EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES: A COMPARISON OF THREE TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANIES IN TAIWAN

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1 International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control ICIC International c 2012 ISSN Volume 8, Number 4, April 2012 pp EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES: A COMPARISON OF THREE TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANIES IN TAIWAN Li-Jen Yang 1, Tzu-Chuan Chou 1 and Ji-Feng Ding 2, 1 Department of Information Management National Taiwan Univerity of Science and Technology No. 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan { D ; tcchou 2 Department of Aviation and Maritime Tranportation Management Chang Jung Chritian Univerity No. 396, Sec. 1, Chang-Rong Rd., Gui-Ren, Tainan County 711, Taiwan Correponding author: Received January 2011; revied May 2011 Abtract. The main purpoe of thi paper i to apply the Lin method modified fuzzy perception-importance (P-I) analyi to evaluate the ervice quality of mobile application tore in Taiwan. A comparion of three major telecommunication companie i empirically tudied baed upon the conumer perpective. To facilitate thi main iue, we elected thirty-three aement attribute of ervice quality in ten dimenion, a baed on the literature and characteritic of conumer in Taiwan. Then, the Lin modified P-I analyi wa applied to evaluate ervice quality for the elected mobile application tore of three telecommunication companie. Finally, the reult of thi tudy how that nine ervice qualitie are valued by all mobile communication uer of three telecommunication companie. Thee ervice qualitie are anwer quetion rapidly, incerity in repone to uer quetion, the importance of olving uer problem, proviion of reliable information, provide the application information required by uer, table network connection ervice, provide precie connection ignal, importance of communication network for uer and mobile phone device allow ucceful tranaction, repectively. Moreover, thi tudy uggeted that, if companie intend to promote their buine development, they mut continuouly improve their ervice quality to promote cutomer atifaction. Keyword: Service quality, Mobile application tore, Modified fuzzy perception-importance (P-I) analyi 1. Introduction. Since the mobile application tore App Store wa introduced by iphone, it ha aumed the lead in the mobile communication application market, leading it cutomer to download their application oftware from the Internet. Thi ha reulted in a large market potential, with very high download rate, rendering mobile application tore the new developmental trend of mart mobile phone application. Therefore, to expand the ervice cope and depth, three telecommunication companie in Taiwan namely, Chunghwa Telecom, Taiwan Mobile and FET net have etablihed mobile application tore, i.e., Hami App, Match Market and S mart, repectively. However, there are very few choice in Chinee oftware available at the iphone App Store or the Google Android Market. Therefore, three telecommunication companie in Taiwan have focued on the Chinee oftware market and introduced variou Chinee oftware application in order to offer uer choice in oftware election. 2563

2 2564 L.-J. YANG, T.-C. CHOU AND J.-F. DING The main purpoe of mobile application tore i to provide conumer with more choice and application interface, epecially when downloading different kind of application oftware. Thu, the impreion of cutomized ervice can be created, and the uer adherence to terminal hardware and application platform can be enhanced. Many operator (e.g., iphone App Store or Google Android Market) think that the ervice of application tore are not aimed at profit, but ait in the ale of intelligent mobile phone and related equipment, thu increaing the added value of mobile phone device. Therefore, it i more important for mobile application tore to perfect their ervice quality, epecially in uch a cutomer ervice oriented competitive market. If an enterprie actively promote it ervice quality, it cutomer atifaction will be improved eventually, thu creating cutomer value [7], increaing the enterprie competitive power and profit, and further guaranteeing the enterprie utainable competitive advantage. Three telecommunication companie in Taiwan have contructed a cro-oftware ervice platform in order to encompa all major mobile phone ytem platform (e.g., iphone App Store, NOKIA Ovi Store, Google Android Market and Window Mobile Marketplace). The current platform upport only the Android ytem, but will extend to other platform in the future. Under the trend of mart mobile phone, whether a mobile application tore win it cutomer depend on undertanding the cutomer need. A the mobile application tore of variou telecommunication companie provide a greater range of ervice election for cutomer, the cutomer become the deciion-maker, rather than the telecommunication companie, and their role will change from the communication ervice provider of the pat to the provider of cutomized ervice meeting cutomer need of oftware, now and in the future. Telecommunication companie in Taiwan ugget that their advantage in operating application tore i the large number of mobile uer (i.e., million 3G uer in Taiwan at March 2011 [24]), and their introduction provide 3G uer with greater choice of application ervice. However, do application tore operated by telecommunication companie in Taiwan meet the uer need? Will ervice quality attract conumer ue and tranaction? Service provider mut enhance their ervice quality, by firt meauring ervice quality, then determining it important factor. From the perpective of marketing, ervice provider ervice quality i the key to cutomer repurchae intention, a well a maintenance of cutomer atifaction and loyalty. Grönroo [10] uggeted that cutomer atifaction i experience accumulation, after demand for ervice quality are atified, and ervice quality i a prerequiite of cutomer atifaction. There i a ignificant correlation between cutomer atifaction and ervice quality. According to the gap analyi model (i.e., PZB model), a propoed by Parauraman, Zeithaml, and Berry in 1985 and 1988 [19, 20], ervice quality depend on the gap between expected ervice and perceived ervice. The model could analyze the ource of ervice quality and ait management to improve ervice quality. The meaurement of ervice quality i a very important reearch ubject in the ervice marketing domain. For example, Deng and Lee [6] evaluated the ervice quality of hotel operator and analyzed improvement priority and ervice quality. Wu et al. [21] uggeted the gap analyi of ervice quality for culture and educational indutrie. Chou and Lu [3] dicued the relation among ervice quality, witching cot, and cutomer loyalty in home-delivery ervice. Lu and Wu [16] dicued the merit and demerit in the ervice quality of the Taiwan High Speed Rail. Since the telecommunication indutry remain a highly competitive indutry in Taiwan, the operator mut notice change in conumer demand and cutomer perception of ervice quality, which i to ay, the telecom ervice provider mut mater cutomer real need in order to develop and provide appropriate

