# To provide insight into the physics of arrow flight and show how archers adapt their equipment to maximize effectiveness.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "To provide insight into the physics of arrow flight and show how archers adapt their equipment to maximize effectiveness."

## Transcription

1 The Science of Archery Godai Katsunaga Purpose To provide insight into the physics of arrow flight and show how archers adapt their equipment to maximize effectiveness. Archery Archery is one of the events that many people think is just an easy martial activity where you pick up any bow and any arrows and shoot. What many people do not realize is that the forces acting on an arrow in flight are many and that an archer must account for these forces to be accurate. The string generates a high force on release that acts on the arrow, it rapidly accelerates and because it acts in the direction of the arrow shaft, the shaft begins to oscillate or fishtail back and forth. We call this the archer s paradox. Archer s must take into consideration the aerodynamic flight of the arrow, Drag, Forward of Center, stability, gravity and weight all affects the arrows accuracy and range. I will try to explain the basic of the science of archer and steps that archers go through to be the best at their craft. Drawing of an arrow at the moment of release. 1

2 Forces Drawing from Archery Equipment.Org Looking at the image above, there are 14 forces acting on and an arrow in flight. Archers try to minimize those forces that lead to inaccurate arrow flight while trying to maximize those forces that increase accuracy. Forward displacement and velocity This is determined by the power of the bow, the weight of the arrow. For any given bow, the only changes the archer can do are change the weight of the arrow and reduce the drag. Stabilizing Spin This is determined by the size of the fletching, offset and helical or straight fletched. More spin means more drag but more stability. Lateral Displacement This can be affected by brace height, and rest position as well as dynamic spine of the arrow. Archer s can tune the bow to minimize these forces. Porpoising This can be affected by nock height. The nocking point for any archer is determined by the basic technique of the archer and the bow they are using, for most archers this does not change over time. Vertical Displacement and Velocity Both gravity and drag affect this force. Gravity being a constant the archer can only affect drag. Gravity does have an effect on up hill or down hill shooting. Fishtailing This force can be affected by brace height, dynamic spine and rest position. Archers tune the bow to minimize the affect of this force. 2

3 Arrow Spine In SCA archery we use wooden arrows in our archery events. Unlike aluminum, fiberglass or carbon shafts, wooden arrows are not manufactured, thus the weight and strength is determined by the diameter of the shaft and the density of the wood. Many woods are used in arrow construction; the most popular are Port Orford Cedar and Sitka Spruce. Arrows must be made for the bow and the archer that will shoot them, every bow has a draw weight that indicates the strength in pounds that is required to hold the bow at full draw, also each archer has a different draw length that affect the draw weight and also the arrow length. An arrow that is too weak will break when the archer shoots it, while one that is to strong will not fly straight. Archers call this strength the spine weight, or "stiffness" of the wood shaft, is the most important characteristic of the wooden arrow shaft. STATIC SPINE is the stiffness of the arrow and its resistance to bending. To determine static spine, the arrow is supported a two points a known distance apart, usually 26 inches, and a 2 pound force is applied to the center of the distance through a weight. The amount of displacement of the center point, how far the arrow bends, determines the spine. There are tables or a gauge that will convert shaft deflection into pounds, a more usual description of the stiffness. This conversion can also be done using the simple formula Spine (in pounds) equals 26 divided by the deflection in inches. Thus a shaft bends half an inch then is it has a 52 pound spine measurement. Arrows with a high spine will not bend as much as arrows with a low spine. Adding an inch to the arrow length will decrease the shaft spine by 3 to 5 pounds, while shortening a shaft will add 2 to 3 pounds of static spine. DYNAMIC SPINE is how much the arrow bends when fired. This depends upon the static spine, string force, fletching, nock weight, point weight and overall length of the arrow. Arrows are often described as "Weak" or "Stiff"; these terms describe the dynamic spine of an arrow on a particular bow. It is more difficult to determine dynamic spine than static spine because so many variables affect the force acting down the shaft. There are some dynamic spine calculators, but the only real way to check an arrows flight is to shoot the arrow off the bow that it is being used for. Arrow fired off a right handed bow hit to the left, they may be to stiff, if they hit to the right, they may be too weak. Dynamic spine can also be affected by point weight. A heavier point effectively weakens the arrow and a lighter point means a stiffer effective arrow. Remember Newton s laws of motion, an object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an external force acts upon it and to every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction. Thus your point is the object. 125 grain is considered the standard by many archers, so increasing your lowering your point tip will change the spine of the arrow. 3

