1 Speaker Paavo Lipponen of the Eduskunta Tampere Lecture DEMOCRACY AND ITS FUTURE The birth of Finland s national parliament, the Eduskunta, a century ago was a landmark event in world history. Under a law passed by the old Diet of Four Estates and promulgated by Czar Nicholas II in 1906, elections in which both men and women could vote and also stand as candidates took place the following year; the only restriction was that they had to be at least 24 years of age. Nineteen women, the first female parliamentarians in history, were elected to the Eduskunta. The size of the electorate increased seven-fold compared with the days of the Diet. Thus the general election in March next year will be a jubilee event. It gives us a very good reason to ponder the state and future of our own democracy, and also reflect on how democracy is advancing and the various forms that it takes in our world. To mark its centenary, the Eduskunta has been trying in a variety of ways to promote a discussion on the theme of democracy. One example of this is the arrangement together with the University of Helsinki of a series of Studia generalia lectures. The Committee for the Future published a book titled Democracy and Futures this summer. In it, academic experts from several parts of the world outline scenarios for the future of democracy.
2 2(15) In the present history-less time, it must be emphasised that the future of democracy cannot be successfully built without knowing its roots and the entire process that has led to modern western democracy. It is especially important to maintain an awareness of how seriously democracy has been threatened and how fragile it still is in many places. The birth of Finnish democracy is associated with a process that began in ancient Greece. Equality of free citizens, open discussion and acceptance of individuality are still elements of the foundation of our culture today. The Senate was an important actor during the Roman era, even though it was strongly oligarchic. Features inherited from the days of Antiquity can still be discerned in the way the Italian parliament works today. The continuity of our culture is astonishing. The Magna Carta in the 13 th century, the Nordic tings in the Middle Ages, England s Glorious Revolution in the late 17 th century, the Constitution of the United States, the French Revolution and Sweden s Act of Union and Security in the latter half of the 18 th century were milestones of democracy. It was a decisive event for the development of Finland when this small nation became a part of the Swedish realm in the 12 th and 13 th centuries. That gave the Finns the Roman-Catholic religion and the western European culture associated with it, in addition to Sweden s relatively progressive legislation and economic system, which included free peasants and gradual liberalisation. The alternative would have been feudalism under either the Teutonic Knights or the Czar of Russia. Thus Finland avoided drifting into the eastern European cultural sphere, a place of autocracy and
3 3(15) authoritarianism where the building of democracy is still only limping along in the 21 st century. Finnish democracy needed both external and internal preconditions to be met before it could come into being. As a part of the Russian Empire from 1809 onwards, Finland enjoyed autonomy and had its own legislative assembly, the Diet. The nation was born when the Finns exploited this opportunity to the full. National institutions, such as our own currency and languages, established their positions. The revolution in Russia in 1905 created favourable conditions for parliamentary reform in Finland. Finland gained independence when Russia was in a state of weakness following the 1917 revolution. The most important internal preconditions were the retention of Swedish legislation as the law of autonomous Finland and the development of popular education and civil society as the foundation for a political culture. The Reformation opened the way for the emergence of Finnish as a literary language, which in principle brought book learning within everyone s reach. The promulgation in 1866 of a decree on elementary schools was a major turning point in popular education. Later, when a statutory obligation to establish elementary schools was imposed on municipalities, children from all strata of the population, boys and girls, were able to attend school. Finland s first modern democratic institution, the village meeting, emerged in the late 19 th century. At it, all residents could have a say in choosing the members of the board of the elementary school and, if they wished, could themselves seek election to the board.