3 EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES 2565 product and ervice. Therefore, the invetigation of the ervice quality required by the cutomer i extraordinarily important for mobile application tore. The topic of the ervice quality of mobile application tore i new and ha high reearch value. Although there are foreign tudie on thi topic, uch a the Lu et al. tudy [17] on the ervice quality of mobile commerce in China; there are few tudie on thi iue in Taiwan. The aement model, a propoed by Lu et al., ha good adaptability and generalizability, and can be directly applied to imilar ervice or reearch on the ervice quality of other type of mobile commerce. Hence, thi tudy baed on the characteritic of Taiwanee conumer and modified Lu et al. cale in order to analyze and compare the ervice quality of mobile application tore in Taiwan. The importance-performance analyi (IPA) approach, a developed by Martilla and Jame [18], ha been ued to ae improvement that meet conumer demand item regarding ervice quality. A the attribute of ervice quality of mobile application tore have multiple criteria [2,4,7,8], and thee criteria, and their importance weight conit of fuzzy and changing characteritic, according to cutomer perception and demand change, they are difficult to expre in exact number. If the traditional meaurement mode i ued to handle the fuzzy nature of criteria weight, which are expected to expre the inaccuracy of deciion-making information and perceived ervice quality, it eem that the implicit information of evaluation criteria cannot be fully expreed. Therefore, thi tudy applie the modified perception-importance analyi method (modified P-I analyi method) propoed by Lin [15], in the meaurement of ervice quality of mobile application tore. The theoretical bai of the modified P-I analyi method i derived from literature review related to the IPA method, fuzzy et theory [22], and multiple criteria, and the tructure of data analyi i contructed baed on practice. Therefore, the modified P-I analyi method i more applicable to thi tudy than the traditional multiple criteria meaurement method, a it can more correctly meaure cutomer evaluation of the ervice quality of mobile application tore. Hence, thi tudy aimed to ue the modified P-I analyi method to invetigate the ervice qualitie valued by mobile communication uer, and identified the ervice qualitie to be maintained or improved. The reult can erve a reference to mobile application tore for improving ervice quality. In ummary, thi tudy aimed to apply the modified P-I analyi method to analyze the ervice quality of mobile application tore of three telecommunication companie in Taiwan. Regarding the academic contribution of thi paper, in addition to increaing the tudie of the ervice quality of emerging application tore, thi paper conclude pecific meaurement indicator for the ervice quality of mobile application tore in Taiwan, and provide a pecific and feaible meaurement method. The remainder of thi paper i organized a follow. Section 2 preent the ervice quality and it attribute. The modified P-I analyi method a the methodology i introduced in the third ection. Conequently, the empirical urvey i tudied. Finally, concluion are made in the lat ection. 2. Service Quality Attribute. Since ervice i intangible, perihable, cannot be tored, and reveal heterogeneity, in comparion to the quality of phyical product, it i more difficult to meaure. However, many cholar (e.g., Cronin and Taylor [5], Grönroo [10], Lewi and Vincent [13], Lu et al. [17], Parauraman et al. [19,20]) have overcome uch obtacle and propoed different aement model able to meaure and tudy ervice quality. Parauraman et al. [19,20] propoed the PZB model, and developed the cale SERVQUAL, with the five contruct of ervice quality, namely, tangible, reliability, reponivene, aurance and empathy. They uggeted that ervice quality i the gap between expected ervice and perceived ervice in ervice delivery. Thi model analyze

