1 Department of Marketing Annual Report 2012
2 2 Contents Marketing Education at the University of Oulu 3 Year 2012 in a Nutshell 4 Review of the Year teaching 6 research 9 external activities, societal impact and citizenship 15 Appendices 16 Editors: Waqar Nadeem and Jari Juga University of Oulu Department of Marketing P.O.Box 4600 FIN University of Oulu FINLAND Internet: to the staff:
3 3 Marketing Education at the University of Oulu The University of Oulu is an international science university which creates innovation for the future, well being, and knowledge through multidisciplinary research and education. Founded in 1958, our research and education community is about students and 3000 employees strong, and one of the biggest and most multidisciplinary universities in Finland. The six faculties, the many departments and the specialized research units of the University of Oulu create the foundation for multi scientific research, innovation and training of experts for demanding professional tasks. The Department of Marketing trains marketing professionals for international and domestic businesses. The education is based on world class research especially in the areas of industrial business relationships, digital economy and logistics/supply chain management. The areas are studied from an international viewpoint, assuring academic rigor and managerial relevance while covering changes in With its 1400 students and 100 staff members, Oulu Business School (OBS) is solely responsible for the University level business education in Northern Finland. Six majors are offered at the Oulu Business School: Accounting, Economics, Finance, International Business, Management and Marketing. business environment such as globalization, digitalization, and co creation of value. A marketing graduate is qualified for managerial and expert positions, with typical duties including product management, customer relationship management and marketing communication. Since the first marketing students were admitted in 1991 the Department of Marketing has grown rapidly. We work in close cooperation with the business community, and combine theory and practice both in teaching and research with an innovative approach. The Department is active participant in the global academic network providing great opportunities for international exchange periods and even the double degree arrangement with the University of North Carolina. Erasmus scholarships allow students to visit European universities as exchange students. Also research projects with international colleagues offer opportunities for researchers and students in marketing to work in an inspiring and challenging international academic environment.
4 4 Year 2012 in a Nutshell The Year 2012 has been a very good year for Marketing. Marketing, to a large extent, is about exchanges between organizations and between people. What is exchanged can vary from products, services, money, knowledge, relationships, emotions, and experiences and so on. Various exchanges take place all around us in everyday life, whether we are working or spending free time. Exchanges are also at the core of doing cooperation. In the current networked world, cooperation can be seen as being the key activity for individuals and organizations to flourish and innovate. For scientific communities, previously heavily characterized by individualized expertise and hierarchies, the role of cooperative behavior has become the key issue as well. As researchers and teachers, we are more and more required to work together with each other and with other stakeholders in many ways. Therefore, if I need to pinpoint one major theme describing the year 2012 for the Department of Marketing, I will take the cooperation as the theme. Pauliina Ulkuniemi To fulfill our purpose as a part of the University, in research we need to cooperate internally, nationally and internationally with the researchers in our field. In teaching, we need to work together with the students and with firms to provide the students with relevant learning experiences. Also, to develop teaching, we need to work together with other teachers to build up strong programs for the future. To fulfill our duties in terms of having impact on the community, we need to build up cooperation with various different actors in our area. Department of Marketing has been working within all of these fields to fulfill its purpose during In 2012, we provided the surrounding community with marketing experts more than ever, as we reached our new record in graduates, altogether 59 new Masters specialized in marketing. When they leave the University, the graduates are equipped with multiple skills and knowledge of marketing. During their Master s thesis work, they have typically also solved managerial problems of their case firms. In addition to this, our work has also provided many other forms of impact to the surrounding businesses as well. During 2012, we have continued to integrate more and more real life examples into course assignments to increase the managerial relevance of our teaching. As an example, in one of our largest courses, Product and Market Strategies, about 190 students worked on an assignment to solve marketing challenges of Ski Resort Syöte. Assignment enabled the students to learn through a real life example and for a real purpose whereas the case firm gained numerous innovative ideas though the exercise. To continue, a course specifically designed to provide real examples and benefit for the participating firms, Firm Project in Marketing, was organized second time and through that several firms gained new perspectives to their marketing challenges. Overall, cooperation with the business life and impact on the surrounding community has continued to be on our agenda in teaching as well as in research.