4 x x x 4(15) By the time the Eduskunta was created, the civil society infrastructure that is essential for democracy was already largely in place. Elementary schools ensured that people could read and write. Cooperatives meant a strengthening of independent action. Workers associations founded study clubs and libraries and engaged in a great diversity of cultural activities. They, along with youth clubs, were the cultural movement of their era. By 1906, the present political mass movements, political parties or their precursors, were already in existence; examples include the Social Democratic Party and the Agrarian League (now the Centre Party). The Eduskunta s work was badly disrupted when the Czar refused his assent for laws that it had passed or dissolved it, as happened on several occasions. The power of the Eduskunta was also being gnawed at from within, because there was a perception in the most conservative circles that the whole reform went too far. However, the biggest setback for efforts to strengthen democracy was the fate of the local-government electoral reform enacted by the Eduskunta in 1907: its promulgation was first delayed in the Russian bureaucracy and then refused by the Czar in Finland drifted into civil war because democracy did not work. Large segments of the population were disappointed at the Eduskunta s impotence, and even its marginalisation in Hunger and hardship inflamed the situation on the local level, where power of decision in things like the food supply rested with a small minority. A situation of this kind was fertile ground for radicalisation. Many researchers believe that the
5 5(15) implementation of a reform of municipal democracy would have prevented the outbreak of civil war, because it would have taught people how to cooperate and share responsibility on the local level. When the form of government that an independent Finland should have was being decided, the battle of spirits that had begun in the days of the parliamentary reform continued. The conservatives lost when monarchy was rejected. The major popular movements, the Social Democrats and the Agrarian League, supported a republic. A relatively strong presidency institution meant a concession to the conservatives. Indeed, Maurice Duverger has characterised the Finnish form of government as semipresidential in the manner of the Weimar Republic and the France of Nationalism and the imperialism associated with it led to the First World War. The totalitarianism that emerged in Europe after that conflict threatened democracy everywhere. Authoritarian systems were put in place in Germany as well as in eastern and southern Europe. In the latter half of the 1930s Finland was one of the minority of European countries where democracy remained unsullied. The great majority of the people, all of the traditional political movements, took the side of democracy. Democracy was saved from its enemies in the 1930s. In the Second World War, democracy saved Finland. The nation had regained its unity, and a will to defend itself as well as a wise policy saved the country from occupation. Less attention has been paid to the fact that democracy had to be saved once again in the turbulent conditions after the war. If the Social Democrats had agreed to an electoral pact with the Communists or given way to the
6 Communists in the struggle for control of the trade union movement, Finland would have gone the way of Czechoslovakia. 6(15) During the Cold War, Finland was able, with the aid of her policy of neutrality, to integrate consistently into the cooperative structures of western democracies and market economies. However, the political system remained characteristically president-centred until the 1980s. Management of relations with the Soviet Union was concentrated in the hands of the President in an un-parliamentary manner and on this basis he could decisively influence the composition of governments. On the other hand, there was a broad consensus on foreign policy and the course of the country s development was determined in parliamentary and municipal elections. The election of Mauno Koivisto as President of the Republic meant a major change in domestic politics. The Social Democrats no longer needed the People s Democrats to be able to participate in government. What is even more significant is that an era of stability began in domestic politics: all governments since 1983 have sat for a full parliamentary term. Discrimination ended. Since then, all parliamentary parties have taken their turns in governing coalitions. In the 1990s a need was perceived to change the system of supreme decision making from a presidential to a clearly Eduskunta-centred one. Already when Finland joined the EU, responsibility for the direction of Union policy was assigned to the Government, which meant a considerable strengthening of the Prime Minister s position. In an extensive revision of the Constitution
7 that came into force in 2000, more of the President s powers were transferred to the Eduskunta; the most important of these related to appointing the Prime Minister and Government. 7(15) The President retained responsibility for the conduct of foreign policy, but must do so jointly with the Government. This system has worked well, but since the President is directly elected it contains the risk of a potential conflict. A populist President who intervened in domestic policy issues and tried to conduct a foreign policy line of his or her own could cause a lot of confusion, but would ultimately have to yield to the will of the Government and the Eduskunta. x x x The Constitution of Finland has functioned well. Like Unto Hämäläinen we can ask: In how many European states has a democratic form of government been preserved uninterruptedly for so long? This may be due also to the fact that the Constitution has been revised to correspond to changed circumstances. In this sense, our Constitution is evolutionary, developing. The way in which it functions must continue to be the focus of critical examination. Especially EU membership has brought new needs for change and introduced new features into our system. We have been confronted with the challenge of developing European democracy and also with the question of democracy in the global community.
