An inventory of VA involvement in Veterans courts, dockets and tracks. Jim McGuire, PhD; Sean Clark, JD; Jessica Blue-Howells, LCSW; Cedric Coe, MAFO

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1 Summary An inventory of VA involvement in Veterans courts, dockets and tracks Jim McGuire, PhD; Sean Clark, JD; Jessica Blue-Howells, LCSW; Cedric Coe, MAFO VA Veterans Justice Programs February 7, 2013 The inventory documented both VA Veteran Justice Outreach (VJO) Specialists work in various types of Veterans courts, and some basic features of the courts themselves. In telephone interviews conducted during Summer and Fall of 2012, VJO Specialists indicated that they serve Veterans in virtually every one of the 168 Veterans courts, dockets, and tracks operational at the end of the calendar year. The rapid proliferation of these court models is the work of the judges, prosecutors, public defenders, attorneys, court coordinators and officials, VJO Specialists, State and County Veterans Service Officers and Veterans Service Organizations, and Veterans who have worked locally to make them happen. Government and nonprofit organizations such as the Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP) have provided encouragement, funding and technical support at national and local levels. Two thirds of the courts are considered Veteran Treatment Courts (VTC), and three fourths have county-level jurisdiction. The courts set and apply criteria for Veterans admission, which generally parallel VA s mission of serving Veterans of all eras. Almost two thirds (64%) of the courts allow admission for VHA-ineligible Veterans, who constitute an average of 14% of the caseloads in courts admitting them. Despite the complexity of cross-jurisdictional admissions, 37% of the courts accept cases from outside their jurisdiction, generally from other counties in the same state. The Veterans Health Administration VJO Specialists are covering almost every operational court, reflecting the VJO program s mission to work with justice-involved Veterans, including those in the courts. Specialists also report being involved in planning and implementing a substantial number of additional courts that are not yet operational. Veteran Benefits Administration (VBA) staff participate in a limited number of courts (12%). Judges whose courts VBA participates in view this as a critical support to the Veterans they supervise: Judge Robert T. Russell has characterized VBA as a vital component to the success of the Buffalo Veterans Treatment Court. Vet Center staff participate in about one in five of these courts, providing services to combat Veterans. As one VJO Specialist declared, "you can't imagine how effective it is to introduce the Veteran to the Vet Center Counselor in the court, instead of sending him off to make calls to try to get an appointment." Volunteer Veteran mentor programs, a defining element of the VTC model, have multiplied and developed rapidly. Establishing such programs can be very complicated, yet they are seen as particularly powerful features of these courts, not available in any other type of treatment court. Over half the courts identified have active mentor programs, with an average of 9 mentors per court. Another 21% have a mentor program in development, a tribute in particular to the work that Jack O Connor of the Buffalo Veterans Treatment Court has done in making his expertise available throughout the U.S. Coordinating these programs can be a full time job. VJOs are not 1

2 typically mentor program coordinators in addition to their VJO responsibilities. Largely a Veteran-based effort, this component is fulfilling its intended function as a peer support resource for Veterans. To date, 7,724 Veterans have been admitted to the courts. Length of involvement in the courts ranges on average from 15 to 18 months, slightly longer for felony offenders. Of the Veterans who are no longer supervised by the court, slightly over two-thirds completed the court and healthcare treatment regime successfully. Collectively, these data suggest a dynamic area of treatment court development. Problemsolving courts generally are an expanding arena of rehabilitative justice in the U.S., and the U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics recognized this development by launching its first-ever problem solving court survey during The Veterans courts have engaged large numbers of Veterans, the courts are well covered by VJO Specialists and increasingly better supported by Veteran mentors, and large numbers of Veterans are successfully completing court and treatment programs. As the courts continue to expand, VHA is at or very near capacity for staffing them. Funding and continued support will in part depend upon sound data that evaluates outcomes over time, data which is not apparently available or supported at this time. Information from the inventory has limitations in the topics it covers, data being limited to VJO reports, and the wide variations in response that a relatively small sample entails. Nonetheless, this beginning snapshot of the courts from the Specialist perspective will disseminate information about this work, and indicate a need for additional analysis and work as these initiatives to provide services to justice-invovled Veterans move forward. 2