4 2566 L.-J. YANG, T.-C. CHOU AND J.-F. DING the ource of ervice quality, which ait management to improve ervice quality. In addition, Cronin and Taylor [5] propoed the cale SERVPERF, which meaure ervice quality according to ervice performance. Lu et al. [17] modified and integrated SERVQUAL and SERVPERF, and applied them to meaure the ervice quality of mobile commerce in China. The model for meauring ervice quality of mobile communication, a propoed by Lu et al., i applicable, and can be directly applied to other imilar ervice or be promoted for tudie of ervice quality of other type of mobile commerce. Thi tudy intend to partially improve the attribute of ervice quality according to the characteritic of Taiwanee conumer [12,14]. According to the cale content of Lu et al. tudy [17], in order to define the characteritic of Taiwanee conumer baed on the opinion of conumer, expert, and cholar regarding mobile communication, thirty-three ervice quality attribute are lited, a hown in Table Methodology. In thi ection, ome of the concept and method ued in thi paper are introduced. Thee include fuzzy et theory and the modified P-I analyi approach Fuzzy et theory. The fuzzy et theory [22] i deigned to deal with the extraction of the primary poible outcome from the multiplicity of information, which i expreed in vague and imprecie term, and treat vague data a poibility ditribution in term of et memberhip. Once determined and defined, the et of memberhip in poibility ditribution can be effectively ued in logical reaoning Triangular fuzzy number. In a univere of dicoure X, the fuzzy ubet A of X i defined by a memberhip function f A (x), which map each element x in X to obtain a real number in the interval [0, 1]. The function value f A (x) repreent the grade of memberhip of x in A. A fuzzy number A [9] in real line R i a triangular fuzzy number if it memberhip function f A : R [0, 1] i (x c)/(a c), c x a f A (x) = (x b)/(a b), a x b 0, otherwie with < c a b <. The triangular fuzzy number can be denoted by (c, a, b). Let A 1 = (c 1, a 1, b 1 ) and A 2 = (c 2, a 2, b 2 ) be fuzzy number [7,8]. According to the extenion principle [22], the algebraic operation of any two fuzzy number A 1 and A 2 can be expreed a 1. Fuzzy addition: A 1 A 2 = (c 1 + c 2, a 1 + a 2, b 1 + b 2 ), 2. Fuzzy multiplication: k A = (kc, ka, kb), k 0, k R, A 1 A 2 = (c1 c 2, a 1 a 2, b 1 b 2 ), c 1 0, c 2 0, 3. Fuzzy diviion: A 1 ØA 2 = (c1 /b 2, a 1 /a 2, b 1 /c 2 ), c 1 0, c 2 > Linguitic value. In fuzzy deciion environment, two preference rating can be ued, namely, fuzzy number and linguitic value characterized by fuzzy number [23]. Depending on practical need, deciion-maker (DM) may apply one or both. In thi paper, the importance degree and atifaction degree are ued to analytically expre the linguitic value, and decribe how important and atifactory the involved ervice quality attribute for cutomer are. The importance degree et i defined a W = {AL, V L, L, M, H, V H, AH} and the atifaction degree et a S = {AP, V P, P, F, G, V G, AG}; where AL=Abolutely Low, VL=Very Low, L=Low, M =Medium, H=High, VH=Very High, AH=Abolutely High,

5 EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES 2567 Table 1. Service quality attribute Dimenion Attribute Explanation and decription A 1. Friendly ervice attitude Service provider are friendly when erving uer. Attitude A 2. Ait cutomer with ue Service provider actively ait uer with uing ervice of application tore (uch a FAQ, forum or communitie). A 3. Recognize uer need Service provider recognize uer demand for oftware and provide appropriate ervice content. Service provider are competent A 4. Competent profeionalim profeional when providing during ervice ervice in application tore. Service provider can immediately repond to uer quetion A 5. Anwer quetion rapidly related to ervice in application Expertie tore (both online and cutomer telephone line). Problem olving Information Equipment A 6. Satify uer demand for application A 7. Sincerity in repone to uer quetion A 8. Cope with problem or complaint A 9. The importance of olving uer problem A 10. Proviion of reliable information A 11. Provide defined ervice time A 12. Provide the application information required by uer A 13. Stable network connection ervice A 14. Provide precie connection ignal A 15. Importance of communication network for uer A 16. Mobile phone device allow uccefultranaction A 17. Immediate repone of mobile phone device A 18. Ability to provide conitent ervice Service provider recognize uer trut in their profeional knowledge and they are able to atify uer demand for application. When uer encounter problem related to ytem or application, ervice provider can incerely repond to quetion. Service provider can directly (indirectly) cope with problem and complaint. Service provider recognize the importance of olving uer problem. Uer can trut the information and decription provided by application tore. Application tore provide defined ervice time (period or deadline) for uer. Application tore provide application information required by uer (downloading time, recommendation, or comment). Tranaction and downloading ervice of application tore are connected and table. When application tore conduct tranaction and downloading ervice, communication network can provide a precie connection ignal. Service provider recognize the importance of communication network for uer of application tore ervice. Uer mart mobile phone device can uccefully accomplih tranaction in overall ervice of application tore. In tranaction of application tore, uer mart mobile phone device can immediately repond. When brand, pecification, or ytem of uer mart mobile phone differ, application tore can provide conitent ervice.