5 5 In research, year 2013 continued to be successful for the Department of Marketing, with steady development in the number and quality of publications as well as amount of external research funding. To develop research at the Department, we have raised discussions over the focus areas of our research. Towards the end of 2012, the researchers throughout the university were required to carefully consider, in what kinds of research groups they plan operating in. The forthcoming Research Assessment Exercise (RAE2013) required the researchers to organize themselves in Research Communities and sign up for evaluation. Within Department of marketing, researchers take part in different inter disciplinary research communities, and largest part of researchers of the Department of marketing are associated with a community which brings together researchers from marketing, international business and management. So the year 2012 was a beginning of planning new programs, new research strategies, and so on. The actual work however, has only begun and it is critical that cooperative behavior among researchers, teachers and other stakeholders continues as we go ahead for the year 2013 and beyond. As I am ending my term as the head of the marketing department at the end of the year 2012, I want to thank our faculty, students, academic colleagues, project partners and other organizations and individuals who we have cooperated with during the year, for excellent work and atmosphere that have produced the magnificent results that we can happily share in this annual report. Pauliina Ulkuniemi
6 6 Review of the Year 2012 The following chapters present the main activities and events of 2012 in the areas of teaching, research and external activities of the Marketing Department. Teaching The aim of Department of Marketing is to ensure high quality teaching through continuous development and innovation. These innovations and developments have lived up to the expectations and investments haven t gone in vain as Marketing is the most sought out major in early admissions at Oulu Business School. In 2012, the number of applicants to Oulu Business School amounted to 1082, with 293 applicants who had chosen marketing as their first priority program (27% of all first priority program applications at the Oulu Business School). In 2012, a total of 200 new students started at the Oulu Business School, of which 50 were marketing program students. In addition, 10 new marketing students were selected in the separate M.Sc. program admission. Teaching development team - MOKTR It has been an inspiring year for the teaching development team (MOKTR) of the marketing department. There were several initiatives on the Business School level that will also influence our department. The School s application for international AACSB accreditation and its quick progress to the self evaluation stage was an important factor affecting all teaching activities also in our department. In the beginning of the year our team focused on
7 7 defining learning goals for the bachelor s, master s and doctoral programs in marketing. This discussion of competence requirements and learning goals at all levels of our education, including professional and academic perspectives, was very enriching considering the future vision and reform needs of our curriculum. Based on the requirements of the accreditation standards and also the feedback from the students during our collective teaching development afternoon ( Helmikahvit ) in April, we observed a need to develop evaluation criteria for our courses. The group therefore outlined common instructions for different forms of evaluation, together with evaluation criteria (rubrics) for course assignments and seminar papers. These are also useful in relation to AACBS and other development efforts in assurance of learning. Another important educational initiative was to start the planning of the new bachelor s program of the Oulu Business School. This new program will start in Autumn 2014 and will be common to all bachelor s level students at the Oulu Business School. The program will entail considerable reform needs also to the courses offered by the marketing department. Planning the new courses will be the most important task for the teaching development team in In this situation there is an excellent opportunity to align the course substance with pedagogical reforms related to professional relevance, student tutoring and international student exchange, for example. With the help of the active teaching development team, its dedicated student and faculty members and business representation, the department has a strong vantage point to develop its tuition at the forefront of marketing professionally and academically. Members of the teaching development team in 2012 were: Satu Nätti (chair) and other faculty members Saila Saraniemi, Ilkka Ojansivu, Kerttu Kettunen, Marika Tuomela Pyykkönen, Sakari Nikkilä and Jari Juga. Our student members are Hanne Kettunen, Vili Koistinen, Aino Meriläinen and Mika Tiainen. Our alumni representative is Tiina Koskela (Kaleva).
