible t prvide certain qualities f service, if care is taken in the netwrk design. By the use f cmmunicatin satellites, netwrks can be intercnnected n a glbal scale, als in gegraphic regins with pr terrestrial backbne infrastructure. Satellites in the gestatinary rbit ( km abve the Earth's surface) are characterized by the high prpagatin delay, but can prvide large gegraphic areas with cmmunicatin services. A specific use f cmmunicatin satellites is the intercnnectin f LANs. Tw r mre gegraphically separated LANs can be intercnnected ver satellite links using the IP prtcl. By implementing IP n satellite links, a variety f applicatins can be supprted. Since the netwrk prtcl is the same as n LANs and the Internet, the full diversity f data services, vide cnferences and VlP can be applied n satellite links as well. This flexibility allws the use f a single satellite link fr any kind f applicatin. In [5] and [6] it is shwn that it is feasible t carry VlP data ver satellite links. The next step is t allw the simultaneus peratin f varius services. T prevent mutual interferences, the applicatin f QS technlgies is f key imprtance NETWORK ARCHITECTURE The netwrk cnsists f tw separate LANs, cnnected by a satellite link. Base statin I (BSTI) is the main site. It cnnects t the Internet and t the ISDN netwrk. It is therefre hme t the VlP gateway and als t a gatekeeper, a Cisc CallManager Express (CME) 3.0. The remte site (base statin 2 - BST2) has similar equipment, but n additinal netwrk links. Bth feature the fllwing basic cmpnents: A Cisc ruter with Vice supprt (Cisc 1 760V and Cisc 2801), a managed switch, ne Cisc IP Phne, a ntebk cmputer and a Plyspan vide cnference unit. This setup prvides a variety f services, including but nt restricted t IP telephny, vide cnferences, Web, FTP and clients, FTP and NTP servers and mre. An verview is prvided in figure 1. The tw sites are cnnected by tw I Mbit/s satellite links realising a FDM netwrk, using the gestatinary SESAT satellite psitined at 36 degrees East. The satellite grund statins cnsist f a parablic satellite antenna with 1.5m and 2.4m diameter respectively, cnnected t an L-Band up-/dwn-cnverter and t a Radyne Cmstream satellite mdem (QPSK mdulatin, Viterbi Frward Errr Crrectin with cde rate 3/4). The Cisc ruters are directly cnnected t the RS.449 interface f the satellite mdem. BSTI Che Catst 2950 Figure 1: Architectural verview,geo satemif Cisc 2001 BST2 Cisc CatW X The VlP implementatin is based n Cisc's slutin fr IP telephny. In ur setup, Cisc Call-Manager Express (CME) sftware which prvides all cmmn telephny services is used. It is based n Cisc IOS - it therefre can be perated directly n the ruters, reducing the hardware and maintenance needs. It is designed t serve a few dzens f users, especially in small single deplyments r at small remte sites. At bth base statins a CME acts as gatekeeper. The ruters n which the CME sftware is perating, prvide gateway services at the same time. Bth sites can perate a lcal IP telephny netwrk n their wn, but inter- CallManager cnnectins als allw cnducting calls t the ther site. In additin, BSTI prvides a gateway t the PSTN via the PBX f Graz University f Technlgy. Since bth sites feature a full CME, the setup can be characterised as multi-site WAN with distributed call prcessing. The IP phnes cmmunicate with their lcal CallManager with the Cisc prprietary Skinny Client Cntrl Prtcl. The vice data is carried by the Real-time Transprt Prtcl (RTP): Fr lcal calls, where plenty f bandwidth is available, the G.711 cdec is used, while remte calls use G.729. Anther difference between lcal and remte calls is the use f H.323 prtcls fr inter-callmanager cmmunicatin, fr instance the use f the H.225 prtcl fr establishing remte calls. Whereas this setup wrks fine, when there is enugh bandwidth (ver)prvisined, it will fail t prvide acceptable vice quality when the satellite link is saturated. The key is the applicatin f QS mechanisms. 625

3 IV. QS In the cntext f cmputer netwrks, Quality f Service (QS) f traffic is defined as prviding guarantees n certain bundaries n fur prperties f the traffic Reliability Bandwidth Delay Jitter. These definitins allw us t name the QS requirements and cmmn recmmendatins fr vice traffic [2]. Vice traffic shuld be marked t the DSCP value f Expedited Frwarding (EF). Lss shuld be less than 1 percent. At this rate, it will nt be nticeable t the user. Accrding t the ITU G standard, ne-way, endt-end, i.e. muth-t-ear, delay shuld nt exceed 150 ms. It is hwever recgnised that this is nt always achievable due t the delays n satellite links. Average ne-way jitter shuld be targeted at less than 30 ms. Enugh guaranteed pririty bandwidth shuld be available fr each call. These gals are achieved bth in the LAN and n the satellite link by using Differentiated Services. Traffic is nt separated in flws but rather in classes. Each packet carriers a descriptin f its class and is therefre treated differently in every ruter alng the way. DiffServ is cnfigured