4 Arrow length also affects dynamic spine. For any given spine, a shorter arrow is stiffer than a longer arrow. Therefore shortening an arrow will stiffen it, while a longer arrow will weaken the spine. In conclusion, the arrow must be just right to match the forces that act on the arrow at release, the draw weight of the bow, the draw length, and the archer's shooting technique. This is just the first step determining the right arrow for any given archer. Aerodynamics First we will look at some basics, the more powerful the bow the faster it throws the arrow, thus the less time it is in the air, the more direct route to the target and the less it is affected by wind and atmospheric conditions. The instant an arrow leaves the string it is at its maximum velocity. In tests done with both heavy arrows and light arrows, we find that the light arrows slow down at a faster rate then the heavy arrow, about 40% faster. A heavy arrow will also maintain kinetic energy better than light arrows at any given distance. Example: 326 grain and a 580 grain arrow fired from the same bow. 326gr Speed (fps) 326gr KE Yards 580gr KE 580gr Speed (fps) ft/lbs 0 76 ft/lbs ft/lbs ft/lbs ft/lbs ft/lbs 235 Net loss for the light arrow was 17 fps or 5.3% of initial speed. The heavy arrow only lost 8 fps over the same distance or 3.2 % of initial speed. This shows that a lighter arrow will have a higher initial velocity but a slightly heavier arrow will push through the air better at the expense of having to aim higher at longer distances. This is a balance that every archer must understand and take into account with the type of shooting they will be doing. For most archers there is a limit to our strength, thus there is a limit to what we can pull, in the type of bows used in the SCA. Remember that a 40 pound bow means that the archer is holding 40 pounds of force when at full draw trying to stabilize the bow and aim. Modern compound bows have a let down weight that is determined by the cam shape and size, an example may be a bow of 80 pounds is only 30 pounds after the cam let down, thus a compound shooter will shot a more powerful bow than most stick bow shooters. As soon as the arrow leaves the bow forces start to affect the flight of the arrow, If we minimize the forces with proper tuning we get down to the most basic forces of drag and gravity. The archer can not affect gravity so this will be removed from our discussion. 4

5 Drawing from Physics of Archery SHEAR DRAG is a result of the arrow's moving through the air. Energy is expended to move the air out of the way so that the arrow can pass. As the arrow pushes on the air, the air pushes on the arrow, thus resistance to the movement of the arrow or drag. Shear drag is proportional to the velocity of the object and the size and shape of the object. FORM DRAG results in a force pushing perpendicular to the direction of flight when applied along side shear drag, sometimes called lift. A layer of turbulent, lower-pressure air is caused by the movement of the arrow through the air creating a wake. This wake steals energy from the arrow but creates a force which pushes the arrow upwards like the lift of an airplane; perpendicular to its path of flight. Archers can affect these two forces in several ways by changing the way arrows are made. Drag acting upon the fletching stabilizes the arrow in flight. Larger fletching will slow the arrow down with more shear drag, but respond better to form drag. This makes the arrow more stable and increases accuracy at shorter distances but effect how far the arrow can fly. Smaller fletching is less affected by shear drag and won't slow the arrow down as much, but it is more likely to wobble in the air and have less accuracy at shorter distances but the arrow will fly further. Again a balance must be reached between the size of the fletching and the length of the arrow and the style of shooting. 5