3 Introduction Early in the development of VTCs, NADCP began posting a national listing of Veterans Treatment Court names and locations on their website (http://www.justiceforvets.org/veteranstreatment-court-locations). In 2011, Holbrook and Anderson 1 reported results of a survey of a very small sample (N=14) of the 53 courts identified at the time. Their report provides an initial summary from the legal perspective of various elements of the courts, including court processes and models and community interests. Although results were not representative due to the small sample, VA staff were identified in the survey as the most frequently needed community stakeholders for the courts to succeed. To date, there has been no empirical information on VA s work with Veteran-focused courts in addition to qualitative information on VA s involvement in the courts (see VA Veteran courtrelated references below), VA staff working with these courts frequently encounter basic questions such as: How many such Veteran-focused court efforts exist? Which Veterans do the courts admit? How many Veterans have been admitted to these courts? What is the VA presence in the courts? How many Veterans complete treatment court? How many do not? In addressing these and related questions, it is useful to understand that essentially four types of participants have become the critical components of these courts: the Veteran who must ultimately decide to make use of the structure the court provides and the tools provided by healthcare providers to make a constructive community readjustment and to end their involvement with the justice system; the court, including the judge, the prosecutor, the public defender and/or private attorneys, but also critically the court coordinator and usually probation, that provides the structure and operates the court; the treatment providers, both VA and non-va community/county providers, who assist Veterans in gaining access to tools that, if used, will result in success; and, the Veteran peer supports, commonly called peer mentors, who provide help and encouragement in finding and using various available services, including navigating the complexity of VA services and benefits. VA does not fund or operate these courts, but without VA it is unlikely that these courts would continue to function and proliferate as Veteran courts. In the courts, VHA Veterans Justice Outreach specialists (often called, simply, the "VJO") organize and operationalize VA's effort. Until the advent of VJOs, courts had no viable access to VA services. Courts require the VJOs continuing presence in order to ensure Veterans timely, reliable access to VA care and services. VJOs importantly are, among a myriad of functions: a) the concrete expression of VA's commitment to serving Veterans both for Veterans and the courts; b) knowledgeable of the culture, needs, and motivations of justice-involved Veterans; c) knowledgeable in VA eligibility, enrollment, and admission criteria for VA services, and relationships with VA service providers; d) skilled in collaborating with other stakeholders to establish and maintain court initiatives targeted to Veterans; and e) expert in the requirements of working with justice system partners on an ongoing basis. 1 Holbrook, J., and Anderson, S Veterans Courts: Early outcomes and key indicators for success. Widener University School of Law: Widener Law School Legal Studies Research Paper Series no Accessed January 28, 2013: 3