6 2568 L.-J. YANG, T.-C. CHOU AND J.-F. DING Dimenion Attribute Explanation and decription A 19. Impreive interface deign Uer interface deign of application tore impre uer. Application tore uer interface A 20. Satify uer demand in deign can atify uer interface operational and ue demand. Deign Situation Punctuality Tangible Valence A 21. Importance of interface deign for uer A 22. Satify uer communication need A 23. Need to ue mobile phone in pecial environment. A 24. Service function in pecial environment A 25. Tranaction time i predictable A 26. Speed of tranaction information delivery A 27. Importance of immediate repone A 28. Provide feedback after completing tranaction A 29. Immediate notification of ucceful tranaction A 30. Provide cutomized verification A 31. Poitive experience of ue A 32. Provide poitive ue experience A 33. Recognize experience type required by uer Source: The author modified the tudy of Lu et al. [17] After influencing ue and operation, ervice provider recognize the importance of interface deign for uer. In general ituation, communication network can atify uer need. Service provider recognize that ue mut ue mobile phone in pecial environment, uch a baement, elevator, and other area with poor reception. In pecial environment, uch a baement, elevator, and other area with poor reception, uer are able to acce ervice. Uer can predict tranaction time in application tore. Tranaction information delivery peed in application tore i rapid, and reduce uer waiting time. Service provider recognize the importance of immediate repone to uer. Feedback after completing tranaction i provided by application tore, and include the detail of the tranaction and payment. Rapid notification of ucceful tranaction and downloading reult in application tore. After completing tranaction, ervice provider can provide cutomized reult, with verification for uer (all tranaction information, including tranaction hitory, verification of ue, etc.) After application tore complete ervice, uer have the perception of a poitive experience (entertainment, recreation, information proviion, etc.) I believe that application tore can provide poitive ue experience for uer. I believe that application tore recognize experience type required by uer. AP=Abolutely Poor, VP=Very Poor, P =Poor, F =Fair, G=Good, VG=Very Good and AG=Abolutely Good. Thi tudy define the linguitic value of AL = AP = (1, 1, 2), V L = V P = (1, 2, 3), L = P = (2, 3, 4), M = F = (3, 4, 5), H = G = (4, 5, 6), V H = V G = (5, 6, 7) and AH = AG = (6, 7, 7), repectively.

7 EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES Modified P-I analyi. Traditionally, the IPA approach [18] i ued to evaluate ervice quality when meeting conumer need. It conduct meaurement, baed on pecific ervice attribute importance and performance of cutomer repone in order to determine the priority of relevant attribute. It then map the performance of ervice attribute in a two-dimenional matrix (ee Figure 1) in order to oberve whether ervice quality mut be improved or maintained. Thi analyi can provide enterprie with reference for improvement of future ervice quality. Figure 1. The importance-performance matrix (ource: Jame [18]) Martilla and Lin [15] propoed the modified P-I analyi method, which i baed on the fuzzy et theory in combination with the IPA analyi method, and applied it to ervice quality analyi. The Introduction ection explained why thi paper ue the modified P-I analyi method to ae the ervice quality of mobile application tore. The tep of the modified P-I analyi method are a follow: Step 1: Let Ĩ jq = (c jq, a jq, b jq) and P jq = (ξjq, αjq, βjq), j = 1, 2,..., h, q = 1, 2,..., n, = 1, 2,..., m, denote the j th cutomer fuzzy importance degree, and fuzzy perception degree of the q th ervice quality, a offered by the th application tore. Step 2: Calculate the average fuzzy importance degree and average fuzzy perception degree of the q th ervice quality offered by the th application tore, a repreented by / / / h h h Ĩq = (c q, a q, b q), where c q = h, a q = h, b q = h, (1) and P q = (ξ q, α q, β q), where ξ q = j=1 h j=1 c jq ξ jq / h, α q = j=1 h j=1 a jq α jq / h, β q = j=1 h j=1 b jq β jq / h. (2) Step 3: Calculate total utility value of Ĩ q and P ) ( q, denoted by U T (Ĩ q and U T P q ), where ) ) )]/ U T (Ĩ q = [U R (Ĩq + 1 U L (Ĩq 2, q = 1, 2,..., n, = 1, 2,..., m (3)

8 2570 L.-J. YANG, T.-C. CHOU AND J.-F. DING and U T ( P q ) = [U R ( P q ) + 1 U L ( P q )]/ 2, q = 1, 2,..., n, = 1, 2,..., m (4) The maximizing and minimizing et [1] of the average fuzzy importance degree are denoted by x 1 = min{c 1, c 2,..., c n} and x 2 = max{b 1, b 2,..., b n}, repectively. The maximizing and minimizing et of the average fuzzy perception degree are denoted by y 1 = min{ξ 1, ξ 2,..., ξ n} and y 2 = max{β 1, β 2,..., β n}, repectively. According to the Hieh and Chen method [8], the right and left utility value are and and U R (Ĩ q ) = U L (Ĩ q ) = b q x 1 (x 2 x 1 ) (a q b q) x 2 c q (x 2 x 1 ) + (a q c q) Likewie, the right and left utility value of the average fuzzy perception degree are U R ( P q ) = U L ( P q ) = β q y 1 (y 2 y 1 ) (α q β q) y 2 ξ q (y 2 y 1 ) + (α q ξ q) Step 4: In Lin method, he mapped the performance of the ervice quality of each item in a two-dimenional matrix (ee Figure 2). The importance utility i ued a a horizontal axi, while the perception utility i ued a a vertical axi. A traight line i drawn from(ĩ) the origin to the upper right at 45 degree, while another vertical line i plotted at ŪT. The ervice quality of each item i poitioned in four part, a in Figure 2, including (1) poition I: competitive vulnerability, (2) poition II: competitive trength, (3) poition III: irrelevant uperiority, and (4) poition IV: relative indifference, repectively. (5) (6) (7) (8) Figure 2. Modified P-I analyi chart (ource: Lin [15])