6 FORWARD OF CENTER (FOC) is another factor that affects the arrow flight. FOC is measured in how far from the center of the arrow the balance point is located; it is usually described as a percentage. An arrow that is tip-light or with neutral FOC will remain a little more level in flight and will actually plane or sail along a flatter trajectory than an arrow of the same weight with a heavier nose or higher FOC would. The trade off is that the closer the center of gravity gets to the physical center of the arrow, the less stable the arrow becomes. An arrow pivots around its center of mass (balance point) and the farther the balance point is from the fletching, the more leverage the fletching will have and the quicker it can bring the arrow back on line. The shorter the arrow one shoots, the higher the FOC should be because shorter arrows are inherently less stable in flight. A finger release also adds to arrow instability, especially in initial flight, so finger shooters find that a high FOC is beneficial. Another benefit to a high FOC is that the arrow will stabilize from relative smaller fletching thus less drag and longer shots. While there doesn't seem to be a magic number for FOC, it is generally accepted that the optimal FOC balance for an arrow is somewhere between 8% and 16%. Feathers All arrows used in SCA shoots must use feathers. In order for the fletching to correct the flight of the arrow, they must move the arrow into a straighter flight path by rotating the shaft about the center of balance. Feather shape and size can have an incredible effect on arrow performance. Longer feathers will produce more spin, faster stabilization and more short range accuracy. Short feathers produce less drag, thus maintain velocity better and are often used on flight arrows where accuracy is not as important. Shield feathers are higher profile and stabilize faster while parabolic will be faster down range. Feather makes have conducted flight tests that have shown there is no difference in speed between parabolic and shield feathers of the same length out to about 40 yards. While Banana shaped feathers provided maximum stabilization and were designed for heavy arrows at short range. Feather selection should be tuned to the style of shooting that the archer is doing. Some archers go so far as have arrows with different feathers in their quiver. Up Hill and Down Hill Shooting As we talked about gravity earlier, it is a constant and we can not change the effect it has on an arrows flight. Gravity does come into play when shooting at an angle. Learning to shoot effectively up and down hills is another aspect of the science of archery. 6

7 Drawing from Traditional Bowhunter As you can see from the drawing the effective distance when shooting up hill or down hill is not the same. Simple physics show that gravity only affects the arrow over the actual linier distance from the archery to the target. So many archers aim for the target taking into account the perceived distance and miss high. Conclusion Archery is not just picking up a bow, some arrows and shooting. Archers test many factors to produce the most accurate bow and arrow combination. The type of wood the arrow is made from, the spine, weight, what type of fletching to use and how heavy the point must be to get the correct FOC. The wood that the arrow is made from and the length of the arrow both affects the weight of the arrow and the spine. The size and shape of the fletching affect the amount of drag and the stability of the arrows in flight. The weight of the arrow components determines the FOC and the stability of the arrow. Talk to the best archers and you will find that they have spent almost as much time on getting the arrows right for their bow as they have spent in practicing. There is no perfect solution, so most of us spend time trying different combinations to get that almost perfect setup that will when combined with proper shooting form give us the best overall accuracy. 7

8 References Shooting the Stickbow by Anthony Camera Published by Virtualbookworm.com Publishing, 2008 Beginners Guide to Traditional Archery by Brian J. Sorrells Published by Stackpole Books, Web sites

### The Mechanics of Arrow Flight 101 By Daniel Grundman Flex-Fletch

The Mechanics of Arrow Flight 101 By Daniel Grundman Flex-Fletch Thunk! The arrow you just released from your bow has hit its target. Or has it? Due to a number of factors, your arrow may or may not have

### Arrow Making 101. Lord Janyn Fletcher

Arrow Making 101 Lord Janyn Fletcher WWW.Janynfletcher.com University, 2011 CLASS AGENDA Introduction Advantages of Arrow Making Components Review Spine Explained Forward of Center Explained Arrow Design

### Bow Tuning. Objectives. Roles for Teen and Junior Leaders. Parental Involvement

Basic Archery Lesson 7 Bow Tuning Ronald A. Howard Jr. * Objectives Participating youth and adults will: 1. Understand the principles of bow tuning. 2. Set up a bow for their shooting style and purposes.

### Trueflight's Feather Facts

Problems with arrow flight? Want more accuracy and higher arrow speed? Easier bow tuning? Bob Link and Peter Roemer present: Trueflight's Feather Facts Straight answers from the world leaders in arrow

### FITA Coach s Manual. RECURVE BOW EQUIPMENT TUNING Module. Intermediate Level

FITA Coach s Manual RECURVE BOW EQUIPMENT TUNING Module Intermediate Level FITA Coaching Manual Intermediate Level Module RECURVE BOW EQUIPMENT TUNING Introduction, to tuning competitive recurve bows There

### ARROW TUNING AND MAINTENANCE GUIDE

ARROW TUNING AND MAINTENANCE GUIDE The Complete Archer s Resource 2nd Edition \$2.50 Tuning This section includes step-by-step tuning procedures for obtaining optimum performance and accuracy from your

### HIGH SCHOOL LESSON GUIDE

HIGH SCHOOL LESSON GUIDE THE PHYSICS OF BECOMING AN ARCHERY SUPERHERO GRADE LEVELS - High School 9 12 CONTENT AREA Physical Science UNIT THEME Physics of Archery TOPICS Potential Energy Conversions TIME

