Mobility Management Advanced

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1 Mobility Management Advanced Summer Semester 2011 Integrated Communication Systems Group Ilmenau University of Technology

2 Outline Motivation Mobility Management Approaches in the TCP/IP Reference Model Link Layer Mobility Management Network-based Mobility Management Conclusions References Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 2

3 Motivation The Internet and mobile communication networks are experiencing an enormous growth Future networks will interconnect various heterogeneous networks by means of a common IP core, also referred to as All-IP Goals: always-on connectivity, higher bandwidth, reduced delay, lower cost, etc. Challenge: support mobility between cells connected through an IP core while satisfying real-time requirements Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 3

4 Mobility Management Approaches in the TCP/IP Reference Model Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 4

5 Which Layer Handles Mobility? Application layer Application layer mobility Presentation layer Application layer Session layer Session layer mobility Transport layer Transport Transport layer layer mobility Network layer Network Internet layer layer mobility Data link layer Link layer mobility Network Interface Hardware Physical layer ISO/OSI Required to build radio links TCP/IP Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 5

6 Which Layer Handles Mobility? Link layer mobility management is responsible for the establishment of a radio link between the MN and the new Access Point (AP) No more procedures are required if the old as well as the new AP belongs to the same subnet If the new AP belongs to a new subnet, we need mobility support either inthenetwork layer, i.e.theinternet layer of the TCP/IP reference model, in the transport layer or in the application layer Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 6

7 Mobility Management in Different Layers, Why? Link layer mobility Required when changing the point of attachment Responsible for establishment of a wireless link Network layer mobility Transparency to higher layer protocols, e.g. TCP and UDP Applications on mobiles can further communicate with existing applications without any modifications Change of network architecture is allowed Transport layer mobility End-to-end mobility management while keeping the Internet infrastructure unchanged End hosts take care of mobility, i.e. TCP and UDP are updated to support mobility Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 7

8 Mobility Management in Different Layers, Why? Session layer mobility Migration of sessions between devices Application layer mobility No changes to current networks Extending IP telephony infrastructure to fulfill mobility requirements Usage of SIP protocol and support for mobility by change of the mapping between a name of a user (e.g. mail address) and the IP address Hybrid layer mobility Optimization of the performance of a certain layer mobility management approach using information from other layers or the Integration of solutions from several layers Synchronization between layers is essential Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 8

9 Link Layer Mobility Management Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 9

10 Link Layer Handoff Responsible for the establishment of a radio link between the MN and the AP The handoff comprises 4 phases Recognizing the loss of the wireless connection Search for and detection of a new adequate AP Re-/Authentication with the new discovered AP Re-/Association with the new discovered AP Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 10

11 Recognizing the Loss of the Wireless Connection Connection loss is detected based on Weakness of the received signal or Failed frame transmissions Weakness of the received signal Most frequently used approach A layer 2 handoff is prompted, if the received signal strength goes below a certain threshold Failed frame transmissions Slower than received-signal-strength-based approach The MN first assumes a collision as reason for failed frame transmissions; if not, radio signal fading is assumed; if not, an out of range is declared Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 11

12 Search and Detection of A New Adequate AP Passive scanning Change to frequency A Change to frequency B Change to frequency C t AP operating in frequency A Beacon 100 msec Beacon t AP operating in frequency B Beacon Beacon t Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 12

13 Search and Detection of A New Adequate AP Active scanning No activities on this channel Change to frequency A Probe request Change to frequency B Probe request t Probe delay MinChannelTime Probe delay MinChannelTime AP operating in frequency B MaxChannelTime Probe response t t AP operating in frequency C Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 13

14 Re-/Authentication With the New Discovered AP The MN authenticates itself to the new AP Two authentication methods are defined for the IEEE standard Open system: null-authentication (default method) Shared key authentication: none null-authentication Exchange of authentication request & authentication response messages More messages can be exchanged between the authentication request & response; details depend on the authentication algorithm Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 14

15 Re-/Association With the New Discovered AP Exchange of association request & association response messages After this phase, the wireless link is established Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 15

16 Link Layer Handoff MN APs Large variation for the same hardware with same configuration mainly due to stochastic behavior of radio interface Scanning is the main factor in the latency, it accounts for about 90 % of the overall handoff delay and 80 % of the messages exchanged (depends on mobility and radio conditions) New AP Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 16

