CHAPTER 1: A WINDOW INTO ADDICTION...

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1 HOW TO GET RID OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ADDICTION

2 Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: A WINDOW INTO ADDICTION... 2 WHAT IS ADDICTION?... 2 HOW IS ADDICTION DIFFERENT FROM ABUSE?... 3 CHAPTER 2: WHAT IS ALCOHOLISM?... 5 WHAT CAN PROMPT IT AND WHO IS AT RISK FROM THIS FORM OF ADDICTION?... 6 THE PHASES THAT LEAD TO ALCOHOLISM... 7 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION... 9 THE IMPACT OF ALCOHOL ON THE BODY AND MIND... 9 CHAPTER 3: DRUG ADDICTION WHAT IS DRUG ADDICTION? WHAT ARE THE COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS, MEDICATIONS, AND SUBSTANCES? WHAT CAN PROMPT ADDICTION TO DRUGS AND WHO IS AT RISK FROM THIS FORM OF ADDICTION? 15 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DRUG ADDICTION THE IMPACT OF DRUG ABUSE ON THE BODY AND MIND CHAPTER 4: ADDICTION TREATMENT THE THREE STEPS TO TREAT ADDICTION HOW WOULD YOU DEFINE AN INTERVENTION? WHAT ARE THE STEPS INVOLVED IN AN INTERVENTION? DETOXIFICATION THE THREE STEPS TO DETOXIFICATION ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT BEHAVIORAL TREATMENTS RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CHAPTER 5: AFTERCARE PROGRAMS TYPES OF AFTERCARE CHAPTER 6: THE IMPORTANCE OF ADDICTION AWARENESS REFERENCES

3 Chapter 1: A Window into Addiction What is Addiction? An addiction can be broadly defined as a disorder in the brain. While it is chronic, it can usually be treated. People who are addicted to alcohol or illicit drugs cannot stop craving them even when the substance threatens their health, and leads to social and legal ramifications. Over time, this lethal indulgence in alcohol or drugs causes changes in their brain and behavior. Dr. Nora Volkow, who is the Director at the National Institute on Drug Abuse, says that the addictive substance modifies the person's brain so much that the withdrawal of the substance causes a signal akin to the feeling of starvation. It is so powerful that the individual starts feeling as if the substance is absolutely necessary for his survival. Addictions become serious with time. As the addiction progresses, the individual starts craving more and more alcohol or drugs. The frequency of the use increases and they may even begin to use them in situations that they might have never imagined. At this point, it is not easy to treat the illness. The associated health problems like organ disease might also worsen. The signs that an individual has become addicted to a substance include tolerance (the individual become resistant to the effects of the substance) and withdrawal symptoms (the individual undergoes an unpleasant or painful response when the substance is denied to the body). Many people who are addicted to a substance will not accept the condition. People who are recovering from an addiction may often loose control and start using the 2

4 substance again during the recovery process. This is quite common and is called relapse. Most people who are trying to stop using an addictive substance will go through this at some point and when it happens, it can be very discouraging to the individual. How Is Addiction Different from Abuse? The terms 'addiction' and 'abuse' are often used interchangeably but the fact is, they are different conditions. Abuse refers to the state when a person starts using a substance in a way that deviates from what is socially acceptable, while addiction refers to the state when the individual's behavior begins to get dominated by the substance. To be more specific, addiction refers to a condition when the individual shows a strong motivation to procure the substance and use it, and when the individual's behavior cannot be normally constrained. When a person shows addiction to a substance, physical dependence may or may not be a symptom, but psychological dependence is invariably seen. Psychological dependence cannot be compared to addiction. It only indicates that the individual needs the substance to show normal psychological function. Abstinence will produce withdrawal symptoms. Yet, there are many cases where individuals show psychological dependence on a substance without getting addicted to it. This is because while the individual may need the substance to show normal psychological function, the motivation to get it is not strong enough to call it an addiction. An example of this would be coffee drinkers. Similarly, there are cases when an individual may abuse a substance but may not be addicted to it. For instance, the use of an illicit drug is called drug abuse even if the individual only uses it rarely and is in full control of the use. In short, whether a thing constitutes an abuse is determined by the society in which the individual lives. What may be called abuse in one culture may not be considered as such in another. 3