8 recognitions for students and teachers Oulun myyntimiehet ry, a regional association of the Union of Sales and Marketing Professionals (SMKJ), awarded our marketing student, Mari Nauha, for being actively involved in the marketing community and acting as a role model for students in marketing. The master s thesis of Aino Maija Toppi was ranked among the ten finalists in the national competition of Miltton Oy, a communications and public relations consultancy. The thesis was titled Corporate Brand Communication through Social Media in Industrial Setting and was supervised by Saila Saraniemi and Minna Mäläskä. Business cooperation Martti Ahtisaari Institute of Global Business and Economics, at the Oulu Business School, awarded Satu Nätti with the recognition as the educator of the year in its year s end celebration. Satu has a long experience as teacher in the area of B2B relationships and she also acts as a supervisor for thesis projects for emba students. The Department of Marketing has pursued and developed cooperation with the business community over the years, combining theory and practice in teaching and offering students with high quality knowledge with strong relevance to real business life issues. Most of the students in marketing write their bachelor s and master s thesis in close cooperation with companies or public sector organizations. In addition, students can work on business related problems in the special issues course that can be tailored to solve specific business problems or development issues. The course Firm Project in Marketing familiarizes students with project management and project communication through a three month project with real case companies. The project teams work closely with the collaborating companies and report regularly on the project. In 2012, the participating firms were Oulutours Oy, Aaria Oy, Oulu Port, Oulun Tuomiokirkkoseurakunta and Business Kitchen. The projects dealt with e.g. designing a new restaurant concept and developing the communication strategy for the Port of Oulu and the local parish. The course was organized by Assistant Professor Saila Saraniemi, Professor Jari Juga, Professor Veikko Seppänen and Lecturer Sakari Nikkilä. Visiting Lecturers Among the domestic and international guest lecturers visiting the marketing courses in 2012 were: Domestic guest lecturer: Mr. Pertti Paakkolanvaara, Simsonar Oy, Business to Business Marketing course 2012
9 9 JuniorCategoryManager,AnttiPuustinen,SkanskaOyj,visitorinthecourseof PurchasingandSupplierRelationships CEOAnttiPaukku,ProcurateOy,visitorinthecourseofPurchasingandSupplier Relationships. Dr.OlgaBuch,DirectorofArcticTrainingCentre,Murmansk,gaveaguestlectureon the development of the Arctic Sea Route and the Murmansk Transport Hub in BusinessLogisticscourseon6.November2012.Theguestlecturewasorganizedas apartofeducationalcooperationinthebarentslogistics2project. Dr.ChristianKowalkowskigaveaguestlectureinCurrentIssuesinService Marketingcourse,9February2012,about Serviceinfusionasagileincrementalism inaction. Asinpreviousyears,ProfessorWesleyJohnstonfromGeorgiaStateUniversity, Atlanta,wasresponsibleforteachingthecourseIndustrialSalesManagement. Research Whenitcomestoresearch,2012wasaverygoodyearfortheMarketingDepartment.Asin previous years, the Marketing Department accounted for a considerable part of all the refereed articles published by the Oulu Business School just one indication of the consistencyandqualityofresearchcarriedoutbythefacultyofthemarketingdepartment.
10 10 In 2012, there were several externally funded research projects in progress at the Department: Barents Logistics 2 (Enpi Kolarctic CBC), Cleantech Solutions (Tekes), Emocha (Academy of Finland), Indico (Tekes), Moduserv (Tekes) and Puulog (Tekes). Externally funded projects create a solid economic foundation and offer business relevance for the research carried out at the Department. We are grateful to our business partners and domestic as well as international academic colleagues working with us in these projects for making it possible to accomplish all the research results in 2012 all your support has been invaluable for us. Services represent one of areas where our research is going from strength to strength. After years of dedicated research by the faculty and several externally funded projects (e.g. ModSeC, ModuServ, Proform, Cobra), service marketing and management has become one of the cornerstones of research at the Marketing Department. As one example of the ongoing activities, the Marketing Department and the ModuServ project organized a research seminar in Oulu on 23 April 2012 with prominent domestic and international researchers sharing their views on current topics in service research. The seminar offered an excellent opportunity for networking between researchers from various backgrounds and business representatives who share a common interest in service development. Research development team (MTETR) Overall there were 22 articles in international refereed academic journals, 24 conference papers and 11 articles in edited books or research publications that were published by the faculty of the Department. The Research Development Team of the Marketing Department (MTETR) set as its main goal to clarify the research focus for the department. This was also the topic for the Research Development Day in June 2012, where research focus was discussed in detail. The team also organized weekly research seminars, in which 16 research presentations were held in Faculty members at the department s research day, 11. June 2012