### FITA BEGINNERS MANUAL. Red. Feather

Red Feather 11 CURRICULUM FOR THE FITA RED FEATHER AWARD PERFORMANCE: From a shooting distance of 6 meters, you must achieve a minimum of 12 hits, out of 15 arrows (5 ends of 3 arrows) shot at an 80cm

### After 5 years of selling the Liberty bow, I have formed some definite opinions on arrows.

My opinion on arrows: After 5 years of selling the Liberty bow, I have formed some definite opinions on arrows. There are only two bows that allow you to shoot light arrows, that is the High Country Bows

### Archery Level 2 Accessories

Archery Level 2 Accessories The following items or accessories can help considerably when it comes to consistently delivering an arrow to a target. Stabilizers: Stabilizers help reduce hand shock, bow

### The Mechanics of Arrow Flight upon Release

The Mechanics of Arrow Flight upon Release Lieu, D.K. University of California, Berkeley Kim, Jinho and Kim, Ki Chan Korea National Sport University, Seoul Abstract The dynamic behavior of arrows upon

### TRUEFLIGHT FEATHERS Fletching Guide

Home - Feathers Vs Vanes - Fletching Guide - Products - Examples - Buying - Distributors - Flu-Flu Instructions - Newsletter - FAQ TRUEFLIGHT FEATHERS Fletching Guide What size feathers should I use? In

### Design Considerations for Water-Bottle Rockets. The next few pages are provided to help in the design of your water-bottle rocket.

Acceleration= Force OVER Mass Design Considerations for Water-Bottle Rockets The next few pages are provided to help in the design of your water-bottle rocket. Newton s First Law: Objects at rest will

### The Technical Archer. Austin Wargo

The Technical Archer Austin Wargo May 14, 2010 Abstract A mathematical model of the interactions between a long bow and an arrow. The model uses the Euler-Lagrange formula, and is based off conservation

### Aerovane II. Flight Test. Jeffrey Bailey. Which arrow works best with your bow using Aerovane II? January 10-11, 2009

Jan. 11, 2009 Aerovane II Which arrow works best with your bow using Aerovane II? January 10-11, 2009 Jeffrey Bailey Jan 10 Jan 11 Tested multiple arrow functionalities using Aerovane II. Continue testing

### Tuning Longbows and Recurves

A & H Archery Inc. www.acsbows.com Page 1 of 11 Tuning Longbows and Recurves Reproduced with Permission of OL Adock One of the reasons many folks enjoy shooting traditional equipment is the simplicity.

### B) 286 m C) 325 m D) 367 m Answer: B

Practice Midterm 1 1) When a parachutist jumps from an airplane, he eventually reaches a constant speed, called the terminal velocity. This means that A) the acceleration is equal to g. B) the force of

### Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry

### TUNING A LONG BOW. All the illustrations are for the right-handed archer. Our left-handed brethren are clever enough to work it out for themselves.

TUNING A LONG BOW The purpose of this paper is to act as a guide for Long Bow archers and coaches. It contains some rules of thumb, which spells ROT so do not expect them to always be the answer. Good

### SCIENCE OF SHOOTING POWERPOINT

SCIENCE OF SHOOTING POWERPOINT jimsolumsos@yahoo.com PowerPoint based on the Dr. Jim Solum Science of Shooting books Copyright 2011 1 CHAPTER 12part II FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 59 Slides Dr. Jim Solum Copyright

### EQUIPMENT SET UP RECURVE BOW

EQUIPMENT SET UP RECURVE BOW Archery Australia Inc Coaching and Standards Committee Proudly Sponsored By EQUIPMENT SET UP RECURVE BOW It is important that equipment to be used must be set up correctly

### Welcome to the family of Hoyt USA!

INTRODUCTION Welcome to the family of Hoyt USA! As a member of an elite team, you will be pleased to know that you have purchased the finest crafted, most dependable bow on the market. Only the finest

### Introduction to Basic Archery

Introduction to Basic Archery Archery includes a complex set of activities, from backyard target shooting to formal or field competitions, from family fun to bow hunting and bow fishing, or even the Olympic

### AMO STANDARDS. AMO Standards Committee FIELD PUBLICATION FP-3 2000. Prepared by: AMO Standards Committee Norb Mullaney, Chairman.