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6 Chapter 2: What Is Alcoholism? The American Medical Association characterizes alcoholism as an illness caused by excessive and persistent alcohol use, leading to significant physical and/or mental impairment. It can lead to psychological, social, or physiological dysfunction. From a psychological point of view, it does not have so much to do with how much an individual drinks, as with what happens after they drink. The word 'alcohol' is derived from the Arabic word, 'Al Kohl', meaning 'the essence'. Fermented drinks were in existence as far back as 10,000 B.C as is evidenced from the discovery of beer jugs from the late Stone Age. It has also had an important role to play in worship and religion. People drink alcohol to celebrate, socialize, and relax. When people take it in moderation, it can be a social lubricant, facilitating relaxation, providing pharmacological pleasure, and increasing the pleasure associated with eating. The media has glamorized drinking. Drinking alcohol has become a rite of passage at weddings, graduations, sporting events, social occasions, and parties. When people get intoxicated, they let their guard down and become relaxed. They become more carefree. All their preexisting problems fade to the background. In the beginning, the drinker will feel very pleasant and there is little or no emotional cost. But as the individual starts drinking more, his resistance increases and he has to drink more of it to sustain the high. It is a complex disease and people who are addicted to alcohol are often stigmatized and misunderstood. Alcohol abuse and dependence is one of the most common disorders worldwide. More than 8% of the adults in the US are battling alcohol dependence and more 5

7 than 5% are abusing it. This goes with the data on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from the American Psychiatric Association. It is now known that people can be genetically predisposed to alcoholism. In fact, the risk that you will develop an alcohol problem increases by three to four times, if one of your close relatives has an alcohol problem. A person addicted to alcohol will not accept that he has an issue. There is a social stigma connected with the disease and such people will tend to avoid diagnosis for fear of social consequences or shame. Today, more than 14 million Americans are suffering from alcoholism. 40% of all car accidents in the US can be attributed to drinking alcohol. What Can Prompt It and Who Is At Risk from This Form of Addiction? Alcoholism is a serious problem in the US. Here are some statistics about drinking in the US. ñ According to the National Health Interview Survey 2011, 51.5% of US adults (18 years and older) said that they had consumed more than 12 drinks in the last year. ñ In 2010, alcohol was responsible for the death of 25,500 people and this is excluding alcohol related homicides and accidents. ñ More than 4.8 % of adults (18 years and older) in the U.S are heavy drinkers. A man becomes a heavy drinker when he consumes more than 14 drinks in a week and a woman becomes a heavy drinker when she consumes more than 7 drinks a week. ñ In 2011, according to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, an astonishing 40% of high school seniors in the US said that they used alcohol every month. Note that the legal age for drinking alcohol in the US is 21 years. 6

8 What causes one person to become an alcoholic while others do not is not well known. Stress, social environment, family history, mental stress, ethnic group, age, and gender are all thought of as influences. For example, women are said to be more susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. The Phases That Lead to Alcoholism Alcoholism is a progressive disease and there are several phases. The Social Drinker For social drinkers, alcohol is not a problem. They are able to say no to alcohol if they want. They are not preoccupied with drinking. They are able to control how much alcohol they drink and rarely drink to the level of intoxication. For them, drinking is secondary. They are more interested in the occasion and not the alcohol. Early Stage An individual who is in the early stages of alcoholism will face assorted problems. In this period, they may drink sneakingly, feel guilty about drinking, and develop a preoccupation with alcohol. Getting drunk, increased tolerance to alcohol, and blackouts are signs that a person is slipping into alcoholism. Such individuals will look for companions who are also heavy drinkers. They will lose interest in activities not associated with drinking. Friends and family will begin to worry about the individual's drinking habit. The individual may also start missing work. Middle Stage 7

