HIGH SCHOOL LESSON GUIDE

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1 HIGH SCHOOL LESSON GUIDE THE PHYSICS OF BECOMING AN ARCHERY SUPERHERO GRADE LEVELS - High School 9 12 CONTENT AREA Physical Science UNIT THEME Physics of Archery TOPICS Potential Energy Conversions TIME REQUIRED: 6 Minutes video 20 minutes class discussion 2 hours research LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: It is important for students to understand the physics involved in the conversion of a bow s stored potential energy into the kinetic energy of an arrow. 2. CONTENT OBJECTIVES: Students will develop an understanding of key vocabulary words related to the physics of archery. 3. LEARNER OBJECTIVES: Students will describe how different types of bows can convert stored potential energy into varying degrees of kinetic energy into a launched arrow. They will also compare and contrast the physics of how the various bow designs exhibit different force/draw curves. 4. PROCESS OBJECTIVES: Students will work in groups to process new information and use research and evidence to come to conclusions. 1

2 LESSON GUIDE TO COMPANION THE VIDEO MATERIALS NEEDED (each group, each student): 1. Video Online at 2. Notebooks for students to write down questions, take notes during the video and during their research 3. Graph paper for groups to use during their research 4. Calculator for research calculations 5. Access and permission to conduct research at an archery shop or club with; Longbow, recurve, and compound bows Arrows (matched to the bows) Bow scale Arrow grain scale Chronograph Safe shooting area and backstop TEACHER BACKGROUND Special Note to Teachers and Students: To perform this activity to its fullest, you can locate an archery retailer near you at If doing research at an archery shop or club is impractical, you can replace or supplement this exercise with Internet access for online research. The homemade longbows of pioneers in American archery eventually gave way to the laminated recurve bow, with limbs that both unfolded and bent back during the draw. This increased the conversion of stored energy when the bow was shot. The conversion of a bow s stored energy really changed with the invention and refinement of the compound bow in the late 1960 s and early 1970 s. Today s Bows Today we have three types of commercially produced bows commonly used in archery and bowhunting that blend both the past and the present. 1. The longbow is made of laminated wood and fiberglass with varying limb shapes from straight to slight deflexed and reflexed. 2. The recurve bow is made from laminated wood and fiberglass with pronounced recurved limbs. 3. The compound bow is made from a variety of substances that employs the mechanics of cams and cables to alter the energy conversion of the short limb s stored energy. This creates let-off that allows the archer to hold and aim the bow at full draw with much less weight than the bow s peak draw weight. 2

4 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Because the research in this activity involves actual shooting of bows and arrows while recording data, the activity is richest when completed in groups with results shared and discussed with the whole class. VOCABULARY: 1. Longbow: A traditional style bow with straight limbs that bend in a single uniform arch. 2. Recurve bow: A traditional style bow with limbs that recurve forward near the limb tips. 3. Compound bow: A modern bow that uses cables, cams and pulley system to alter the force-draw curve and shooting performance of the bows relatively short limbs. 4. Potential energy: The energy stored in the bow s limbs and string from the archers muscles drawing the bow. 5. Kinetic energy: the energy of a moving object relative to its mass and speed (as in an arrow) 6. Chronograph: an electronic device that measures the speed of a moving object (as in an arrow in feet-per-second) 4

5 PROCEDURE HOW TO WORK THROUGH YOUR SUPERHERO CHALLENGE: 1. Before watching the video, ask students what forces they think a bow uses to launch an arrow. Discuss as a class what bow characteristics might be important to a theoretical archery superhero. If students need more guidance, ask them to describe the process of shooting a bow and arrow. Lead the class into a discussion about how different bow designs might convert different amounts of stored potential energy into arrow velocity and kinetic energy. 2. Tell students to write down questions they have while watching the video. Some important questions to consider and discuss include: What are the differences between the three types of bows? What role does an archer introduce into the physics of archery? What is potential energy and how does it relate to kinetic energy? 3. After viewing the video, ask students to share any questions they wrote down and discuss the questions together as a class. If students missed some important questions, be sure to discuss the concepts with the class. 4. Divide the class in research groups of 6 to 8 students. Distribute any students with archery experience evenly between the groups. 5. Have groups locate and get permission from a local archery shop or archery clubs to help with their research. (Depending on the research groups, access to the three types of bows at an archery shop or club with a bow scale, and a chronograph for measuring arrow velocity (speed), they may have to adapt their gathering of data to research on the Internet.) However, even shooting one of the three types of bows and recording the data will take the group through the physics exercise and calculations of determining the percent of efficiency of the bow s conversion of potential energy into the arrow s kinetic energy. Note: You can locate an archery retailer near you at If doing research at an archery shop or club is impractical, replace or supplement this exercise with Internet access for online research. 5

7 PROCEDURE CONTINUED - CALCULATIONS: STEP 1 - Now let s calculate the foot-pounds of kinetic energy that is delivered into the arrow. Here s the formula: KE= wv2/450,240 w is the weight of the arrow in grains (use a grain scale) v is the velocity of the arrow in feet-per-second ( fps taken from the average of your 3 chronograph speeds). The number 450,240 is the denominator that converts everything from fps and grains into footpounds (ft-lbs.) of kinetic energy. For example; if you were testing 45-pound draw weight compound bow, you would use an arrow that weighs 400 grains. (45 pounds times 9 grains per pound = 400 grains). Now let s say that the average of three shots through the chronograph was 250 feet-per-second (fps). KE= wv2/450,240 KE = [(400)(250²)]/450,240 KE = 25,000,000/450,240 KE = ft-lbs STEP 2 - Now for the cool part. Let s estimate the bow s relative efficiency using this simplified formula; The bow s peak draw weight/kinetic Energy 45/ =.81 In other words, that bow was about 81% efficient. (Note that professional archery engineers use much more sophisticated formulas that include the bow s total PE to calculate a bow s true efficiency). 9. So what does that relative efficiency percent suggest? Somehow, the bow converted 45 pounds of stored potential energy into pounds of kinetic energy. You ll see how that compares after you ve completed the same testing on the longbow and the recurve (all three types of bows). 10. Groups should discuss their research procedure and results with the entire class, comparing differences. Be sure to also discuss the concept of a bow s PE as it relates to the total area under the force-draw curve. Also compare and contrast the location of the different bows peak draw weight in the different force draw curves. 7

8 ASSESSMENT: Students will be informally assessed on their understanding of archery energy conversions through their small and whole group discussions during the lesson. Students will also be formally assessed on their ability to explain their understanding of the concepts explored during their research and energy calculations. EXTENDED LEARNING: 1. Have students research the modern archery uses of various types of bows and compare and contrast the advantages of each (competitive target archery, bowhunting, bowfishing) 2. Divide the class into three groups and assign each group a different type of bow. Have them take part in a classroom debate on the advantages of their bow type in three Superhero Scenarios take from movies that feature archer heroes (Avatar, Hunger Games, Avengers) 3. Based on their archery shop or club research, have students design a Superhero Archery Challenge that would demonstrate the differences in the three types of bows. REFERENCES: Arrow Energy Converstions Bow Efficiency arrows_selection_guide_chapter_5.htm EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS: Teachers: Please evaluate this guide for the Educational Standards in your state. We encourage you to please those standards to us so we can add them to this web page. 8

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