9 EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES 2571 In thi paper, the average value of the total utility value of the average fuzzy importance for all n ervice quality item can be repreented a n ) ) U T (Ĩ q q=1 Ū T (Ĩ =, = 1, 2,..., m. (9) n ( ) A hown in Figure 2, regarding the th application tore, if U T P q U T (Ĩ q ), then the gap nature of the q th ervice quality attribute i poitive (i.e., the q th ervice quality attribute i above the traight line of the 45 degree angle). In order to determine whether q th ervice quality belong to competitive) trength (Ĩ) (i.e., poition II) or irrelevant uperiority (i.e., poition III), the value of U T (Ĩ q and ) (Ĩ) ŪT are compared. That i, if U T (Ĩ q ŪT, then the q th ervice quality ha competitive ) (Ĩ) trength in poition II. On the other hand, if U T (Ĩ q < ŪT, it repreent the q th ervice quality ha irrelevant uperiority ( ) in poition III. By the ame concept, if U T P q U T (Ĩ q ), the gap nature of the q th ervice quality i negative (i.e., the) ervice(ĩ) quality attribute i below the traight line at 45 degree angle). That i, if U T (Ĩ q ŪT, then the q th ervice quality ha competitive vulnerability in ) (Ĩ) poition I, and if U T (Ĩ q < ŪT, then the q th ervice quality ha relative indifference in poition IV. 4. Empirical Study Quetionnaire deign and urvey. To examine whether the attribute of ervice quality are valued by mobile communication uer, and whether they are factor that require improvement. The quetionnaire content aim to ae the importance and perception atifaction of the thirty-three attribute of ervice quality, a hown in Table 1. The quetionnaire of thi tudy wa baed on a Likert 7-point cale. The importance and atifaction degree range from abolutely low (very unimportant) and abolutely poor (trongly diatified) to abolutely high (very important) and abolutely good (trongly atified), repectively. Regarding the reliability analyi of the quetionnaire, the reliabilitie Cronbach α of importance and relative atifaction degree were and 0.891, indicating good conitency of the quetionnaire. A to validity analyi, the item in the quetionnaire were baed on Lu et al. [17] and expert opinion, thu, the quetionnaire content had a content validity. In thi paper, the correlation coefficient of item were , hence, they were ignificant and indicated good contruct validity. The quetionnaire urvey wa conducted from Augut to October In order to increae the return rate and repreentativene of the quetionnaire, the ubject were ampled from everal mobile communication companie and uer of mobile application tore. A total of 391 quetionnaire were ditributed, and 314 effective ample were returned, for a valid return rate of 80.3%. The baic information of the quetionnaire urvey i reorganized in Table 2. The tatitic data how: 1. Male account for 56.7% and female 43.3%. 2. Mot participant are year old (33.4%), and 29.0% are year old. 3. Mot graduated from college or univerity (59.9%).

10 2572 L.-J. YANG, T.-C. CHOU AND J.-F. DING 4. Mot are employed in private companie (60.8%), followed by teacher and tudent (18.8%). 5. Mot have an average monthly income of NTD 30,000-50,000 (about US$ 970-1,610) (55.7%). 6. There are 11.5% with experience of application tore for more than one year; 14.6% have 7-12 month experience, 35.7% have 4-6 month experience, 22.6% have 1-3 month experience, and 15.6% have le than one month experience. 7. There are 42.7% uing Chunghwa Telecom, 27.7% ue Taiwan Mobile, and 26.4% ue FET net. The total number uer of thee three major companie account for 96.8%. Table 2. Decriptive tatitic data Meaure Option Frequency Percentage Gender Male % Female % < % % Age % % % > % Mater degree or higher % Education Bachelor or aociate degree % High chool or lower % Private company % Government % Occupation Teacher % Student % Other % < 10, % 10,000-20, % Monthly income (New 20,000-30, % Taiwan Dollar, NTD) 30,000-50, % > 50, % Length uing mobile application tore ervice Mobile network operator < 1 month % 1-3 month % 4-6 month % 7-12 month % > 12 month % Chunghwa Telecom % Taiwan Mobile % FET net % Other % 4.2. Reult. Thi ection conduct computation baed on the aement model decribed in Section 3.2, with analyi procee decribed a follow: Step 1. Each repondent make linguitic aement of each ervice quality of mobile application tore, and the fuzzy importance degree and fuzzy perception degree of each