lcally at every hp in the netwrk. All packets in a class share the same resurces, but exclusively s. Different classes will be assigned different resurces and therefre will nt interfere with each ther. Differentiated Services can be applied in switches and ruters. Each frame r packet needs t carry its classificatin infrmatin. Layer q frames may carry a Class f Service (CS) field and the layer 3 IP header prvides the TS byte, which cntains amng thers a 3-bit IP Precedence field. Besides pure bits, the interpretatin f them is mre imprtant. In the DiffServ Architecture (RFC 2475) the TS byte f the IP header was redefined (RFC 2474). It nw features a 6- bit Differentiated Services Cde Pint (DSCP) descriptr. DSCP is the basis fr the varius DiffServ actins. Certain values are assigned t special per-hp behaviurs. The actual QS requirements fr each single traffic class's user data need t be taken int accunt. Table 1 shws in [4] suggested mappings fr vice and vide applicatins. Defining a mapping f CS and IP Precedence values t DSCP is necessary, because several different interpretatins exist and many sftware applicatins d nt supprt DSCP yet. Hwever, setting these DSCPs alne des nt result in any per-hp behaviurs unless the netwrk ndes are specifically cnfigured t d s. These behaviurs are dminated by tw mechanisms. Queuing is the prcess f assigning the different classes f traffic t their queues. This separatin f classes makes sure that they d nt interfere with each ther t much. Once the queues are being filled, they need t be served. Hw this is dne is cntrlled by Scheduling. The simplest scheduling scheme is the sequential rund-rbin fairqueuing. When the transmitting queue becmes idle, the next ne is served and ne packet transmitted. An extensin, weighted rund rbin (WRR), perfrms better if the packets in queues have different lengths. Here a rati f bandwidth is assigned t the nn-empty queues and scheduling dne accrdingly. A simple example: if given a queue A with weight 1 and queue B weight 3, then 75% f the bandwidth is assigned t the traffic in B. The s called Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) scheme integrates these mechanisms. Traffic classes are assigned t queues, and the queues are being served accrding t the WRR settings. The CBWFQ scheme prvides separatin f different classes and allws priritisatin. Hwever t prvide vice a fragmentatin-free, lw lss, lw latency link t achieve tll quality, a mre pwerful scheme is needed. The slutin fund in tday's netwrk devices is the pririty queue. It has strict pririty: n ther queues are served, until they are empty. T prevent ther traffic frm starvatin, the pririty queue needs t be pliced nt t exceed a given maximum bandwidth. A CBWFQ scheme cmbined with a pririty queue is referred t as Lw Latency Queuing (LLQ). Traffic Type CS Pr cedence DSCP PHB In ur setup each Cisc telephny device (CallManager, IP Vice RTP EF phne) sets crrect CS and DSCP markings fr its frames Vice and packets cnfrm t table 1. A multi-layered apprach is cntrl CS3 taken t enable QS guarantees thrughut the netwrk. At Vide the access layer, the Catalyst 2950 switches perfrm a first cnferencing AF41 classificatin. Of curse the switches als apply per-hp BE t behaviurs. The LLQ implementatin and cnfiguratin is Data 0, 1, 2 0, 1, 2 10 t 22 AF23 illustrated in figure 2. Abslute pririty is given t vice traffic which carries the DSCP fr Expedited Frwarding (RFC 3246) and is assigned the pririty queue. Real-time vide and call cntrl data are treated with CBWFQ in a simplified, Assured Frwarding (RFC 2597)-like scheme. On 626

4 Figure 2: LLQ Scheme the satellite link, where resurces are especially scarce, bandwidth guarantees are given t real-time and cntrl data. The highest pririty class, which is destined fr vice is assigned a guaranteed bandwidth f 160 kbit/s. This is enugh fr at least fur G.729 calls at the same time. Vice cntrl is nt as sensitive, and it is assigned a guaranteed bandwidth f 8 kbit/s. Fr vide cnference traffic nearly the maximum bandwidth is reserved. It is nt guaranteed the same lw latency as fr vice, but the traffic may exceed the guaranteed limit withut being drpped. When there is n need fr the cmplete reserved amunt f bandwidth, ther traffic is allwed. The sum f all reservatins may nt exceed the maximum available link speed minus a reserve f 10% fr netwrk cntrl traffic. Finally, the remaining best-effrt traffic is allwed t take all f the free bandwidth. This is dne using weighted fairqueuing (WFQ), s all streams are allwed t transmit frm time t time. Once the packets are received n the ther site, layer 2 infrmatin is generated frm the DSCP field prir t sending the packet ut t the switched netwrk. V. RESULTS Vice quality is determined by QS cnditins. T evaluate the QS mechanism, the fllwing setup was active. Only the CallManager f BST1 was used, t allw mnitring the RTP vice stream n the WAN link. Fr a first functinality test under lab cnditins, the satellite link was replaced by a wired link