9 When the individual enters this stage, he will begin to lose control of his life, although he will still deny that there is a problem. The individual will start drinking more than initially intended. The person may drink to forget anger, social discomfort, or depression. The individual may also drink early morning, to get relief from a hangover. The individual's doctor may have already suggested that he should quit drinking. The person may try but will not succeed. The problem can also cost the individual his job. The individual may show signs of health problems and might have to face conflicts in the family. Late Stage By the time the individual approaches this stage, he or she might be completely unmanageable. The individual may be grappling with numerous medical conditions such as hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, high blood pressure, severe pancreatitis (inflammation in the pancreas), bleeding esophageal lining, and more. The brain and the heart are also compromised and the individual might suffer from a stroke or heart attack. Insomnia and depression are common and the individual might even consider suicide. The alcohol- dependent person might also suffer from a condition called Wernicke- Korsakoff Syndrome, on of the symptoms of which is memory loss. This is an indication that the individual has become prey to brain damage. If a woman drinks alcohol during her pregnancy, her child might be born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Such a child will have birth defects. Alcohol is capable of crossing the placental barrier and can affect the baby, stunting growth and damaging the brain. Sadly, the central nervous system of the child would be permanently damaged, resulting in behavioral or psychological problems. Most of these children are also mentally retarded. 8

10 At this stage, the individual would have developed an addiction to alcohol. The best way to stop the habit would be to undergo a detoxification under medical supervision. Other kinds of treatments including individual and group counseling are also used. Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol Addiction Individuals who have an alcohol use disorder will show signs and symptoms of the addiction. Here are some of them. ñ The individual drinks more and for a longer time than what he or she intends. ñ Has tried to cut down on his or her drinking habit, but is not able to succeed. ñ Has gotten into situations after drinking where there is an increased chance of getting hurt, like swimming, driving, unsafe sex, or using machinery. ñ The individual finds that he has to drink more to get the same effect. ñ The person drinks even after he comes to know that alcohol is exacerbating his health problems and making him anxious and depressed. Such individuals may continue drinking even after they have a memory blackout. ñ Spends a disproportionate amount of time drinking or on sick leave. ñ Continues with the drinking habit even when it causes trouble with friends and family. ñ Is facing troubles at work because of his drinking problem. ñ Is not able to or does not want to take part in activities that were formerly interesting and would rather spend time in drinking. ñ Has gotten into a confrontation with the police on more than one occasion and is facing other legal problems. ñ Faces withdrawal symptoms when the effect of the alcohol wears off, such as shakiness, insomnia, nausea, restlessness, sweating, or seeing hallucinations. The Impact of Alcohol on the Body and Mind 9

11 Some of the effects of drinking alcohol are visible even after a few drinks, such as difficulty in walking, slurred speech, blurred vision, slow reaction time, and more. A person who drinks alcohol heavily can fall victim to more serious mental and physical health effects. Here are a few more details. Impact on the Body Alcoholism can lead to heart problems, liver problems, pancreatic problems, weakness in the immune system, and even cancer. Heart problems: Individuals who are addicted to alcohol can develop cardiomyopathy, which is a drooping and stretching of the heart muscle, and arrhythmias or irregular heart beats. They can also suffer from stroke and/or high blood pressure. Liver problems: Heavy drinking can take a toll on liver functions. It can lead to a fatty liver, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and alcoholic hepatitis. Problems with the pancreas: Alcohol can also lead to pancreatitis, which is dangerous swelling and inflammation of the pancreatic blood vessels. Risk of cancer: Individuals who are addicted to alcohol are at an increased risk to develop certain kinds of cancer like cancer of the liver, breast, throat, esophagus, and liver. Weakened immune system: Alcoholics have weakened immune systems which make them an easy target for diseases. Chronic drinkers have a higher chance of contracting diseases like tuberculosis and pneumonia. 10

12 Impact on the Brain Individuals who are addicted to alcohol have decreased brain function and other deficits in the brain that will persist even after the person becomes sober. Memory Lapses and Blackouts Alcohol affects decision making and motor coordination. People lose control over their emotions when they drink excessively. You might have heard of the saying, 'drinking makes you lose your inhibitions and give exhibitions'. It increases the level of certain chemicals in the brain, like dopamine, while decreasing the level of some others. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter responsible for making you feel good. Alcohol decreases the level of a neurotransmitter called glutamate, which normally increases energy levels and brain activity. On the other hand, it increases the effect of the neurotransmitter called GABA or gamma- Aminobutyric acid, which inhibits brain activity. A few drinks are all it would take to lead to detectable memory impairment. As the quantity of alcohol injested increases, the degree of memory impairment also increases. If a person drinks a large quantity of alcohol quickly, especially when his stomach is empty, it can lead to a blackout. When an individual suffers from a blackout, the individual cannot recall events that happened within a certain time period. If a woman drinks alcohol when she is pregnant, it can lead to cognitive, behavioral, and physical effects in the developing fetus. Children born of such mothers have lesser number of brain cells or fewer brain cells that function properly. 11