4 Secretary Shinseki has said that VA should have a strong presence in these courts, and information from this inventory is intended to describe the current status of the VA s presence. The inventory was conducted to provide baseline information on the VJOs' involvement in the courts and the context within which they functioned, with the intention of an annual update. The intent is to inform interested parties about VA s current work in the courts, and provide information relevant to planning and development efforts for other courts with which VJO specialists are involved. Methods Veterans Justice Program (VJP) national office staff completed a telephone inventory to collect information on VJO involvement in Veteran-focused courts during the summer and fall of The inventory listing of the courts began with NADCP s Veterans Treatment Court list and added courts identified in the news media as well as Veteran court efforts identified in a VJO listserv query. Additional courts were identified in snowball fashion as the calls progressed. It is possible that a few courts were not identified, but the intent was to include every Veteranfocused court. (Findings from the inventory will presumably stimulate a more complete inventory the next time it is conducted.) For the inventory, information on VJOs time in court and coverage by VBA and Vet Centers was gathered along with designation of type of court, Veteran admission criteria, court workload, length of Veteran involvement, presence of mentor program, and court program evaluation (added mid-way through the inventory). These domains were designed to provide information on how the courts are structuring their Veteran-focused efforts including admission criteria for Veterans, the mentor program component, workload to date, VA staffing and VJO time involved, and to assess the current state of evaluation in the courts. As information was gathered, notations were made for future improvement of the inventory so that an annual inventory of the Veteran-focused courts can be updated. Information here does not only represent Veteran Treatment Courts. The inventory sought to retrieve information on all formally structured Veteran-focused work in the courts across the United States known as Veteran Treatment Courts, Veterans Courts (VCs), or Veteran dockets or tracks within treatment or other types of courts. VA has announced its willingness to assist, where possible, with any court attempt focused on Veterans, and has made it clear from the beginning that the most efficient and impactful way for VA to participate is for some form of clustering of Veterans within court dockets. Clustering makes it more feasible for a VJO to 'cover' the Veterans in a given court, regardless of the name the court attaches to the Veteran cluster (VTC, VC, Veteran's docket or track) in either a criminal or treatment court. Thus, VA's listing here is more expansive than the VTC listing of NADCP, which focuses solely on Veterans Treatment Courts meeting standards required specifically for either drug or mental health treatment courts. Results Court structure Court type and history: Overall results of the inventory are included in Table 1. The names of the VJO Specialists and the courts, and their VISN and states are listed in Table 2 2. VJOs 2 Following NADCP convention, judges names were not listed but the court names were. 4

5 identified 168 formally established Veterans Treatment Courts, Veterans Courts, Veterans Dockets or tracks within Mental Health and/or Drug Treatment Courts, or criminal Courts. We requested information on courts/dockets operational through December 31, At the time of the inventory calls, a number of additional courts were still in the planning phase; those do not appear here. By far, the largest percentage (67%) of these existing courts are identified as Veteran Treatment Courts 3. Figure 1 shows the growth of the courts from : Figure 1. Annual and Cumulative Number of Veteran Courts/Treatment Courts/Dockets/Tracks, Number of courts Cumulative number of courts 111 Number of courts per year Year Admission criteria: Contrary to the impression created by media accounts focused on Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veteran defendants, almost all of these courts (96%) accept Veterans of all service eras. Only small percentages of the courts are restricted to Veterans with: military-related 4 mental health conditions (14%), combat experience (8%), or service in recent wars (1%). (Note that all treatment courts require a condition to treat, so that a mental health [including substance abuse] diagnosis is required, but only very rarely must that condition be directly related to service in the military.) Only about one third (36%) of the courts restrict admission to VHA-eligible Veterans, and, for those courts which do accept Veterans ineligible for VHA care, on average, 14% of the Veterans were not VHAeligible. 3 Note: The remaining discussion will refer to all of these variants generically as courts. 4 Military-related is not necessarily synonymous with VA s designation of service-connected which requires a formal medical or psychiatric examination. 5