11 11 In total, six meetings of the research development team were held during the year 2012 and 10 faculty members were involved in the MTETR work: Marika Tuomela Pyykkönen (chair), Tuula Lehtimäki (secretary), Jouni Juntunen, Teea Palo, Elina Pernu, Jaana Tähtinen, Anita Virta, Anniina Schreiner, Saara Pekkarinen and Hanna Komulainen. International research visits Our researchers are actively involved in international research collaboration, as indicated by the joint publications, international conference participation and research visits. As examples of research visits, Teea Palo visited the Lancaster University in April May and Saara Pekkarinen visited the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Delft in June Jaana Tähtinen spent the whole semester at the Uppsala University, Sweden (August December 2012). Projects The department has had remarkable success in externally funded projects, serving as a good indication of the business relevance of our research activity. The following information cards offer an overview of the projects in Barents Logistics 2 Barents Logistics 2 is a cross border project for increasing logistics competence and facilitating business development in the Barents Region. The international partners in the project include Luleå University of Technology in Sweden and the Arctic Training Centre together with Murmanshelf Association in Murmansk, Russia. The project is funded by the ENPI Kolarctic CBC Program and national co funding organizations. The project duration is three years and will continue up till March A logistics seminar and training session was organized in Sweden on October Participants from Russian, Finnish and Swedish companies, public organizations, as well as university personnel and students, enjoyed a high level seminar chaired by Professor Anders Segerstedt of Luleå University. Regional seminars and workshops were also organized in the three countries to discuss business challenges and opportunities in the Barents Region. The project also offers an opportunity for doctoral students in Sweden and Finland to focus on issues related to business and logistics in Northern Regions. At the marketing department, Marika Tuomela Pyykkönen examines the purchasing and procurement practices in the mining industry. Several master s thesis studies have also been completed or are in progress in the project. In 2012, Taija Heinonen completed her thesis about the internationalization of small and medium sized enterprises in the Barents Region. Contacts: Ulla Lehtinen (ulla.lehtinen[at]oulu.fi) and Jari Juga (jari.juga[at]oulu.fi). More information can be found at: transport.fi.
12 12 Cleantech Solutions Co creating Environmental Solutions with Lead Customers Cleantech Solutions is a two year project funded by the Tekes Serve program. The project aims at increasing industrial firms competitiveness by developing processes and tools related to innovation of Cleantech solutions with early adopter clients in developing and developed markets, the assessment of the environmental effects and customer value created by Cleantech solutions, and new ways to accelerate the commercialization of Cleantech solutions. The project is conducted by the Lappeenranta University of Technology in collaboration with Oulu University. It includes researchers from the departments of Marketing, Industrial Engineering and Management and Environmental Technology. The key partners comprise Outotec, Kemira, Metso, the Finnish Cleantech Cluster, and Cleantech Finland. More information: Jari Salo (jari.salo[at]oulu.fi), Tuula Lehtimäki (tuula.lehtimaki[at]oulu.fi) and Ilkka Ojansivu (Ilkka.ojansivu[at]oulu.fi). Project website: solutions EMOCHA Emotional view on challenging relationships EmoCha uncovers the state of buyer seller relationship ending research and expands its multidisciplinary opportunities by applying Critical Realism. The research project extends the focus of the field from the relationship ending to their recovery, from dyads to triads, from solely rational to emotional understanding, and from continuous relationships to episodic ones. EmoCha is funded by the Academy of Finland. During 2012, the first three journal publications were accepted (Industrial Marketing Management, Journal of Customer Behaviour, Drugs and Alcohol Today). The first article discusses ways to study business relationship processes and is co authored with Annmarie Ryan and Markus Vanharanta from University of Limerick and Tuija Mainela from department of Management and International Business. The second article 'Relationship Ending from the Perspective of the Non Initiator' is co authored with Annmarie Ryan, and the third 'Modeling Detoxification Treatment Relationships. A longitudinal case study from Finland' is authored by Anita Virta and Jaana Tähtinen. The third study will be published during More information: Jaana Tähtinen (jaana.tahtinen[at]oulu.fi), Anniina Schreiner (anniina.schreiner[at]oulu.fi) and Anita Virta, (anita.virta[at]oulu.fi).