between the satellite mdems at intermediate frequency. The bandwidth available was 2 Mbit/s. The cmplete traffic was mnitred with Ethereal [3], a free, but pwerful netwrk sniffer. T challenge the QS mechanism, fur types f traffic were present: A bidirectinal vide cnference using the adaptive H.263 cdec at up t 768 kbit/s. One vice call frm the remte t the lcal site, using the G.711 uncmpressed cdec at 64 kbit/s. Vice cntrl traffic is based n Cisc's Skinny prtcl. And finally, several FTP streams in bth directins t saturate the link and simulate full netwrk lad. With QS disabled, neither vide r vice perfrmance was acceptable. Once QS was activated, excellent vice and vide perfrmance was experienced. Fr a mre detailed analysis, the cmplete traffic was mnitred at the trunk line between the switch and the ruter at BSTI. A graph f the different traffic classes was created with Ethereal (figure 3). The plt shws a sample run fr abut 2 minutes under full lad. It is clearly visible hw lw pririty traffic (c - data) yields t high (b - vide) and highest (d - vice) pririties. Line a shws the verall duplex traffic n the link - it is always at the maximum value f 2 Mbit/s. In the beginning, there is FTP and vide traffic. The vide cdec is adaptive, and des nt need much bandwidth when there is n mvement in frnt f the camera. In the first 5 secnds, FTP traffic is allwed t use almst all f the bandwidth. Then increased mvement activity was staged befre the camera, causing a rise in the bandwidth requirement f the vide transmissin. Nw FTP traffic is nt permitted as much bandwidth any mre and slwed dwn. When the vide is nt transmitting any mvements (at abut 20s) it picks up speed again. At abut 60 secnds a very shrt VlP call is perfrmed (line d). At nce the FTP traffic is slwed dwn t allw vice cmmunicatin. Observe that the G.711 cdec is nn-adaptive and always requires a cnstant bandwidth. Ten secnds later, a secnd vice call is started. At the same time, sme mvements were transmitted by the vide stream. Again, it is the FTP traffic that yields t traffic with higher pririty. The vice traffic in this experiment has the fllwing characteristics. It requires a bandwidth f 80 kbit/s (64 kbit/s fr the cdec and 16 kbit/s fr Ethemet/IP/UDP/RTP headers). The maximum delay per packet is [ms] and 627

5 IBytls] tis] Figure 3: Traffic analysis. a - Overall traffic. b- Adaptive vide traffic. c - FTP file transfer. d - Vice traffic. the maximum jitter is [ms]. N packets were lst. In a secnd test series, the sites were cnnected via satellite links. The rund-trip-time was 548 [ms], measured by a "ping" between bth ruters. A lcal-ntebk-t-remtentebk ping resulted in a RTT f 615 ms. The used Cisc IP phnes feature an internal cllectin f statistical data regarding the vice cnnectins. The cllected statistics retrieved a maximum encuntered jitter f 68 ms. The average jitter n the RTP cnnectin between gateway and phne was nly 4.75 ms thugh. The highest packet lss rate (including packets drpped within the telephne, nt nly thse drpped n the link) was a mere 2 ut f 2570 packets. It can be cncluded, that the QS requirements fr VIP were met. The empirical vice quality evaluatin suggested very gd results, n matter if the link was saturated with ther traffic r nt. REFERENCES [1] Jnathan Davidsn, James Peters, and Brian Grace. Vice ver IP Fundamentals. Indianaplis: Cisc Press, [2] Tim Szigeti and Christina Hattingh. End-t-End QS Netwrk Design. Indianaplis: Cisc Press, [3] Ethereal [4] Cisc IP Telephny, Slutin Reference Netwrk Design, 2004, [5] Vice ver IP ver satellite links, Cruickshank, H., Sanchez, A., Zhili Sun and Carr, B.; Electrnics, Circuits and Systems, ICECS The 8th IEEE Internatinal Cnference n Vlume 1, 2-5 Sept Page(s): vl.1 [6] Vice ver IP service andperfrmance in satellite netwrks, Nguyen, T., Yegenglu, F., Sciut, A., and Subbarayan, R., Cmmunicatins Magazine, IEEE Vlume 39, Issue 3, March 2001 Page(s): VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PLANS With the described setup, a flexible and mbile cmmunicatin platfrm using satellite links has been created. By using the Intemet prtcl stack, any standard applicatin running ver the (terrestrial) Internet can be used. The implementatin f VIP shws that Quality f Service (QS) is required fr enabling the cnvergence f data and vice netwrks. By using the available QS mechanisms f ff-theshelf ruters and switches excellent service quality can be achieved and furthermre allws fr gd utilisatin f scarce satellite resurces and prvisin f several simultaneus services. Future extensins culd include the intrductin f advanced QS using call admissin cntrl and resurce reservatin n the satellite link. The setup culd be extended t ther media ( WLAN, WiMax, Free Space Optics) while maintaining QS guarantees. Finally, security shuld be reviewed and imprved. A firewall and VPNs culd be key cmpnents. A specific fcus culd be the preventin f eavesdrpping the bradcast satellite link. 628

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