6 Only a small proportion (15%) of the courts formally or informally prioritize admission for OEF/OIF Veterans. Seventy one percent of the courts accept Guard or Reserve members, although a common VJO comment was that the focus was on Guard or Reserve members with VHA eligibility. Even with the unpredictability of deployments, VJOs reported that 52% of the courts admitted active duty service members. Only seven of the courts (4%) accept the cases of family members of Veterans seen in the courts. A majority (61%) of the courts accept both felony and misdemeanor cases, with the remaining courts evenly split between admitting only misdemeanor (20%) and only felony (19%) cases. Felony cases are reportedly reviewed on a case-by-case basis, with some courts accepting only felonies eligible for reduction to misdemeanor status, and cases involving violence are reviewed with involved victims prior to admission. The inventory did not collect information on pre-plea/post-plea status of the courts, but this will be added to future inventories. Overwhelmingly, these courts have county-level jurisdiction (74%), followed by city (12%), state (8%), and mixed or regional (4%) jurisdiction courts. Four Federal Veterans courts were reported. Almost four in ten of the courts (37%) accept Veterans with out-of-jurisdiction charges (from other counties or other states). VA staff involvement in the Veterans courts Ninety eight percent of the courts are covered in person by VJO Specialists: A little less than half (42%) of the courts are staffed in person on a weekly basis, or on a twice-monthly (27%) or monthly (30%) basis. The four courts not covered in person are covered by telephone due to distance or infrequency of court sessions. On average, VJO Specialists spend a total of 11 hours each month physically present in the court for either team staffing or court sessions. A VBA representative 5 is present in 12% of the courts, and a Vet Center representative is present in 17% of the courts. Mentor programs Slightly over half (91, or 55%) of the courts have a Veteran mentor program to provide peer support services to Veteran court participants. Another 21% of the courts have a mentor program under development. A total of 851 currently active mentors were reported across the courts. Courts with mentor programs have an average of 9 mentors per court. A wide range of individuals coordinate the mentor programs: The largest number were volunteers, usually Veterans and state or county service officers or VSOs (40%), followed by officers of the court or court staff (35%), community agency coordinators (12%), VJOs (8%), or VA staff or peer support staff (7%). Community agencies were less frequently involved, on either a volunteer or contractual basis. In two of the courts, the mentor program is run by the judge. VJO specialists were the mentor program coordinators in very few courts. VHA does not advocate for VJO to assume this role, since peer mentors create community connections for veterans, can assist Veterans with navigating VA systems, and can develop community resources that are not in VHA s scope of services. 5 See Stiner, M The VBA in Veterans Treatment Courts: Accessing the full range of support. National Clearinghouse for Veterans Treatment Courts, National Association of Drug Court Professionals: Dispatch from the Front Lines. Accessed February 1, 2013: 6

7 Court process and outcomes Since the courts inception, 7,724 Veterans have been admitted, and 3,883 of these Veterans are still being monitored by and treated through the courts. There are currently an average of 24 Veterans in each of the courts, but court caseload sizes range considerably. The Veteran s length of stay (LOS) typically depends on whether he or she is charged with a misdemeanor or felony. Most courts admit both felony and misdemeanor defendants. For those courts that separate their length of stay in treatment, LOS is on average 15 months for misdemeanor defendants and 18 months for felony defendants Exits from the courts were categorized in two ways, terminations and completions. The terminations category includes several different types of exit, including death, noncompliance to the point of dismissals, disappearance, transfer, voluntary exits, or illness serious enough to warrant exit from the court. About one-third (31%) of the exits from the courts were terminations. Successful court completions (which can include formal graduations) constituted slightly over two-thirds (69%) of Veterans exiting the courts. Program evaluation The inventory collected information about program evaluation functionality for slightly over half (99) of the courts. VJO Specialists were asked if they knew whether the court had a database that recorded baseline clinical, social and criminal justice characteristics of Veterans in the courts and recorded follow-up data over time. VJO Specialists indicated that slightly under half (49%) of the courts they were asked about had a database, but Specialists were usually unsure of how much information the database recorded or followed. Probation was most often mentioned as the keeper of that database. Specialists thought there was a formal approved evaluation in 21% of courts reported on: This usually meant that a database was required by funding through SAMHSA or BJA, and in 7 instances a university was mentioned as part of a formally approved program evaluation. Reporting of those data, in any form, was only confirmed in 10 of the courts. A common response by courts when Specialists queried them about this issue was that there was no funding for staff to do the work of an evaluation, nor was there expertise on standardized elements that could be included in creating a database to record baseline characteristics and follow-up measures over time. NADCP has published a manuscript 6 that outlines what could be measured and tracked in drug treatment courts. If courts use this as a model for Veteran Treatment Courts, this outline should be updated to include items such as Veteran and homeless status, and other elements relevant to the Veteran courts. Several Specialists mentioned that courts might be receptive to using a standardized database that NADCP might construct and make available for populating information on Veteran offenders in the courts. The Pennsylvania Administrative Office of the Courts is constructing a standardized database under the supervision of Karen Blackburn, AOC Administrator, which could serve as a model for data collection nationally. Courts might be able to manage data entry if provided a standardized database to collect the data at the local level, 6 Heck, C. (2006). Local drug court research: Navigating performance measures and process evaluations. Bureau of Justice Assistance/National Drug Court Institute, Monograph Series 6. Accessed January 31, 2013: 7