8 8(15) In the French and Dutch referendums on the Constitutional Treaty for Europe, democracy can be said to have worked. The institution of referendum can be seen to have gained strength insofar as, for example, France has decided to submit the accession treaties of all future Member States of the EU to referendums. This is not at all a matter of developing the political system, but rather of an inescapable domestic policy solution. The proposal on which a position had to be adopted in the referendums mentioned would, if adopted, have meant a step towards greater democracy in the EU s decision-making system. In practice, the French and Dutch voters were thinking more of domestic policy issues like unemployment and immigration. Whatever the fate of the EU Constitutional Treaty turns out to be, the reforms provided for in its first part will have to be implemented for the Union to be able to function. Any attempts by the big countries to grab more power for themselves than has already been negotiated must absolutely be rejected. The problems in the EU lie, on the one hand, in everyday matters and, on the other, in failings in the way the parliamentary system functions in many of the Member States. The EU must function more efficiently in matters that concern people, such as energy policy. The position of national parliaments in decision making in relation to EU policy must be strengthened. In Finland s EU-related decision making, parliamentary oversight of the Government s actions is implemented better than in any other Member State. The Grand Committee takes part in decision making already at the legislative drafting stage. The special committees make submissions to the
9 9(15) Grand Committee on matters belonging to their respective fields of competence before the Eduskunta s position takes shape. Thus our parliament participates through the Government in decision making in the EU s legislative body, the Council. This democratic channel for influence can in no way be compensated for by opening some kind of direct road for national parliaments to participate in decision making alongside the EU institutions the European Parliament, the Council of Member States, the Commission or the Court of Justice. Something like that would only tend to add even further complexity to the EU s institutional structure. Ostensible demands in several Member States for a strengthening of the position of national parliaments are actually an attempt to draw attention away from these parliaments weakness relative to the government. In some cases, indeed, we can ask whether even all members of the government are in a position to influence their country s EU policy. Through EU membership and deepening integration Finland is surrendering a part of her sovereignty, her power of decision, to the supranational level. In return, however, Finnish voters get the opportunity to influence many matters, such as the development of the internal market, in relation to which they would have far less say from outside the EU. This applies also to global issues. Through the EU s common trade and climate policy, democracy is realised for the Finns on the global level. Here too we can ask, in the same way as in my earlier examination of EU decision making, in how many countries of the world is the situation as good as it is in Finland?
10 10(15) As an EU member, Finland has to adopt a position on the state of democracy in other Member States, those aspiring to accede and other neighbouring countries. As a member of the UN, the EU, the OSCE and the Council of Europe, we monitor democracy globally. The new Member States are still struggling with the negative effects of the communist system. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to the way municipal democracy atrophied under communism. A lack of responsibility on the local level weakened the prerequisites for the emergence of a civil society. Uncertainty concerning the separation of powers between the president and the parliament remains an aspect of political systems in many countries. Bickering and powerful antagonism are characteristic traits of political cultures. The Union is in a constant dialogue with its neighbours on democracy and the human rights issues that are inseparably linked to it. The focus of our greatest interest is Russia, where a presidential election is approaching. Russia is implementing sovereign democracy. In other words, it wants to define democracy in a way that suits the needs of those in power. From a western perception, the poor opportunities for action that are available to the opposition, a concentration of the media in the hands of those close to the wielders of power and the participation of decision makers in the operations of state-owned companies are features that ill suit democracy in the way that it is understood in the EU.
11 11(15) The redistribution of state assets that happened in conjunction with and after the collapse of the Soviet Union strongly influences the Russian political system. The struggle for power in the ownership of energy companies and other state-owned enterprises may intensify in Russia in the near future, at least behind the scenes. The dominant position of one resource has also in many other countries tended to concentrate power in the hands of the few. Diversification of the economy is one of the essential prerequisites for democratic development. Despite everything, the development in Russia as well as in many other countries belongs to the great triumphal march of democracy in recent decades. Since 1972, 67 countries have made the changeover from dictatorship to democracy. India is the world s biggest democracy. South Africa s democracy gives hope for the whole continent. In South America, Chile s democracy is showing the way to stability and development. However, the crisis in the Middle East and the collision of cultures associated with it weaken optimism about the triumphal march of democracy. Efforts to export democracy by means of power politics have encountered major difficulties. Seen from the perspective of the EU, the Community s enlargement offers the most powerful instrument for helping democracy to take root in our immediate environment. The membership perspective can in many cases be such a powerful enticement that the political system becomes democratic. Turkey is a good example of a country where the rule of law and human rights are being strengthened so that this country, which builds democracy in a traditional way, can become a member.