13 Chapter 3: Drug Addiction What Is Drug Addiction? When a person becomes dependent on illegal drugs or medications, we can say that the person has developed an addiction to that drug. Drug addiction is a disease, which is often chronic. Under its grip, the individual starts seeking drugs compulsively. Although most drug addicts have gotten into the habit voluntarily, over time changes take place in their brain, which challenge the individual's self- control and destroy his impulsion to resist the drug. What Are the Commonly Abused Drugs, Medications, and Substances? There are many categories of illicit drugs, medications, and other substances that people may abuse. Here is a detailed break up. Cannabinoids Marijuana and hashish are cannabinoids. Marijuana is also called dope, ganja, grass, Mary Jane, weed, pot, reefer, and more. Hashish is known as boom, hash oil, hash, and hemp. They are either smoked or eaten. They produce feelings of euphoria, relaxation, distortion in sensory perception, impairment in co- ordination and balance, increase in appetite and heart rate, and impaired learning and memory. The individual may also suffer from slow reaction time, panic attacks, and anxiety. The possible health effects associated with the use of cannabinoids are cough, respiratory infections, mental decline, and addiction. Opioids Heroin and opium are opioids. Heroin is also known as smack, brown sugar, skag, and dope. 12

14 Individuals may inject, smoke, or snort it. Opium is known as block, gum, and hop. It is swallowed or smoked. 90% of the world's opium comes from Afghanistan. The effects of using opioids are euphoria, impaired coordination, drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, confusion, arrested breathing, and more. They can cause health issues like endocarditis and constipation. Many addicts share needles which can spread hepatitis and HIV. Stimulants Cocaine, amphetamines, and methamphetamines are stimulants. Cocaine is also called candy, coke, snow, rock, and blow. It is snorted, smoked, and injected. Amphetamine is called speed or uppers. It is swallowed, snorted, smoked, or injected. Methamphetamines are called meth, ice, crank, crystal, fire, glass, and speed. Their delivery mechanism is similar to that of amphetamines. These cause an increase in heart rate, exhilaration, mental alertness, increased energy, irritability, panic, violent behavior, and psychosis. The heath effects associated with stimulants are weight loss, insomnia, cardiovascular complications, seizures, and last but the not the least, addiction. Additionally, cocaine can cause nasal damage and methamphetamines can cause dental problems. Club Drugs MDMA, Flunitrazepam, and GHB are club drugs. MDMA is also known as ecstasy, clarity, Adam, uppers, and lover's speed. It is snorted, injected, or swallowed. Flunitrazepam or Rohypnol also goes by the names roach, the forget- me- not pill, roofies, and Mexican Valium. It is snorted or swallowed. GHB is known by its street names Liquid X, liquid ecstasy, and Georgia home boy. Club drugs have different health effects. For example, MDMA causes anxiety, sweating, sensitivity, and muscle cramping. Flunitrazepam can cause muscle 13

15 relaxation, sedation, confusion, memory loss, and impaired coordination. GHB causes nausea, headache, memory loss, and drowsiness. All these drugs can cause addiction. Dissociative Drugs Ketamine, PCP, Salvia Divinorum, and DXM are examples for dissociative drugs. Ketamine is known as Special K and Vitamin K. It is injected, smoked, and snorted. PCP is known as angel dust, love boat, and peace pill. It is swallowed, injected, or smoked. Salvia Divinorum is known as Salvia, Sally- D, and magic mint. It is not a scheduled drug. Salvia is smoked, swallowed, or chewed. DXM is an ingredient used in some cold and cough medications. It can only be swallowed. Dissociative drugs impair the motor function and gives rise to feelings of dissociation from one's body. They can also cause effects like analgesia, aggression, impaired memory, confusion, and delirium. Hallucinogens LSD, Mescaline, and Psilocybin are hallucinogens. LSD is also called blotter, cubes, yellow sunshine, and blue heaven. It is swallowed or absorbed through the tissues of the mouth. Mescaline is also called cactus, peyote, buttons, and mesc. It is either smoked or swallowed. Psilocybin is called magic mushrooms, shrooms and purple passion, and these are eaten. Hallucinogens leave the individual in an altered state of feeling and perception. They also cause hallucinations, nausea, nervousness, panic, and paranoia. Inhalants Solvents like paints, thinners, glues, and gasoline, gases like propane, butane, and nitrous 14