8 which could, over time and with appropriate permissions, be aggregated nationally to report on Veteran need and outcomes in these courts across the country. VA Veteran court-related references Clark, S., McGuire, J., and Blue-Howells, J. (2010) Development of Veterans Treatment Courts: Local and legislative initiatives. Drug Court Review, VII:I, Blue-Howells, J., Clark, S., and McGuire, J. (2012). Studies in National Dissemination of Intervention for Justice-Involved Veterans. Psychological Services. Advance online publication. doi: /a Smee, D.E., McGuire, J., Garrick, T., Sreenivasan, S., Dow, D., and Woehl, D. (2012). Critical issues in Iraq/Afghanistan War Veterans-Forensic Interface Part 1: Veterans Treatment Courts as Diversion in Rural Communities. Accepted for publication, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (Analysis and Commentary): October

9 Table 1. Inventory data of Veteran Courts/Dockets/Tracks Inventory domain/item Percent; Total number of courts/dockets (N) or average (±s.d.) or total A. Court structure: Court type and history 168 Veterans Treatment Court 67% Veteran s Court 13% Docket or track of a treatment/criminal court 20% Average months court has been operational (to December 2012) 19.6 (±14.2) 166 Court Veteran/military admission issues Accept only Veterans with military-related MH conditions 14% 167 Accept only combat Veterans 8% 167 Accept only OEF/OIF Veterans 1% 167 Emphasize OEF/OIF Veterans 14% 167 Accept Veterans of all eras 96% 167 Accept only eligible Veterans 36% 167 If accept ineligible Veterans, estimated ineligible Veterans 14% (±16.1) 73 Accept active duty 52% 167 Accept Reserve/Guard 71% 167 Accept family cases with Veteran 4% 167 Offense admission issues accept 166 Misdemeanor only 21% Felony only 19% Both misdemeanor and felony 61% Court jurisdiction 167 City 12% County 74% State 8% Other (mixed city/county/state, or regional) 4% Federal 2% Accept out of court jurisdiction 37% 166 B. VA in Court: VJO specialist in court 98% 161 Frequency of VJO in person coverage: 157 Weekly 42% Every 2 weeks 27% Monthly 30% Periodically 1% Average hours monthly VJO specialist spends in court session 11.2 hours (±7.9) 157 VBA present in court session 12% 167 Vet Center present in court session 17% 167 C. Mentor program in court: Mentor program 165 Has mentor program 55% Under development 21% Average number of mentors per court 9 mentors (±11.4) D. Court caseload, outcomes, and lengths of supervision: Caseload since opening Admissions to court 7, Current court census 3,883 Average: 24 Veterans per court (±41.0) Estimated lengths of stay(los) in court program: 165 Courts that take both felony and misdemeanors LOS for both misdemeanor and felony 15 months (±5.1) 90 Separate LOS for each 10 months (misd.) (±4.1) months (fel.) (±5.2) Courts that only take Misdemeanor 11 months (±4.8) 32 Felony 19 months (±6.2) 32 Court exit outcomes Terminations from court (noncompliance, transfers, deaths, illness, other) 31% 163 Successful court completions (with or without graduation) 69% 163 E. Program Evaluation: Court has database tracking baseline characteristics/follow-up 49%