12 12(15) Exporting democracy with the aid of military force does not suit the EU. The use of force can upset the ethnic and religious balance within the country that is the target of its use and destroy the achievements of the old system in a fateful manner, as has happened in Iraq. However, depending on the situation, there must be a willingness to use force to defend democracy. x x x Finnish democracy is today one of the strongest in the world. Hardly anywhere else does a combination of state and municipal democracy work so well. However, changes in the international environment, circumstances of life and social structures such as the media environment pose a big challenge to the development of democracy. A tradition of consensus, which came into being under foreign policy pressures and was reinforced during the economic crisis in the 1990s, has been a great strength for Finland. With its aid we have emerged from crisis and risen to the top of the world table according to nearly every criterion from competitiveness to sustainable development. Alongside foreign and EU policy, there is a broad consensus in the Eduskunta on the welfare state and the main outlines of foreign policy. On the other hand, it can be asked whether we have a real parliamentary opposition. As recently as a few years ago, there was talk in Sweden of what they called a systemskifte" or system shift. In Swedish elections, however, the official opposition carved out a profile for itself by going as close as possible to the government s policy.
13 13(15) In Finland, the opposition s task of challenging the prevailing consensus has been left to think tanks that operate outside the Eduskunta, such as the Finnish Business and Policy Forum EVA. They cannot be blamed for this; on the contrary, they perform an important task in seeking solutions in the face of great challenges like globalisation and aging of the population. In Finland we should support the parties in their own efforts to develop alternative solutions and debate concerning them in think tanks or comparable bodies close to themselves. The Social Democrats are working towards this end in the Kalevi Sorsa Foundation. We should try to involve citizens, especially the young, in these discussions, using the Internet among other means. A parliamentary and municipal political system founded on interaction between majority and minority must not, however, be replaced by one in which various minorities are combined by means of Internet polls on specific issues, as has been proposed. Only the present system, based on the majority that emerges through elections, makes it possible to arrive at major strategic solutions as part of a consistent long-term policy. Only in this way can decision makers assume responsibility and feel that they are doing so even in difficult situations. The present system gives voters the opportunity to wield influence on the EU level as well as nationally and locally. When the municipal and services structure is being reshaped, this opportunity for voters to have an input must not be weakened by means of complex intermunicipal agreements providing
14 14(15) for a variety of bodies that increase the indirectness of decision making and blur the division of powers and responsibilities. Democracy means having a stake. Unemployment and marginalisation of young people reduce people s sense of having one. We must make considerably greater inputs than is now the case into education and training for young people who have just completed the world s best comprehensive school and preventing their marginalisation. The latest group threatened with marginalisation in democracy are immigrants. They should be encouraged to take part in the activities of NGOs and parties. x x x When he was examining Machiavelli s thinking, Bertrand Russell made the following appraisal of democracy: What is ultimately involved is power Of course, power often depends on opinions and opinion on propaganda; it is also true that in propaganda it is an advantage if you seem more virtuous than your opponent, and that one way to seem virtuous is to be virtuous. That is why it can sometimes happen that the victor is the party that has more of what the public sees considers virtuous. All, including the media, must bear responsibility for ensuring that cynical image-building does not become the main thing. I believe that the most important motive driving those that seek power in Finnish democracy is the common good, of both the Finns and humankind as a whole.
Standard: History Enlightenment Ideas A. Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments. 1. Explain how Enlightenment
BENIAMINO CARAVITA Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy 1. The federal idea in Italian history Italy became a unitary State between 1861 and 1870, assembling under
Department Head: Professor John T. Rourke Department Office: Room 137, Monteith Building Undergraduate Catalog 1998-1999 POLITICAL SCIENCE (POLS) For major requirements, see the College of Liberal Arts
Community TV and digitalisation in the Nordic countries By Christer Hedërstrom Text prepared with occasion of the seminar Community TV and digital transition in Europe, organized by the UNESCO Chair in
The Double Democratic Deficit Parliamentary Accountability and the Use of Force under International Auspices Hans Born, Senior Fellow, DCAF Geneva Brussels, 29 April 2004 Presentation given at the Book
Student Handout #1: A Brief History of Canadian Citizenship Section One: Citizenship The concept of citizenship goes all the way back to ancient Greece. In the Greek city states, citizens were people who
Political Science Courses-1 American Politics POL 110/American Government Examines the strengths and weaknesses, problems and promise of representative democracy in the United States. Surveys the relationships
GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1 Abstract Greece is committed to embracing all those nations who strive for democracy within their frontiers, and peaceful cooperation
World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies All World History courses (Honors or otherwise) utilize the same targets and indicators for student performance. However, students enrolled in Honors
Political participation: Model by Verba in the EU and Russia Introduction Democracy is a political system based on 1) representative government; 2) citizen participation in the political process; 3) freedom