AMO Standards Committee FIELD PUBLICATION FP-3 2000 AMO STANDARDS Published by: ARCHERY MANUFACTURERS AND MERCHANTS ORGANIZATION 4131 NW 28TH LANE, #7 GAINESVILLE, FL 32606 (352) 377-8262 phone www.amo-archery.org

### The error patterns described below relate to right-handed archers. For left-handed archers, the left and right error causes should be reversed.

The error patterns described below relate to right-handed archers. For left-handed archers, the left and right error causes should be reversed. High Errors Low Errors Right Errors Arrow Patterns - Equipment

### *The steps described are for the right-handed person; adjustments will need to be made for a lefthander.

Archery Study Guide History The origin of archery is unknown; however, archery has been an activity with varied objectives for human beings since the beginning of recorded history. The successful use of

### with three small holes to supply an indexing head, and is prevented from slipping by means of a piece of spring wire. One feather

OR LEATHER a perfect fifty-four or take your archery with a dash of small game hunting, you will find keen enjoyment in this ancient sport. Making the tackle is simple. Size of tackle: The first thing

### GETTING STARTED. Fletching: These are the vanes on the arrow. The vanes help the arrow fly straight.

Terminology GETTING STARTED Bow Hand: The hand that thw archer uses to hold the bow while shooting Right (left) handed archers hold the bow with their left (right) hands. Draw Hand/Arm: The hand/arm the

### Rex Compound Bow OWNERS MANUAL. Southalnd Archery Supply.

Rex Compound Bow OWNERS MANUAL Southalnd Archery Supply www.southlandarchery.com ...CONTENT GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS BOW MAINTENANCE SAFETEY COMPOUND BOW TERMS THE SETUP NOCKING POINT SIGHT ADJUSTMENT

### a. Bow, arrows, strings and accessories shall be free from sights, marks, blemishes or laminations which could be used for aiming.

a. Bow, arrows, strings and accessories shall be free from sights, marks, blemishes or laminations which could be used for aiming. b. An adjustable arrow rest may be used to control the space between the

### Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Conceptual Questions 1) Which of Newton's laws best explains why motorists should buckle-up? A) the first law

### Beginning Archery in the S.C.A. by THL Robin Arthur Kyrke, Forester

Beginning Archery in the S.C.A. by THL Robin Arthur Kyrke, Forester You step up to the line, standing shoulder-to-shoulder with your fellows. Carefully you select an arrow and bring it to rest across the

### Unit 4 Practice Test: Rotational Motion

Unit 4 Practice Test: Rotational Motion Multiple Guess Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. How would an angle in radians be converted to an angle

### ARCHERY Environmental Education Lesson EDWARDS CAMP AND CONFERENCE CENTER

ARCHERY Environmental Education Lesson EDWARDS CAMP AND CONFERENCE CENTER SUMMARY Students will learn the parts of a bow and arrow, and archery techniques and safety. They practice what they learn, shooting

### UNITED STATES NATIONAL ARCHERY ASSOCIATION FLIGHT COMMITTEE COMPOUND BOW REGULAR AND TARGET FLIGHT RULES

UNITED STATES NATIONAL ARCHERY ASSOCIATION FLIGHT COMMITTEE COMPOUND BOW REGULAR AND TARGET FLIGHT RULES A. Compound Bows: Bows so constructed that a mechanical advantage is obtained by the use of accessory

### 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was

### Topics on Archery Mechanics. Joe Tapley

Topics on Archery Mechanics Joe Tapley Topics on Archery Mechanics Introduction The basic physics of archery has in principle been understood for around 80 years. The last topic to be theoretically described

### EDUH 1017 - SPORTS MECHANICS

4277(a) Semester 2, 2011 Page 1 of 9 THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY EDUH 1017 - SPORTS MECHANICS NOVEMBER 2011 Time allowed: TWO Hours Total marks: 90 MARKS INSTRUCTIONS All questions are to be answered. Use

### Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

### Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight

Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: What is the Law of Universal Gravitation? A: Everything in the universe has gravity.