11 EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES 2573 ervice quality can be obtained from the triangular fuzzy number correponding to the linguitic value. Secondly, according to the Equation (1) and (2), the obtained average fuzzy importance and fuzzy perception degree of all ervice quality of three mobile application tore are hown in Table 3. Attribute Table 3. Aggregate fuzzy aement of importance and perception Chunghwa Telecom Taiwan Mobile FET net Ĩ q P q Ĩ q A 1 (4.90,5.90,6.60) (4.11,5.11,5.99) (4.67,5.67,6.37) (3.90,4.90,5.87) (4.85,5.85,6.56) (3.70,4.70,5.59) A 2 (4.82,5.82,6.54) (3.93,4.93,5.79) (4.67,5.67,6.43) (3.53,4.53,5.50) (4.70,5.70,6.44) (3.89,4.89,5.74) A 3 (5.06,6.06,6.65) (3.78,4.76,5.67) (4.67,5.67,6.40) (3.27,4.27,5.23) (4.74,5.74,6.56) (3.81,4.81,5.74) A 4 (4.79,5.79,6.61) (3.86,4.86,5.78) (4.77,5.77,6.57) (3.40,4.40,5.40) (4.78,5.78,6.59) (3.78,4.78,5.74) A 5 (5.00,6.00,6.69) (3.85,4.83,5.76) (5.00,6.00,6.67) (3.70,4.70,5.70) (4.74,5.74,6.52) (3.63,4.63,5.56) A 6 (4.81,5.81,6.58) (3.86,4.86,5.76) (4.77,5.77,6.53) (3.23,4.20,5.20) (4.59,5.59,6.33) (3.48,4.48,5.44) A 7 (5.15,6.15,6.76) (3.90,4.88,5.76) (4.87,5.87,6.60) (3.57,4.53,5.47) (5.00,6.00,6.74) (3.85,4.85,5.74) A 8 (4.97,5.97,6.65) (3.83,4.79,5.71) (4.90,5.90,6.57) (3.67,4.63,5.63) (4.59,5.59,6.44) (3.74,4.74,5.67) A 9 (5.10,6.10,6.72) (3.86,4.83,5.75) (5.00,6.00,6.63) (3.47,4.43,5.43) (4.89,5.89,6.67) (3.67,4.67,5.59) A 10 (5.03,6.03,6.71) (3.90,4.90,5.86) (5.13,6.13,6.77) (3.83,4.83,5.77) (5.11,6.11,6.74) (3.67,4.67,5.63) A 11 (4.76,5.76,6.53) (3.96,4.96,5.89) (4.77,5.77,6.47) (3.87,4.87,5.83) (4.78,5.78,6.48) (3.74,4.74,5.63) A 12 (5.01,6.01,6.71) (3.93,4.93,5.86) (4.93,5.93,6.70) (3.73,4.73,5.70) (4.93,5.93,6.67) (3.52,4.52,5.48) A 13 (5.47,6.47,6.88) (3.83,4.82,5.75) (5.33,6.33,6.80) (4.03,5.03,5.97) (5.26,6.26,6.78) (3.59,4.52,5.48) A 14 (5.44,6.44,6.83) (3.94,4.93,5.85) (5.30,6.30,6.80) (3.87,4.87,5.83) (5.33,6.33,6.78) (3.59,4.59,5.56) A 15 (5.22,6.22,6.75) (3.93,4.92,5.86) (5.17,6.17,6.67) (3.97,4.97,5.90) (4.93,5.93,6.56) (3.70,4.70,5.67) A 16 (5.01,6.01,6.65) (3.99,4.99,5.93) (4.87,5.87,6.53) (3.87,4.87,5.83) (4.74,5.74,6.41) (3.85,4.85,5.81) A 17 (5.03,6.03,6.68) (3.97,4.97,5.89) (4.77,5.77,6.47) (3.77,4.77,5.73) (4.63,5.63,6.37) (3.63,4.59,5.56) A 18 (4.82,5.82,6.60) (3.93,4.93,5.88) (4.53,5.53,6.43) (3.73,4.73,5.70) (4.67,5.67,6.44) (3.81,4.81,5.78) A 19 (4.68,5.68,6.51) (3.93,4.93,5.83) (4.50,5.50,6.27) (3.57,4.57,5.57) (4.48,5.48,6.26) (3.78,4.78,5.78) A 20 (4.85,5.85,6.61) (3.93,4.93,5.85) (4.73,5.73,6.47) (3.53,4.53,5.53) (4.63,5.63,6.41) (3.74,4.74,5.74) A 21 (4.92,5.92,6.61) (4.07,5.07,5.96) (4.97,5.97,6.67) (3.33,4.33,5.33) (4.93,5.93,6.59) (3.63,4.63,5.63) A 22 (5.06,6.06,6.71) (4.00,5.00,5.94) (4.77,5.77,6.50) (4.00,5.00,5.97) (4.70,5.70,6.56) (3.93,4.93,5.93) A 23 (4.74,5.74,6.50) (3.72,4.71,5.65) (4.30,5.30,6.13) (3.60,4.60,5.60) (4.44,5.44,6.30) (3.44,4.44,5.44) A 24 (4.75,5.75,6.51) (3.69,4.67,5.60) (4.40,5.40,6.23) (3.53,4.53,5.53) (4.33,5.33,6.19) (3.41,4.41,5.41) A 25 (4.69,5.69,6.47) (3.78,4.78,5.71) (4.43,5.43,6.37) (3.50,4.50,5.50) (4.30,5.30,6.15) (3.56,4.56,5.52) A 26 (4.86,5.86,6.56) (3.75,4.75,5.69) (4.60,5.60,6.50) (3.50,4.50,5.50) (4.30,5.30,6.15) (3.63,4.63,5.59) A 27 (4.96,5.96,6.65) (3.82,4.82,5.76) (4.80,5.80,6.63) (3.60,4.60,5.60) (4.52,5.52,6.41) (3.63,4.63,5.56) A 28 (4.71,5.71,6.49) (3.86,4.86,5.79) (4.87,5.87,6.73) (3.60,4.60,5.60) (4.59,5.59,6.44) (3.89,4.89,5.89) A 29 (4.79,5.79,6.53) (3.83,4.83,5.75) (4.97,5.97,6.73) (3.73,4.73,5.73) (4.67,5.67,6.44) (3.93,4.93,5.89) A 30 (4.53,5.53,6.33) (3.78,4.76,5.69) (4.67,5.67,6.53) (3.33,4.30,5.30) (4.33,5.33,6.15) (3.67,4.67,5.63) A 31 (4.81,5.81,6.56) (3.86,4.86,5.78) (4.73,5.73,6.57) (3.70,4.70,5.70) (4.63,5.63,6.52) (3.59,4.59,5.56) A 32 (4.89,5.89,6.60) (3.89,4.89,5.79) (4.73,5.73,6.53) (3.70,4.70,5.67) (4.63,5.63,6.52) (3.48,4.48,5.44) A 33 (4.83,5.83,6.57) (3.86,4.86,5.76) (4.57,5.57,6.43) (3.50,4.50,5.50) (4.74,5.74,6.56) (3.63,4.63,5.59) P q Ĩ q P q Step 2: Calculate the right utility value and left utility value of the average fuzzy importance degree and average fuzzy perception degree of the ervice quality of the three mobile application tore, repectively. According to the Equation (5), (6), (7) and (8), and the reult are hown in Table 4. Secondly, the total utility of the average fuzzy importance degree of all ervice qualitie of the three mobile application tore are