history (his) Mark R. Correll, Chair Mark T. Edwards David Rawson Charles E. White The fundamental purpose of the department of history, politics, and geography is to aid the student in gaining an understanding
Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard In early November, Mondial interviewed Ziad Abdel Samad, Executive Director of the Arab NGO Network for Development (ANND, based in Beirut). ANND is a regional
Directorate-General for Communication PUBLIC OPINION MONITORING UNIT Brussels, October 2014. 2014 post-election survey EUROPEAN ELECTIONS 2014 ANALYTICAL OVERVIEW Coverage: Population: Methodology: Fieldwork:
Conference of Community and European Affairs Committees of Parliaments of the European Union (COSAC) CONTRIBUTION OF THE XLI COSAC Prague, 10-12 May 2009 1. Current Economic and Financial Situation 1.1
17 UNIVERSAL ADULT FRANCHISE AND THE METHODS OF REPRESENTATION I n an earlier lesson, you have studied that the opening words of the Preamble to the Indian Constitution are: We, the people of India. What
1 st six weeks 1 Analyze the major civilizations before 1500 and evaluate the contributions of each era to the development of western civilization. (PASS 2-8) 2 Describe the political, social, and economic
National Library service centre for all types of libraries in Finland Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen, Deputy national librarian and Director of library network services Jerusalem 8.9.2011 National Library of
Constitutional Design Q.1) Explain the following terms:- a) Preamble: It is an introductory statement in a constitution which states the reasons and guiding values of the constitution. b) Clause: Clause
A CHARTER OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY 28 October 1995 Foreword In a speech to the European Parliament on March 8th, 1994, the poet Václav Havel, President of the Czech Republic, indicated the need for a Charter
The Finns Party The Finnish Parliament Elections of 2015 LANGUAGE POLICY "Political conflicts are often language conflicts - and some conflicts are political because they are language-related conflicts."
Writing Prompts US History In order to be successful in the classroom, students must have choice, write everyday and be able to defend positions. These prompts allow students to do all three. Please consider
IMMIGRATION TO AND EMIGRATION FROM GERMANY IN THE LAST FEW YEARS Bernd Geiss* Germany, Destination for Migrants Germany is in the middle of Europe and has common borders with nine countries. Therefore,
Development of Public Administration in China: Since 1978 Mao Shoulong (Draft) Since the end of 1978, China s economy has developed very quickly because of the introducing of reform and opening up policy.
MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SWEDEN UTRIKESDEPARTEMENTET Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Rwanda 2015 2019 MFA 103 39 Stockholm Telephone: +46 8 405 10 00, Web site: www.ud.se Cover:
The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government. Assess the validity of the statement.
WORLD FORUM OF REGIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLIES Manifesto of regional, sub-national and national Legislative Assemblies in Federal States for a true global democracy We, in regional sub-national
APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT KEY CONCEPT 1.1: Analyze how the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment ideas impacted human thought. a. Identify
Description for all courses in Political Sciences for Bachelor's Degree in Political Sciences. Bachelor's Degree in Political Science Department s Compulsory & Elective Requirements Course Descriptions
EU as a peacebuilder? 5.3.2015 Eurooppasali, Helsinki Tuomioja commenced the event by welcoming Mogherini and presenting the theme of the day: Europe and the construction of peace. Scepticism about the
Annex 1 Primary sources for international standards 1. The United Nations The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 20 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate Of Secondary Education HISTORY 0470/01 Paper 1 For Examination from 2015 SPECIMEN PAPER 2 hours Additional Materials: Answer
Advanced Placement (AP ) Social Studies Courses The AP social studies courses are intended to provide a rigorous college level introduction to the social sciences for high school students. While no official
14TH ASIA SECURITY SUMMIT THE IISS SHANGRI-LA DIALOGUE FOURTH PLENARY SESSION STRENGTHENING REGIONAL ORDER IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC: TOWARDS MORE ACTIVE CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND COOPERATION SUNDAY 31 MAY 2015
Private Television in Poland & Slovakia, March 2003 Matúš Minárik CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The present policy paper and recommendations result from the policy research done in the framework of the
QUOTAS IN PRACTICE: THE CHALLENGE OF IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT IN RWANDA Honourable Judith Kanakuze, Member of Parliament, Chamber of Deputies, Kigali, Rwanda A paper presented at the International
THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT The political institutions of the United Kingdom are divided into the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. The last of these will be developed
Standards Addressed by The Choices Program National Standards for the Social Studies National Standards for Social Studies are available online at cnets.iste.org/currstands. Strand I: Culture and Cultural
European Citizens Initiative on Unconditional Basic Income ANNEX Initiators of the ECI The persons presenting the proposal for our ECI are citizens out of 15 EU Member States (Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
1. Governments can be classified by 3 standards, name the 3 standards. A. Who can participate in the governing process, the geographic distribution of governmental power, and the relationship between the
Curriculum, Instruction & Professional Development Curriculum Leader, History/Social Science 997-8000, Ext. 2956 Modern World History Study Guide 10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in
1 PRE-TEST Directions: Read the following statements and circle whether they are True or False. 1. After World War One, many countries had difficulty dealing with war debts, hunger, and unemployment. 2.