10 Table 2. Veterans Courts/Treatment Courts/Dockets/Tracks (operational through December 2012.) VJO Specialist VISN Court State Yolanda Peay 1 Norfolk County Veterans Treatment Court MA Ann Smith-Howles 2 Elmira City Veterans Court NY Courtney Slade 2 Albany County Veterans Treatment Court NY Courtney Slade 2 Albany Regional Veterans Treatment Court Albany NY NY Courtney Slade 2 Vet Track - Rennselaer NY John LaHood 2 Buffalo Veterans Treatment Court NY Vince Schillaci 2 Rochester Veterans Court NY Denise Lukowski/Siobhan Morris 3 Brooklyn Treatment Court Veterans Track NY Denise Lukowski/Siobhan 3 Queens Veterans Court NY Morris Eric Bruno 3 Suffolk County Veterans Court NY Eric Bruno 3 Nassau County Veterans Court NY Bonnie Clark 4 Centre County Magisterial District Justice Veterans Court PA Brad Schaffer 4 Butler Veterans Court PA Cecilia Gonzalez 4 Delaware Veterans Treatment Court DE Diana Zinnie 4 Chester County Veterans Treatment Court PA Diana Zinnie 4 Delaware County Veterans Treatment Court PA Julie Bergstresser 4 Berks County Veterans Treatment Court PA Julie Bergstresser 4 Dauphin County Veterans Treatment Court PA Julie Bergstresser 4 Lancaster County Veterans Treatment Court PA Julie Bergstresser 4 York County Veterans Treatment Court PA Keather Likins 4 Veterans Treatment Court of Allegheny County PA Keather Likins 4 Veterans Treatment Court of Washington County PA Keather Likins 4 Northern Panhandle Mental Health and Veterans Treatment Court WV Keather Likins 4 Veterans Treatment Court of Fayette County PA Kim Sapolis-Lacey 4 Lackawanna County Veterans Treatment Court Scranton PA Kim Sapolis-Lacey 4 Northumberland County Veterans Treatment Court PA Kimberly Sapolis-Lacey 4 Luzerne County Mental Health Treatment Court DE Rebecca Hicks 4 Philadelphia Veterans Court PA Rhonda Sanford 4 Montgomery County Veterans Treatment Court PA Kim Cheney-James 6 Veterans Diversion Initiative - Eastern District Federal Court VA Kristin Pugh 6 U.S. District Court for the Western District of Virginia - Veterans Treatment Court Kristin Pugh 6 Roanoke Co. District Court Therapeutic Docket - Veterans Track VA Ahmad Brewer 7 Birmingham Municipal Treatment Court AL Marguerita High 7 Montgomery County Veterans Treatment Court AL Marguerita High 7 Muscogee County Veterans Court GA Marguerita High 7 Barber County Veterans Treatment Court AL Marguerita High 7 Macon County Veterans Treatment Court AL Marguerita High 7 Autauga County Veterans Treatment Court AL 10 VA