16 oxide, nitrites like isobutyl and isoamyl, as well as laughing gas are used as inhalants. These are usually inhaled through the mouth or nose. Inhalants cause stimulation, headache, slurred speech, wheezing, and loss of motor coordination. They can also impair the memory, and cause muscle weakness, cramps, depression, and even unconsciousness. Prescription Drugs Prescription drugs are also very popular among drug abusers. These can be grouped into depressants, opioids/morphine derivatives, and stimulants. Abused depressants include barbiturates like Amytal, Nembutal, and Seconal. These are either injected or swallowed. Sleep medications like Ambien, Lunesta, and Sonata are also abused. Two of the side effects of barbiturates are euphoria and irritability. Codeine, Morphine, and Methadone are derivatives of opioids and morphine. These have effects like pain relief, dry mouth, constipation, nausea, weakness, itching, and sweating. Methadone is actually used to treat addiction to opioids. Pain relievers like Oxycodone and Meperidine are also abused. What Can Prompt Addiction to Drugs and Who Is at Risk from This Form of Addiction? Drug Abuse Statistics from the US According to data obtained form the National Institute of Drug Abuse, in 2012 more than 6% of students in the 8 th grade, 17% of students in the 10 th grade, and nearly 23% of students in the 12 th grade had used marijuana. More than 14% of high school seniors had also abused a prescription drug in The most commonly abused prescription drugs are Adderall, Vicodin, cough medicine, tranquilizers, sedatives, OxyContin, and others. 15

17 In 2011, approximately 9% of American citizens had used an illicit drug or abused a prescription medicine. Who Is at Risk of Becoming a Drug Addict? You cannot predict who will become a drug addict, though there are some factors that can influence it. These include social environment, genetics, age, and others. The genetic makeup of a person, along with environmental influences, can determine the vulnerability of a person to drug abuse. Environment means influences like peer pressure, physical abuse, parenting, and more. Factors like ethnicity, gender, and preexisting mental disorders should also be considered to know if a person will become addicted to a drug or not. Other factors like unemployment, stress, thrill seeking behavior, and curiosity to experiment can also lead to drug addiction. Fortunately, drug addiction can be treated though it may take some time. Just like other chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, and heart disease, addiction to drugs can be managed. Many recovering individuals may slip into the habit again, resulting in a condition called relapse. It does not mean that the treatment has failed. If such an incident happens, it means you will have to adjust the treatment or start an alternative treatment, to help the person recover and regain control. Signs and Symptoms of Drug Addiction There are three kinds of signs and symptoms which are associated with drug abuse. These are physical signs, behavioral signs, and psychological signs. 16

18 Physical Signs and Symptoms ñ Bloodshot eyes, with pupils that are larger or smaller than usual. ñ Sudden onset of nosebleeds. It may be a sign that the person is snorting drugs. ñ The individual may suffer from seizures when he has no history of the disease. ñ Unusual smells on the body, clothing, and breath. ñ Change in sleep patterns and appetite. ñ Sudden loss of weight or gain in weight. Behavioral Signs and Symptoms ñ Drop in performance and attendance at school or work. No interest in extracurricular activities, sports, and hobbies. ñ Financial problems, stealing or borrowing, unusual need for money. ñ Change in friends, relationships, hobbies, and hangouts. Psychological Signs and Symptoms ñ Unexplained and sudden change in attitude or personality. ñ Changes in mood; the individual may be given to angry outbursts and irritability. ñ Lack of focus, motivation, and appearance of lethargy. ñ Withdrawal, paranoia, and fearful appearance. The individual who is addicted to drugs will develop an increased tolerance to the drugs, which means more of it will be required to give the same affects as before. When the drugs wear off, the person may undergo withdrawal symptoms like trembling, insomnia, irritability, fatigue, and sweating. The individual may want to stop, but will not be able to do so on their own. Such an individual may spend a great amount of time and energy trying to procure the 17