12 2574 L.-J. YANG, T.-C. CHOU AND J.-F. DING calculated according to the Equation (3) and (4). The reult of U T (Ĩ q ) and U T ( P q ) ( ) ) are hown in Table 4. For each mobile application tore, U T P q U T (Ĩ q denote that the nature of the gap repreenting the ervice quality attribute of three mobile application tore i negative. Step) 3: The average of the total utility value of the average fuzzy importance degree Ū T (Ĩ of all n ervice quality item of three mobile application tore can be calculated according to the Equation (9), a hown in the lat line of Table 4. Step 4: According to the aement reult of ervice quality for all three mobile application tore, the ervice quality attribute of the three telecommunication companie are a drawn in Figure 3, 4 and 5, repectively. Finally, thi paper conclude the impact point of ervice quality of three mobile application tore, and offer uggetion for ervice quality trategie, a hown in Table 5. Figure 3. Modified P-I analyi plot chart (Chunghwa Telecom) Figure 4. Modified P-I analyi plot chart (Taiwan Mobile) 4.3. Dicuion. Thi tudy aee the impact point of ervice quality attribute of three mobile application tore, and offer uggetion for ervice quality trategy according to thee impact point. The trategy uggetion can help enterprie to acce

13 EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES 2575 Table 4. Total utility value and nature of gap Attribute Chunghwa Telecom Taiwan Mobile FET net ) ( ) ) ( ) ) ( ) U T (Ĩ q U T P q U T (Ĩ q U T P q U T (Ĩ q U T P q Nature of gap A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative A Negative ) Ū T (Ĩ

14 2576 L.-J. YANG, T.-C. CHOU AND J.-F. DING Figure 5. Modified P-I analyi plot chart (FET net) Table 5. Attribute included in different poition for three ervice provider Service Provider Poition I. Poition II. Poition III. Poition IV. Chunghwa Telecom Taiwan Mobile FET net Suggetion of ervice quality trategy A 3, A 5, A 7, A 8, A 9, A 10, A 12, A 13, A 14, A 15, A 16, A 17, A 22, None None A 27 A 5, A 7, A 8, A 9, A 10, A 12, A 13, A 14, A 15, A 16, A 21, A 27, A 28, None None A 29 A 1, A 3, A 4, A 5, A 7, A 9, A 10, A 11, A 12, A 13, A 14, A 15, A 16, None None A 21, A 33 Require a greater effort to revere the nature of gap from negative to poitive Maintain the fine performance Shift ome effort to the attribute included in poition I A 1, A 2, A 4, A 6, A 11, A 18, A 19, A 20, A 21, A 23, A 24, A 25, A 26, A 28, A 29, A 30, A 31, A 32, A 33 A 1, A 2, A 3, A 4, A 6, A 11, A 17, A 18, A 19, A 20, A 22, A 23, A 24, A 25, A 26, A 30, A 31, A 32, A 33 A 2, A 6, A 8, A 17, A 18, A 19, A 20, A 22, A 23, A 24, A 25, A 26, A 27, A 28, A 29, A 30, A 31, A 32 Do not require much attention and concern reource more efficiently, thu improving their original poition of competitive vulnerability to the poition of competitive trength in the future. The ervice quality trategie located in the four quadrant are decribed a below. 1. Competitive vulnerability (poition I). The ervice quality item in thi quadrant have high perception importance but low atifaction, the mobile communication uer atifaction for the ervice provided by telecom ervice provider hould be improved. The telecom ervice provider hould make more effort to turn the ervice quality gap from negative to poitive. In other word, the ervice quality item in thi quadrant hould be lited a key point to be improved by telecom ervice provider. Meanwhile, a the improvement of thee ervice quality item ha great marginal effect on enterprie, the quality item in thi quadrant hould be improved firt, to avoid loing cutomer. 2. Competitive trength (poition II). The ervice quality item in thi quadrant have high perception importance and atifaction; they are a ource of competitive advantage of mobile application tore of telecom ervice provider. However, according