13 13 INDICO Individualized Connected Health Services The project is a scenario type approach to develop future service concepts for the health care sector to support individualized health and wellbeing processes. It opens the possibility to build up a road map for the future Connected Health program. It is a multidisciplinary approach which takes into account the aspects how individuals can better promote the health with the knowledge of his/her health data. Saara Pekkarinen acts as WP leader, working together with Minna Lappi and Heta Kangasniemi. The team has two international academic partners, PhD Carolien de Blok from NIVEL, Utrecht, the Netherlands, and PhD Michael Brennan, from University of Ulster, Belfast, Nothern Ireland. In 2012, Saara Pekkarinen has organized one visit to NIVEL, and one meeting in Amsterdam with Dr. Brennan. More information: Saara Pekkarinen (saara.pekkarinen[at]oulu.fi) MODUSERV Modularity in Business Services to Co Create Value within Collaborative Networks ModuServ project is conducted by the Department of Marketing and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and is financed by Tekes the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation through Serve program The overall purpose of this project is to describe, analyse and evaluate how value is co created in business services through modularity and collaborative networks. The project is carried out in close collaboration with three companies: Kiinteistöhuolto Jurvelin, PCS Engineering and Pöyry Finland. Three Master s theses have been finalized in the research project so far. Dr. Christian Kowalkowski (Assistant Professor at Hanken School of Economics, Finland, and Associate Professor, Docent at Linköping University, Sweden) was a guest of the ModuServ project on 9th February He gave a lecture in the course Current Issues in Service Marketing on the change of industrial companies toward service business, requiring new perspectives on business models and value creation. Kowalkowski also acted as keynote speaker in the seminar on service business, organized by the Marketing Department and ModuServ project on Monday 23rd April 2012 at the University of Oulu. In October, a workshop of the project was held for the company partners with the theme Value proposition as the basis for business plan. In addition, Per Calborg, doctoral student at the Linköping University, visitied Oulu in April More information: Saara Pekkarinen (saara.pekkarinen[at]oulu.fi)
14 14 PUULOG ProcurementandLogisticsintheBioenergySector The Puulog project focuses on procurement and logistics of wood based bio energy in NorthernFinland.ItisajointprojectbetweentheUniversityofOuluandtheKemi Tornio UniversityofAppliedSciences.AttheUniversityofOulu,theworkhasconcentratedonthe economic and operational aspects of bio fuel supply chains. In 2012, Eero Klemetti completed a numerical simulation study related to terminal solutions in wood based bio energysupplychains. Theresultshaveattractedconsiderablemediaattention,forinstanceinHelsinginSanomat on and in Kaleva on The project organized a seminar in Kemi ( ) regarding bio energy in Northern Finland. In addition, an excursion was organizedtokandalakshaandumbaregionsinnorth WesternRussiaon to investigatecross borderopportunitiesinbiofuellogistics.theprojectdurationistwoyears from to Moreinformation:AaroTiilikainen(aaro.tiilikainen[at]oulu.fi) tutkimus/yksikot/markkinointi/logistiikka/pu ulog.
15 15 External activities, societal impact and citizenship Our faculty has actively participated in various academic and external activities not directly linked to their own research and teaching responsibilities. These include external teaching and research related assignments, committee memberships and positions of trust as well as other duties and responsibilities related to societal and university citizenship. Among these activities, the department s researchers have actively contributed to academic publishing by working in editorial boards or serving as reviewers for conferences and international peer reviewed journals. A list of reviewer responsibilities of the marketing faculty is presented in the Appendix. External activities of the Department include the basic study module (25 ECTS units) in marketing offered to the Open University. The marketing courses in the Open University offering in 2012 were (http://www.oulu.fi/avoinyliopisto/): Expert statements for academic positions were submitted in 2012 by Jaana Tähtinen (Uppsala University) and Jari Juga (University of Turku). Jaana Tähtinen also submitted two pre examiner s statements for doctoral dissertations (Uppsala University and University of Eastern Finland). markkinoinnin perusteet (introduction to marketing), Annu Ristola tuote ja markkinastrategiat (product market strategies), Ilkka Ojansivu business to business marketing, Satu Nätti kuluttajakäyttäytyminen (consumer behavior), Annu Ristola business logistics, Jari Juga Many of our faculty members take an active role in professional and civic activities. To mention one example, doctoral student Marika Tuomela Pyykkönen has acted as the chair of the regional branch of Finnish Logistics Association (LOGY), while also serving in the board of Young Procurement Professionals, one of LOGY s national working divisions. In May 2012, Marika organized a two day workshop for the Young Procurement Professionals in Oulu, including a visit to the strategic procurement unit of the City of Oulu as well as a presentation by by Dr. Jouni Juntunen about outsourcing issues in logistics. Information about this professional community can be found at:
16 16 APPENDICES Key figures Staff Publications Conference, workshop and seminar presentations Assignments related to scientific publishing Assignments related to scientific conferences International researcher exchange and visits Faculty research seminar presentations Master s theses accepted in 2012
17 17 Key Figures Key figures Applications/Accepted Bachelor and Master s Program Finnish Master s Program (+2) 248/50 67/8 307/50 60/10 448/50 98/13 449/50 74/11 555/50 21/10 Degrees Bachelor of Science Master of Science Doctor of Science Research 2012 Scientific articles (refereed) 22 Other scientific publications (refereed) 29 Activities in scientific publications 38 Other publications 8 Scientific presentations 28 Activities related to scientific 6 conferences source: Oulun yliopisto tutkii database
18 18 Staff Senior staff Pauliina Ulkuniemi, D.Sc., professor, Head of department Jari Juga, D.Sc., professor Jouni Juntunen, D.Sc. assistant professor Mari Juntunen, D.Sc. assistant professor Timo Koivumäki, D.Sc., professor Hanna Komulainen, D.Sc. post doc. researcher Satu Nätti, D.Sc. professor Saara Pekkarinen, D.Sc. assistant professor Jari Salo, D.Sc., professor Saila Saraniemi, D.Sc. Assistant professor Jaana Tähtinen, D.Sc., professor
19 19 Junior staff Kerttu Kettunen M.Sc., doctoral student Tuula Lehtimäki, MBA doctoral student Eero Klemetti, M.Sc. researcher Sakari Nikkilä, M.Sc. lecturer Minna Mäläskä, M.Sc. doctoral student Waqar Nadeem, M.Sc. doctoral student Outi Nuojua, M.Sc. doctoral student Elina Pernu, M.Sc. doctoral student Timo Pohjosenperä, M.Sc. doctoral student Eeva Liisa Oikarinen, M.Sc., doctoral student Ilkka Ojansivu, M.Sc. doctoral student Teea Palo, M.Sc. doctoral student Marika Tuomela Pyykkönen, M.Sc., doctoral student Anita Virta, M.Sc., doctoral student
20 20 Adjunct professors (docents) Wesley Johnston, D.Sc., Professor Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Veikko Seppänen D.Sc., Professor Oulu Business School/ Martti Ahtisaari Institute
21 21 Publications 2012 Internationally refereed journal articles Alajoutsijärvi K., Mainela T., Ulkuniemi P., Montell E. (2012) Dynamic effects of business cycles on project business relationships. Management Decision 50 (2), Alajoutsijärvi, K., Kettunen, K., Tikkanen, H. (2012) Institutional evolution of business schools in Finland Management & Organizational History 7 (4), Alajoutsijärvi, K., Mainela, T., Salminen, R., Ulkuniemi, P. (2012) Perceived Customer Involvement and Organizational Design in Project Business. Scandinavian journal of management 28 (1), Helander, N., Ulkuniemi P. (2012) Customer perceived value in software industry. Journal of High Technology Management Research 23 (1), Hurmelinna Laukkanen, P., Nätti, S. (2012) Network orchestration for knowledge mobility The case of an international innovation community. Journal of Business Market Management 5 (4), Johnston, W. J., Khalil, S., Jain, M., Cheng Ming Sung, J. (2012) Determinants of Joint Action in International Channels of Distribution: The Moderating Role of Psychic Distance. Journal of International Marketing 20 (3), Juga, J., Juntunen J., Juntunen, M. (2012) Impact of service quality, image and relational aspects onsatisfaction and loyalty in logistics outsourcing relationships. International journal of shipping and transport logistics 4 (1), Juntunen, J., Juntunen, M., Autere, V. (2012) Outsourcing Strategies of the Security Sector Through Acquisition Procedures. International journal of physical distribution & logistics management 42 (10), Juntunen, M. (2012) Co creating corporate brand in start ups. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 30 (2), Juntunen, M., Juntunen, J., Autere, V. (2012) Recruits corporate brand co creation experiences of the Finnish military forces. Corporate Reputation Review 15 (2), Lehtimäki, T. (2012) Managing the new product launch process: cross functional information exchange perspective. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics 1 (4), Nätti, S., Palo, T. (2012) Key account management in business to business expert organisations: an exploratory study on the implementation process. Service industries journal 32 (11),