19 drug. The Impact of Drug Abuse on the Body and Mind The chemicals in the drugs tap into the communication system of the brain, disrupting the function of nerve cells. When a person continues abusing drugs, the brain eventually adapts to the increased dopamine levels by decreasing the amount of dopamine it produces or by bringing a reduction in the number of dopamine receptors. When the dopamine does not have the effect it had before, the user is not able to enjoy the drug as he was able to and also loses interest in things that brought him pleasure before. He tries to counter this by increasing his intake of drugs, thus building tolerance in the process. When he abuses drugs for a long time, the chemical systems in the brain undergo a change. Brain imaging in such individuals have shown changes in areas that are critical to decision- making, judgment, memory, and learning ability. Physical Changes The drug addict may forget to take care of his external appearance and to eat properly, because he is preoccupied with obtaining drugs and using them. He may also lose his sense of hygiene. He may disregard safe practices like not sharing needles with other drug abusers, which may cause him to contract dangerous diseases like HIV. Physical changes may also be in the form of physical symptoms. 18

20 Chapter 4: Addiction Treatment When a person is suffering from an addiction to alcohol or a drug, becoming sober might seem like an impossible task to him. The truth is, however worse the addiction may be, recovery is always possible. The individual can be weaned away from the addiction with the correct support and treatment and by addressing the question of why the individual developed the addiction in the first place. It may happen that the individual has tried to get treatment before. He may have even successfully completed it, only to relapse later. While it is unfortunate, know that it is the not the end. There are bound to be pitfalls, bumps, and setbacks. The individual should not quit. The Three Steps to Treat Addiction Treatment for an addiction can be delineated into three important steps. These are: ñ Intervention ñ Detoxification ñ Counseling, education, and psycho- therapeutic care Let us begin by discussing intervention. If you are the family member of a person who is addicted to alcohol or drugs or if you are friends with the person, you might be confused or even frustrated about how to deal with him or her. Some family members and friends are not being ready to admit that there is even a problem and they think that the issue will sort out on its own. Note that drug abuse and alcoholism are chronic diseases. Sitting back and hoping that the 19

21 problem will resolve on its own is a dangerous thing to do. If you are concerned for the person, you should act immediately. The first thing to do would be to stage an intervention for the person with the help of an interventionist who has been trained in the process. An intervention consists of tried and tested strategies that are designed to bring about changes in the behavior of the affected individual. It is a challenge to help someone who is struggling from drug abuse and alcoholism. A great way to begin would be to have a heart- to- heart talk with the individual. But in case of an addiction, the approach needs to be more focused. The best thing to do would be to join hands with others, and stage a formal intervention. People who are addicted to alcohol or a substance often deny their condition and may not be ready to undergo treatment. They are not cognizant of the negative effects of their behavior. An intervention provides an opportunity for the loved one to change, before things worsen. How Would You Define an Intervention? An intervention is a planned process that involves friends, family, and sometimes even colleagues and members of the clergy. In an intervention, the individual is confronted by these people who speak to him about how the addiction is affecting him. When the individual accepts that he has a problem, he is asked to go for treatment. During the course of the intervention, the individual will be provided with examples of how his behavior has affected himself and his near and dear ones. He will be asked to enter into a prearranged treatment with clear goals, guidelines, and steps. The intervention will also layout what each person will do, if the individual does not accept treatment. 20

22 An intervention is a must for a person who is struggling with an addiction but is not ready to accept the situation. If you are close to such a person, do not wait for the individual to ask for help himself. What Are the Steps Involved In an Intervention? An intervention is structured process. The constituents of a successful intervention are as follows. Planning Someone close to the individual moots the plan to conduct the intervention and puts together a planning group. At this stage, it is recommended that you speak to a professional interventionist about your plans. The environment in an intervention will be highly charged. If the intervention is not held properly, it is possible that the individual may feel a sense of resentment, anger, and even betrayal. If you are having doubts that the intervention may cause these feelings to come up in the individual, it is best to consult an interventionist before you start taking any action. Gathering Information The members of the group find out as much as they can about the individual's addiction and then research what might have caused it, what are the effects, and what treatments are available. At the end of this step, depending on the inputs, a specific treatment plan might have been selected and arrangements made to enroll the individual in it. Putting the Intervention Team Together The group then decides on the members who will be participating in the intervention, 21

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