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF INVESTMENT BILL (As introduced in the National Assembly (proposed section 75); explanatory summary of Bill published in Government Gazette No. 39009
Tennessee Curriculum Standards for High School World History Correlations to Wright Group/McGraw-Hill s World History Course Description: In World History High School, students study the history of humankind
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION Bill of Rights in Action 20:2 Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government Starting in the 1600s, European philosophers began debating the question of who should
To The Human rights council Geneva Stockholm 13 June 2014 Alternative report from UNICEF Sweden re. the UPR process re. Sweden Introduction This is a comment to the coming Universal Periodic Review (UPR)
The future of the European Union and the Lisbon Treaty Marie-José Garot IE Law School Center for European Studies, IE University Introduction The one-year old Lisbon Treaty The special European context
A Correlation of 16th Edition, AP Edition 2014 Advanced Placement U.S. Government and Politics AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of,
SOCIAL STUDIES TEST for e-lessons day 2 Name Directions: Use your own piece of paper as your answer document. Do not print off the test. You will need to only turn in your answer document. 29. The Cold
Programme Structure International Masters in Economy, State and Society with reference to Central & Eastern Europe YEAR 1 (60 ECTS) UCL Language (0 or 12 ECTS) Language (New unless intermediate available):
Dr. Jürgen Pfister, Chief Economist and Head of Investment Research The Pros and Cons of European Integration: the Pros A German Perspective Global Insight s World Economic Outlook Conference Cambridge,
Weimar Republic and Nazi Takeover Table of Contents You know the content of the Weimar constitution... 2 You can describe the economic development in Germany between 1920 and 1930... 2 You know the Dawes
Erich Reiter and Johann Frank The European Security Strategy Austrian Perspective The following essay gives the Austrian view on the ESS from a security political perspective and analyses the needs and
Socialdemokraterna January 27, 2012 Venue: Museum of Photo A forum for photography, Stockholm Summary Text of a speech by Mr Stefan Löfven, Party Leader Thank you very much, I am nervous, I can promise
The Work on Gender Mainstreaming in the Ministry of Employment by Agnete Andersen, legal adviser Agnete Andersen The outset for the work on gender mainstreaming Gender equality is a difficult bird because
High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development, Roundtable 4: International and Regional Labour Mobility and its Impact on Development Keynote speech Tobias Billström, Minister for Migration
The second World War was a source of big, deep and far-reaching changes in International structure. It ended the traditional power structure in International Relations and ushered in a new power structure
BACKGROUND LEAFLET SAMI The people, the culture and the languages and the Council of Europe 27-29 NOVEMBER 2014 INARI, FINLAND 1 Aims and expected outcomes of the event - Provide insight into the specific
UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL MEETING IN SUPPORT OF ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN PEACE The two-state solution: a key prerequisite for achieving peace and stability in the Middle East Moscow, 1 and 2 July 2015 CHECK
PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE UK THE CONSERVATIVES PROPOSALS FOR CHANGING BRITAIN S HUMAN RIGHTS LAWS HUMAN RIGHTS IN CONTEXT Britain has a long history of protecting human rights at home and standing
www.pwc.com/globalmobility Global Social Security Newsletter June 2014 2 Introduction Welcome to the June 2014 edition of our global social security newsletter, bringing you updates on changes in the social
Modern European History courses, fall 2008 B226 Mafia and other Italian mysteries Carl Ipsen T, Th 2:30-3:45 B323 The Holocaust Mark Roseman M, W 1:25-2:15; plus discussion B357 Modern France Rebecca Spang
Political Science Coordinator: Maximilian Felsch, Ph.D. The Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences offers the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in Political Science. On completion of the degree in Political
United Nations Economic and Social Council Distr.: General 27 February 2014 ECE/CES/2014/43 Original: English Economic Commission for Europe Conference of European Statisticians Sixty-second plenary session