11 Meredith Miller 7 Chatham County Veterans Court GA Shirley Furtick 7 Richland County Veterans Treatment Court SC Susan Schuster-Roat 7 Augusta Judicial Circuit Veterans Treatment Court GA Brian Kurz 8 Brevard County Veterans Treatment Court FL Brian Kurz 8 Seminole County Veterans Treatment Court FL Carla-Paula DaSilva 8 West Palm Beach 15th Judicial Circuit Court FL Charlotte Matthews 8 Jacksonville Drug Court FL Charlotte Matthews 8 Marion County Florida Veterans Treatment Court FL Giovanna Delgado 8 Miami-Dade County Veterans Court FL Giovanna Delgado 8 Broward Veterans Treatment Court FL Patrick Diggs 8 Pinellas County 6th Judicial Circuit Veterans Treatment Court FL Patrick Diggs 8 12th. Judicial Circuit Court FL Patrick Diggs 8 20th. Judicial Court FL Patricia Hines 9 Shelby County Veteran Supportive Court TN Sonny Hatfield 9 Floyd County Veterans Treatment Court IN Sonny Hatfield 9 Jefferson County Veterans Treatment Court KY Ron Michaelson 10 Hamilton County Municipal Veterans Treatment Court OH Sally Hammitt 10 Hamilton County Veterans Treatment Court OH Teresa Sichman 10 Middletown Municipal Veterans Court OH Toni Johnson/Dwayne 10 Mansfield Municipal OH Williams Tracey Walker-Askew 10 Cleveland Municipal Veterans Docket OH Tracy Walker-Askew 10 Youngstown Municipal Veterans Treatment Court OH Brad Watkins Novi Veterans Treatment Court MI Danielle Tichy 11 86th District Court - Grand Traverse/Leelanau/Antrim Counties MI Eric Dungan 11 Grant County Veterans Treatment Court IN Eric Dungan 11 Delaware County Veterans Treatment Court IN Eric Dungan 11 Muncie County Veterans Treatment Court IN Eric Dungan 11 Madison County Veterans Treatment Court IN Karen Hinderliter 11 Ionia County Veterans Treatment Court Ionia MI MI Karen Hinderliter 11 Ingham County Veterans Treatment Court MI Mark Mayhew 11 Marion County superior Court 8 IN Mark Mayhew 11 Morgan County Superior Veterans Treatment Court ("HAV") IN Mark Mayhew 11 Greenwood City Veterans Court IN Melody Powers 11 No th. District Veterans Treatment Court MN Nanette Colling B District Court MI Nanette Colling 11 17th District Court MI Nanette Colling 11 Oakland County Circuit Court MI Nanette Colling/Tracy Golliday Nanette Colling/Tracy Golliday Nanette Colling/Tracy Golliday 11 36th District Court MI 11 Macomb County Circuit Court MI B District Court MI 11

12 Rebecca Sanders 11 10th. Judicial Circuit Veterans Treatment Court IL Terry Troxell 11 80th. District Court of Clare and Gladwin County MI Ed Zapala 12 Rock Co Regional Veterans Treatment Court WI Ed Zapala 12 Dodge County Combat Veterans Court WI Ed Zapala 12 Winnebago County Court IL Garry Hebel 12 LaCrosse Area Veterans Court WI James Seminaroti 12 Cook County Veterans Treatment Court Bridgeview IL James Seminaroti 12 Cook County Veterans Treatment Court Rolling Meadows IL James Seminaroti 12 Dupage County Veterans Treatment Track IL James Seminaroti 12 Will County Veterans Treatment Court IL Jessica Pinder 12 Skokie Veterans Court IL Jessica Pinder 12 Lake County Treatment and Assistance Court IL Jessi0ca Pinder 12 McHenry County Mental Health Court IL Lauran Olson 12 South Suburban Veterans Treatment Court IL Lauran Olson 12 Veterans Treat Co of Porter County IN Patricia Moore 12 Cook County Veterans Treatment Court IL Gary Helle 15 Southeast Missouri Veterans Treatment Court MO Gary Helle 15 U.S. Veterans Court MO Kelly Winship 15 Kansas City Municipal Veterans Treatment Court MO Kelly Winship 15 Jackson County Veterans Court MO Matthew Miller 15 Madison County Veterans Treatment Court IL Matthew Miller 15 Saint Louis Veterans Treatment Court MO Matthew Miller 15 St. Claire Veterans Treatment Court IL Kathy Monson 16 Okaloosa County Vet Treatment Court FL Lilia Valdez-Lindsley 16 Orleans Parish Criminal District Court LA Lori Coonan 16 Harris County Veterans Court TX Paula Willcox 16 Creek County Veterans Treatment Court OK Paula Willcox 16 Tulsa County Municipal Veterans Court OK Paula Willcox/Devan Brotherton 16 Tulsa County Veterans Treatment Court OK Toby Lambert 16 23rd. Judicial Veterans Treatment Court AR Toby Lambert 16 Pulaski/Perry County 6th Judicial Court AR Chad (Edward) 17 Nueces County Veterans Court TX Henderson Edward (Chad) 17 Hidalgo County Veterans Treatment Court TX Henderson Karen Janda 17 Travis County Veterans Court TX Latisha Gaten/Kathy Finch 17 Tarrant County Veterans Court TX Latisha Gaten/Kathy Finch 17 Dallas County Veterans Treatment Court TX Melissa Kale 17 Denton County Veterans Court TX Treva Neiss/Desi Vasquez 17 Bexar County Veterans Treatment Court TX Treva Neiss/Desi Vasquez 17 Guadalupe County Veterans Treatment Court TX Camila Lopez 18 Bernalillo County 2nd Judicial Dist Court NM Penny Miller 18 Maricopa County Veterans Court AZ Steve Wenzel 18 Pima County Superior Court Mental Health Court - Veteran Track AZ 12