### Force & Motion. Force & Mass. Friction

1 2 3 4 Next Force & Motion The motion of an object can be changed by an unbalanced force. The way that the movement changes depends on the strength of the force pushing or pulling and the mass of the

### 356 CHAPTER 12 Bob Daemmrich

Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

### ARCHERY PACKET # 7 INSTRUCTIONS INTRODUCTION

ARCHERY PACKET # 7 INSTRUCTIONS This Learning Packet has two parts: (1) text to read and (2) questions to answer. The text describes a particular sport or physical activity, and relates its history, rules,

### sergeant COMPOUND Bow

sergeant COMPOUND Bow OWNERS MANUAL Southalnd Archery Supply www.southlandarchery.com ...CONTENT GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS BOW MAINTENANCE SAFETEY COMPOUND BOW TERMS THE SETUP NOCKING POINT SIGHT

### Momentum, Kinetic Energy, and Arrow Penetration (And What They Mean for the Bowhunter) By Dr. Ed Ashby. Prologue

Momentum, Kinetic Energy, and Arrow Penetration (And What They Mean for the Bowhunter) By Dr. Ed Ashby Prologue To understand the relationship between an arrow s kinetic energy, its momentum, and their

### Physics Section 3.2 Free Fall

Physics Section 3.2 Free Fall Aristotle Aristotle taught that the substances making up the Earth were different from the substance making up the heavens. He also taught that dynamics (the branch of physics

### Chapter 7 Momentum and Impulse

Chapter 7 Momentum and Impulse Collisions! How can we describe the change in velocities of colliding football players, or balls colliding with bats?! How does a strong force applied for a very short time

### Simple Machines. Figure 2: Basic design for a mousetrap vehicle

Mousetrap Vehicles Figure 1: This sample mousetrap-powered vehicle has a large drive wheel and a small axle. The vehicle will move slowly and travel a long distance for each turn of the wheel. 1 People

### Biomechanical Analysis of the Deadlift (aka Spinal Mechanics for Lifters) Tony Leyland

Biomechanical Analysis of the Deadlift (aka Spinal Mechanics for Lifters) Tony Leyland Mechanical terminology The three directions in which forces are applied to human tissues are compression, tension,

### Chapter 3 Falling Objects and Projectile Motion

Chapter 3 Falling Objects and Projectile Motion Gravity influences motion in a particular way. How does a dropped object behave?!does the object accelerate, or is the speed constant?!do two objects behave

### The Fastest And Most Accurate Bows In The World. Celebrating 60 Years of Archery Excellence. Bow Manual. *Lifetime Warranty

The Fastest And Most Accurate Bows In The World Celebrating 60 Years of Archery Excellence Bow Manual *Lifetime Warranty Owner's Record Bow Model: Date Purchased: Cam Style: Draw Weight: Draw Length: String

### Developing Proper Archery Shooting Form

Basic Archery Lesson 2 Developing Proper Archery Shooting Form Ronald A. Howard Jr. * Objectives Participating youth and adults will: 1. Demonstrate and practice the fundamentals of proper archery shooting

### CROSSBOW INSTRUCTIONS

CROSSBOW INSTRUCTIONS WARNING: USE ONLY PSE TAC CROSSBOW ARROWS. USING OTHER ARROWS WILL CAUSE PERSONAL INJURY AND DAMAGE TO THE CROSSBOW. NEVER modify any part of this crossbow or any of its components

### Alpine Archery Owner s Manual

Alpine Archery Owner s Manual 2 www.alpinearchery.com Thank you for choosing Alpine... Thank you for buying an Alpine bow! All of us at Alpine are confident you will have many years of enjoyable shooting

### Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits

Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits MOTION IN SPACE VS. MOTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE The motion of objects in the atmosphere differs in three important ways from the motion of objects in space. First,

### Controlling Bow Behaviour

Controlling Bow Behaviour with Stabilisers Steve Ellison CONTENTS: Controlling Bow Behaviour with Stabilisers 1 Introduction 1 What behaviour needs controlling? 2 Bow movement 2 Timing - When is movement

### skiing and external forces 3.1 force internal forces external forces 3.1.1 managing the forces

skiing and external forces 3 Ski instructors should not underestimate the importance of understanding the principles that make a ski speed up, slow down, or change direction. This chapter defines some

### CHAPTER 1 ARROW BALLISTICS FROM SINGLE SHOT TO COURSE REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 1 ARROW BALLISTICS FROM SINGLE SHOT TO COURSE REQUIREMENTS ARROW FLIGHT - BALLISTICS The Oxford Dictionary defines ballistics as "the science of projectiles." Unfortunately, this leads to thoughts

### 5.1 Vector and Scalar Quantities. A vector quantity includes both magnitude and direction, but a scalar quantity includes only magnitude.