17 Research Issues Speeding up the layer 2 handoff requires accelerating the scanning phase Periodic scanning Scanning the medium while the MN is still connected to the old AP When the signal strength of the current AP is decreasing, the MN switches to another frequency for a short time and scans for other available APs Selective scanning Use of a channel mask to reduce the channels that must be scanned Information about neighbors Utilizing information about neighbor APs to reduce the number of channels that must be scanned Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 17

18 Network-based Mobility Management Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 18

19 Terminal vs. network-based mobility management Terminal-based mobility management approaches Mobility support in the network and MNs MNs participate in mobility procedures Status Wide range of solutions has been developed Employed in current networks Disadvantages MNs have to be updated, which is mostly not preferable by users Example Mobile IP (MIP) Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 19

20 Terminal vs. network-based mobility management Network-based mobility management Mobility support in the network only (terminals with legacy IP stack can be mobile) No interaction between the network and MNs Status Under development Disadvantages Many features are hard to realize, e.g. route optimization Focus is on support of global mobility; achieving fast and smooth handoffs is not the focus yet Example Proxy Mobile IP version 6 (Proxy MIPv6) Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 20

21 Proxy MIPv6 Localized Mobility Anchor (LMA) Internet Corresponding Node (CN) Support of mobility is required in the s; each emulates the home network of each MN served by it Mobile Access Gateway () RA MN does not have to understand mobility; from the MN s point of view, it is located in its home network and the whole domain represents a single point of attachment Unicast RA with the Home Network Prefix (HNP) of the MN Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 21

22 Proxy MIPv6 Handoff Start a timer to delete the mobility binding of the MN LMA Internet CN Proxy Binding Acknowledgement (PBAck) De-Registration Proxy Binding Update (DeReg PBU) The detects a detach event Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 22

23 Proxy MIPv6 Handoff Accepts the binding, allocates MN-HNP and sets up a tunnel to the LMA Internet CN PBAck PBU The detects an attach event & acquires the MN-ID and profile, from AAA server for example RA A unicast RA with the MN-HNP the MN assumes that it is located in its home network and thus there is no need for a re-configuration of its IP address Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 23

24 Proxy MIPv6 Data Communication LMA Internet CN Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 24

25 Proxy MIPv6 Pros & Cons Pros Transparency to MNs (MNs with no mobility support can be mobile) Protocol is robust against control messages dropping (no control messages are sent on wireless links) Reduced signaling cost Terminating the tunnel in the instead of MNs reduces the data traffic volume sent over the wireless link Cons Triangular routing increased end-to-end delay Overhead due to the encapsulation Handoff latency due to contacting the LMA each time the MN moves from one point of attachment to another communication disruption Route optimization is not possible Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 25

26 Conclusions Mobility management in future networks is IP-based Mobility can be implemented in different layers of the TCP/IP reference model; each layer has positive and negative impacts Network layer mobility approaches are the most deployed solutions Terminal-based approaches interact with MNs to support mobility Network-based approaches do not involve MNs in mobility support Both approaches are categorized into macro and micro mobility management approaches Macro mobility approaches aim at supporting global mobility Micro mobility approaches aim at accelerating the mobility management through processing of mobility locally Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 26

27 References E. Weiss, A. Otyakmaz, E. López, B. Xu, Design and Evaluation of a new Handoff Protocol in IEEE Networks, Proceedings of the 11th European Wireless conference 2005, Nicosia, Cyprus IEEE Computer Society, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, Standard IEEE , ISBN: SS95708, June C. Perkins, IP Mobility Support for IPv4, RFC 3344, August D. Johnson, C. Perkins, J. Arkko, Mobility Support in IPv6, RFC 3775, June H. Soliman, C. Castelluccia, K. El-Malki, L. Bellier, Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 mobility management (HMIPv6), RFC 4140, August A. G. Valko, Cellular IP - A New Approach to Internet Host Mobility, in the proceeding of ACM Computer Communication Review, January S. Gundavelli, K. Leung, V. Devarapalli, K. Chowdhury, B. Patil, Proxy Mobile IPv6, RFC 5213, August Advanced Networking (MSCSP) & Wireless Internet (II,IN) 27

28 Contact Integrated Communication Systems Group Ilmenau University of Technology Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Dr. rer. nat. habil. Oliver Waldhorst fon: +49 (0) (2788) fax: +49 (0) Visitors address: Technische Universität Ilmenau Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 1 (Informatikgebäude, Room 210) D Ilmenau Integrated Communication Systems Group Ilmenau University of Technology

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Andreas Mitschele-Thiel Dipl.-Ing. Ali Diab Integrated HW/SW Systems Group Ilmenau University of Technology

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