Content : Victorian Times : The British Empire 1. Historical Background 2. The Victorian era 2.1 Foreign policy (The Empire s conflicts) 2.2 Domestic policy (London during her era) 3. Conclusion 1. Historical
The Foreign Policy of Ukraine One Year After the Orange Revolution PONARS Policy Memo No. 372 Volodymyr Dubovyk Odessa National University December 2005 It has been a year since the Orange Revolution in
DRAFT GUIDELINES ON DECENTRALISATION AND THE STRENGTHENING OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES 1 INTRODUCTION Sustainable human settlements development can be achieved through the effective decentralization of responsibilities,
Louisiana World History Louisiana History (Core Course: World History) World History 19. Explain the origins, developments, and consequences of the transatlantic slave trade between Africa and the Americas
Full list of mistakes and omissions of the English Version of the Hungarian draft- Constitution This document contains the full list of mistakes and omissions of the draft-constitution English version.
Session 2: Social coàhesion, diversity and inequality Björn Gustafsson October 2001 Sweden s recent experience of international migration - issues and studies Abstract When Sweden entered the new millennium
PROPOSAL FOR THE USE OF SECRET BALLOT IN THE KEY DECISION OF PARLIAMENT: Economic Freedom Fighters Submission to the Committee on the Review of the Rules of the National Assembly: 28 January 2015 A. INTRODUCTION
1 of 15 6/25/2011 6:56 PM Welcome and Instructions Welcome! Dear colleague, We are extremely grateful for your participation in the Chapel Hill survey on national parties, European integration, and dimensions
Law Libraries in Finland Arctic Centre, Information Service P.O.Box 122 FI-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland Telephone: +358-16-341 2780 Fax: +358-16-341 2777 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.arcticcentre.org/is/
INTRODUCTION This Declaration, prepared within the framework of the Belgian Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, is addressed to the Member States of the Council of Europe,
UNDERSTANDING NATO THE ORIGINS OF THE ALLIANCE In the aftermath of the Second World War, East and West Europe found themselves separated by the ideological and political divisions of the Cold War. Eastern
Political Science Courses CPO 2002 INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS (3) Introduction to politics in different states; comparison and analysis of representative European and non-western political systems.
Changing multilingual situation in Narva: transition to teaching in Estonian Ekaterina Protassova University of Helsinki & University of Tartu, Narva college 1 Russian: A brief overview of Russian in Europe
Rise of the Roman Republic Timeline 509 BCE: Tarquin the Proud, the last king of Rome, was overthrown by a group of patricians upset over his abuse of power. The Roman Republic was proclaimed. 494 BCE:
Continuous training of members of precinct election commissions: Russian experience Presentation by Sergey DANILENKO, Member of the CEC of Russia at the conference of the AOECE (September 9-11, Chisinau)
Date of Elections: December 27, 1969 Characteristics of Parliament JAPAN The Japanese Parliament (The Diet) is bicameral, consisting of two Houses: The House of Representatives, composed of members, elected
Plan Number 2014 A- General Rules and Conditions: STUDY PLAN Master in Political Science (None Thesis Track) 1. This plan conforms to the valid regulations of the programs of graduate studies. 2. Areas
The codification of criminal law and current questions of prison matters Kondorosi Ferenc Under Secretary of State Ministry of Justice Hungary Criminal law is the branch of law, in which society s expectations
Constitutional legal regulation of monetary system V. N. Nazarov, Associate professor of administrative and financial law of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Moscow) Analysis of constitutional
DEMOCRACY DEMOCRACY LECTURE OUTLINE The modern nation-state Citizenship rights The spread of liberal democracy THE MODERN NATION-STATE state a political apparatus (government institutions plus civil service
Published in the Gazette of the Parliament of Georgia (November 19, 1996) Law of Georgia On Normative Acts Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 This Law shall define the types and hierarchy of normative