Projectile motion can be described by the horizontal ontal and vertical components of motion. In the previous chapter we studied simple straight-line motion linear motion. Now we extend these ideas to

### What is a Mouse-Trap

What is a Mouse-Trap Car and How does it Work? A mouse-trap car is a vehicle that is powered by the energy that can be stored in a wound up mouse-trap spring. The most basic design is as follows: a string

### EXTERIOR BALLISTICS OF BOWS AND ARROWS. By W. J. Rheingans

EXTERIOR BALLISTICS OF BOWS AND ARROWS By W. J. Rheingans Exterior Ballistics of Bows and Arrows deals with the flight of an arrow after it leaves the bow. This article is concerned primarily with the

### Wind Turbines. Wind Turbines 2. Wind Turbines 4. Wind Turbines 3. Wind Turbines 5. Wind Turbines 6

Wind Turbines 1 Wind Turbines 2 Introductory Question Wind Turbines You and a child half your height lean out over the edge of a pool at the same angle. If you both let go simultaneously, who will tip

### Supplemental Questions

Supplemental Questions The fastest of all fishes is the sailfish. If a sailfish accelerates at a rate of 14 (km/hr)/sec [fwd] for 4.7 s from its initial velocity of 42 km/h [fwd], what is its final velocity?

### Force Concept Inventory

Revised form 081695R Force Concept Inventory Originally published in The Physics Teacher, March 1992 by David Hestenes, Malcolm Wells, and Gregg Swackhamer Revised August 1995 by Ibrahim Halloun, Richard

### Archery Merit Badge. RULE #1 and MOST IMPORTANT DON T SHOOT THE RANGE MASTER. Instructors:

Archery Merit Badge RULE #1 and MOST IMPORTANT DON T SHOOT THE RANGE MASTER Instructors: Do the following: Requirements from the 2013 print of the Archery MB State and explain the Range Safety Rules. Three

### Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 4: NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Newton s Laws of Motion I was only a scalar until you came along and gave me direction. Barbara Wolfe This lecture will help you understand:

### Thank You, Gail Martin Founder and President Martin Archery Inc.

Welcome to the Martin Archery Family. We are confident that you will experience many years of enjoyment from your new Martin bow. Each bow that leaves our door is handmade one at a time as they have been

### Compound Tech Manual. *Lifetime Warranty 1

Compound Tech Manual *Lifetime Warranty 1 Welcome to the Martin Archery Family. We are confident that you will experience many years of enjoyment from your new Martin bow. Each bow that leaves our door

### Projectile Motion 1:Horizontally Launched Projectiles

A cannon shoots a clown directly upward with a speed of 20 m/s. What height will the clown reach? How much time will the clown spend in the air? Projectile Motion 1:Horizontally Launched Projectiles Two

### Lecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy. Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014

Lecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014 Announcements Schedule next few weeks: 9/08 Unit 3 9/10 Unit 4 9/15 Unit 5 (guest lecturer) 9/17 Unit 6 (guest lecturer) 9/22 Unit 7,

### III. Applications of Force and Motion Concepts. Concept Review. Conflicting Contentions. 1. Airplane Drop 2. Moving Ball Toss 3. Galileo s Argument

III. Applications of Force and Motion Concepts Concept Review Conflicting Contentions 1. Airplane Drop 2. Moving Ball Toss 3. Galileo s Argument Qualitative Reasoning 1. Dropping Balls 2. Spinning Bug

### PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,

### Free Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing Ping-Pong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide)

Free Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing Ping-Pong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide) 2012 WARD S Science v.11/12 OVERVIEW Students will measure

### LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

55 Name Date Partners LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies by the attraction

### Physics 100 Friction Lab

Åsa Bradley SFCC Physics Name: AsaB@spokanefalls.edu 509 533 3837 Lab Partners: Physics 100 Friction Lab Two major types of friction are static friction and kinetic (also called sliding) friction. Static

### KE =? v o. Page 1 of 12

Page 1 of 12 CTEnergy-1. A mass m is at the end of light (massless) rod of length R, the other end of which has a frictionless pivot so the rod can swing in a vertical plane. The rod is initially horizontal

### Newton's Laws of Motion in Motion

Newton's Laws of Motion in Motion Objectives: Students will use simple techniques to demonstrate Newton's 1 st and 3 rd Laws of Motion. Students will demonstrate their understanding of thrust, drag, lift,