13 Steve Wenzel 18 Green Valley Justice Court Veterans Treatment Court AZ Steve Wenzel and Amelia 18 Tucson and Regional Municipalities Veterans Treatment Court AZ Hill Steve Wenzel and Amelia Hill 18 Pima County Justice Court Veterans Treatment Court AZ Amy Earle 19 Salt Lake City Justice Court - Veterans Court UT Amy Earle 19 U.S. District Court Utah - Veterans Court UT Casey Scadden 19 6th. District Bannock County Veterans Court ID Jeri Anderson 19 Yellowstone County Veteran's Treatment Court MT Jeri Anderson and Paul Harman 19 Missoula Veteran Treatment Court MT Laura Sales 19 4th. Judicial District Veteran Trauma Court - District Court CO Laura Sales 19 4th. Judicial District Veterans Treatment Court - County Court CO Steve Price 19 Laramie County Veterans Treatment Court WY Janice Mahurin 20 Spokane County Veterans Enhanced Therapeutic Court WA Jeremiah Newbold 20 Anchorage Veterans Court AK Josh Bode 20 Ada County Veterans Court ID Josh Bode 20 Canyon Vet County Court ID Kevin Devine 20 Seattle Municipal Veterans Treatment Court WA Kevin Devine 20 King County Adult Drug Diversion Court Veterans Docket WA Kevin Devine 20 King County Regional Veterans Court WA Paul Skinner 20 13th. Judicial District Klamath County Veterans Treatment Court OR Randy Turner 20 Thurston County Veterans Treatment Court WA Randy Turner 20 Pierce County Veteran Treatment Docket WA Susan Harrison 20 Lane County Veterans Treatment Court OR Kristi Woodard 21 Santa Clara County Superior Veterans Treatment Court CA Mary Ann Moss 21 Nevada Dist 2nd Veterans Court NV Rachael Guerra 21 San Mateo County Court CA Sue Cooper 21 El Dorado County Veterans Treatment Court CA Sue Cooper 21 Placer County Veterans Treatment Court CA Susan Basmajian 21 Tulare County Veterans Treatment Court CA Amanda Smith 22 Riverside Veterans Treatment Court CA Andrea Serafin 22 Combat Veterans Court CA Candace Andrews 22 San Bernardino Veterans Treatment Court CA Greg Cain 22 Ventura County Veterans Court CA Joy Villavicencio 22 San Diego Veterans Treatment Review Calendar CA Peter Quigley 22 Las Vegas Justice Court Veterans Docket NV Peter Quigley 22 Henderson Municipal Veterans Treatment Court NV Peter Quigley 22 Las Vegas Municipal Court Veterans Docket NV Peter Quigley 22 8th. Judicial Circuit Veterans Treatment Court NV Sergio Antoniuk 22 Los Angeles Veterans Court CA Suzanne Dolan 22 Santa Barbara Veterans Treatment Court CA Suzanne Dolan 22 Santa Maria Veterans Treatment Court CA David Holewinski 23 Hennepin Veterans Treatment Court MN David Holewinski 23 Chippewa Valley Veterans Treatment Court WI David Holewinski 23 Pierce County Veterans Treatment Court WI 13

14 David Holewinski 23 Washington County Veterans Treatment Court MN David Holewinski 23 Blue Earth County Veterans Treatment Court MN David Holewinski 23 Anoka County Veterans Treatment Court MN 14

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