### Compound Bow Owners Manual

Compound Bow Owners Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Bow Owners Personal Record...2 2. Compound Bow Terminology...3 3. Important Infomation...4 4. Compound Bow Maintenance Schedule Strings and Cables...6 Bow

### Physics 2101, First Exam, Fall 2007

Physics 2101, First Exam, Fall 2007 September 4, 2007 Please turn OFF your cell phone and MP3 player! Write down your name and section number in the scantron form. Make sure to mark your answers in the

### MAXIMA HUNTER HERITAGE HUNTING ARROW. shafts carbonexpressarrows.com

MAXIMA HUNTER Maxima Hunter Mathews edition Maxima Blue Streak Maxima Blue Streak Select Mayhem Hunter Mayhem Hot Pursuit Mayhem Piledriver Hunter Piledriver PASS THRU EXTREME Mutiny Mutiny SLASHER Predator

### HITTING A BASEBALL IT S ALL IN THE PHYSICS

HITTING A BASEBALL IT S ALL IN THE PHYSICS It has been said that our entire life is ruled by physics. This sounds pretty logical when you realize that physics, in its most specific sense, is a science

### 2 Newton s First Law of Motion Inertia

2 Newton s First Law of Motion Inertia Conceptual Physics Instructor Manual, 11 th Edition SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 2 RANKING 1. C, B, A 2. C, A, B, D 3. a. B, A, C, D b. B, A, C, D 4. a. A=B=C (no force)

### Master Quiz for Archery

Must be turned in by time required to participate in the Knowledge Name: Circle the correct answer. 1. True/False: The Belly or face is the side of the bow away from the archer, when shooting. 2. True/False:

### Work, Energy and Power Practice Test 1

Name: ate: 1. How much work is required to lift a 2-kilogram mass to a height of 10 meters?. 5 joules. 20 joules. 100 joules. 200 joules 5. ar and car of equal mass travel up a hill. ar moves up the hill

### Thank You, Gail Martin Founder and President Martin Archery Inc.

Welcome to the Martin Archery Family. We are confident that you will experience many years of enjoyment from your new Martin bow. Each bow that leaves our door is handmade one at a time as they have been

### MECHANICS, MOTION AND MOVEMENT

MECHANICS, MOTION AND MOVEMENT Motion LINEAR MOTION - When a body moves in a straight or curved line, with all its parts moving the same distance, in the same direction and at the same speed. E.g. Linear

### Lesson Plan: Propellers, Forces and Energy

Lesson Plan: Propellers, Forces and Energy Grade Level: 7-8 Subject Area: Time Required: Science Preparation: 1 50-minute period Activity: 2 50-minute periods National Standards Correlation: Science (grades

### LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

L06-1 Name Date Partners LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES OBJECTIVES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies

### Notes: Mechanics. The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy

Notes: Mechanics The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy I. Force A push or pull. a) A force is needed to change an object s state of motion. b) Net force- The sum (addition) of all the forces acting on an

### ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration

CHAPTER 3 ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration LEARNING TARGET: You will determine the relationship between mass, acceleration, and gravitational force. PURPOSE: So far in the course, you ve

### Projectile motion simulator. http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph11e/projectile.htm

More Chapter 3 Projectile motion simulator http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph11e/projectile.htm The equations of motion for constant acceleration from chapter 2 are valid separately for both motion in the x

### Work, Energy & Momentum Homework Packet Worksheet 1: This is a lot of work!

Work, Energy & Momentum Homework Packet Worksheet 1: This is a lot of work! 1. A student holds her 1.5-kg psychology textbook out of a second floor classroom window until her arm is tired; then she releases

### 2007 Study Update, Part 3 By Dr. Ed Ashby

2007 Study Update, Part 3 By Dr. Ed Ashby The 2007 testing was primarily devoted to two areas; Internal Footings (IF's) and the effect of Extreme FOC on penetration. FOC testing used three longbows; 82#@27",

### 9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J

1. If the kinetic energy of an object is 16 joules when its speed is 4.0 meters per second, then the mass of the objects is (1) 0.5 kg (3) 8.0 kg (2) 2.0 kg (4) 19.6 kg Base your answers to questions 9

### Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws

Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws What happens when you kick a soccer ball? The kick is the external force that Newton was talking about in his first law of motion. What happens to the ball after you kick it?