15 EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES 2577 to the urvey of thi tudy, the ervice quality of the three telecommunication companie i not preently within thi quadrant. 3. Irrelevant uperiority (poition III). The ervice quality item in thi quadrant have low perception importance but high atifaction, the ervice quality item in thi quadrant are not very helpful for improving cutomer atifaction, and have light marginal effect on ervice quality improvement. Therefore, it i not neceary to ue exceive reource in thi quadrant. However, the telecom ervice provider mut maintain the original ervice quality for thee ervice item, although it may be regarded a exceive reource upply. If turned into a competitive vulnerability ubject by adjuting reourc0e, it will eventually be adjuted to a competitive trength through ervice improvement. 4. Relative indifference (poition IV). The ervice quality item in thi quadrant have low perception importance and atifaction, and telecom ervice provider need not pay too much attention in thi quadrant. The ervice quality item in thi quadrant are not very helpful to improving cutomer atifaction, it i unneceary to ue exceive reource in thi quadrant. However, to avoid improper reource allocation, thee ervice quality item can be ued a reference for reource reallocation and future marketing adjutment of application tore. There are fourteen, fourteen, and fifteen ervice quality attribute for the mobile communication of Chunghwa Telecom, Taiwan Mobile, FET net, repectively, and belong to poition I (competitive vulnerability), a hown in Figure 3, 4 and 5, repectively. In ummary, the competitive vulnerability of the three telecommunication companie indicate that: (1) The ervice quality item of competitive vulnerability are highly valued by mobile communication uer of the three telecommunication companie. However, all three have a lower perceived atifaction degree. (2) The perceived atifaction degree of the mobile communication uer of the three telecommunication companie regarding the application tore hould be improved. Accordingly, the three telecommunication companie hould make greater effort to turn the quality gap from negative to poitive, which would enable them to promote the quality of their oftware ervice. (3) The ervice quality item with relative indifference how that the mobile communication uer of the three telecommunication companie have le concern regarding thee ervice quality item, thu, the companie hould not attach great importance to thee item. Baed on the reult of Section 4.2, there are nine ervice quality valued by all the mobile communication uer of the three telecommunication companie in Taiwan, including anwer quetion rapidly (A 5 ), incerity in repone to uer quetion (A 7 ), the importance of olving uer problem (A 9 ), proviion of reliable information (A 10 ), provide the application information required by uer (A 12 ), table network connection ervice (A 13 ), provide precie connection ignal (A 14 ), importance of communication network for uer (A 15 ) and mobile phone device allow ucceful tranaction (A 16 ), repectively. Important item to be implemented were decribed a following: (1) Anwer quetion rapidly. Thi ervice provide technical upport for the mobile communication uer of the application tore; upport ervice expert diagnoed problem encountered by cutomer, and uggeted that, repone within the experienced time period are acceptable to the cutomer; technical upport aim to olve problem quickly, diagnoe oftware problem, and provide troublehooting upport.

16 2578 L.-J. YANG, T.-C. CHOU AND J.-F. DING (2) Sincerity in repone to uer quetion. When mobile communication uer encountered ytematic or oftware problem, the ervice ytem of the application tore would provide detailed anwer or refer to expert for olution in order to anwer all cutomer quetion. (3) The importance of olving uer problem. The ervice provider mut undertand the importance of olving uer problem, and olve uch problem baed on a balance between ervice cot and quality in order to maintain atifactory buine connection with uer. (4) Proviion of reliable information. The proviion of reliable information by application tore can reduce the rik of uncertainty for mobile communication uer when uing the application oftware. A the proviion of reliable information can reduce uch rik, uer could ue the oftware ervice more eaily and make fater deciion, thu improving the tore utilization rate. (5) Provide the application information required by uer. The proviion of application information required by uer (e.g., the number of download time, recommendation, or review) could meet the uer requirement on oftware information ervice, thu, enuring the ervice quality of the information delivered. (6) Stable network connection ervice. All tranaction and download ervice hould be table; however, a the number of mobile communication uer increae, the network congetion of mobile communication caue ervice to deteriorate. In hopping mall, convention center, or hotel, when numerou mobile communication uer are imultaneouly uing the mobile application tore ervice, thu, exceeding the load capacity of the local network, network congetion would occur, which would reduce network efficiency and affect the mobile communication uer atifaction regarding the network ervice quality. (7) Provide precie connection ignal. Poor online ignal cover i a common reaon for abnormal mobile phone ervice. Mobile communication uer find that mobile phone have a poor or no ignal; and occaionally, even with a ignal, the mobile phone may diplay the for emergency call only meage. Uer mobile phone frequently earch for a ignal, which affect the download ervice and tranaction of the application tore. (8) Importance of communication network for uer. Service provider hould undertand the importance of communication network in application tore ervice. In addition to peed and pread, the importance of a communication network i mobility, which allow mobile communication uer to ue a wirele mobile device (e.g., mobile phone or PDA) at any time and place and acce the ervice and information tranmiion provided online by the application tore. (9) Mobile phone device allow ucceful tranaction. From the communication function to oftware download and tranaction of the application tore, mart mobile phone can moothly download and conduct tranaction. The tranaction information can be directly ent from the mobile phone in order to confirm and proce financial tranaction at financial intitution, uch a bank. Service provider can increae the rate of uer mart mobile phone and create a complete oftware ervice model for mobile application tore. In addition to the above-mentioned nine ervice quality imultaneouly valued by all mobile communication uer, thi tudy propoe other ervice quality item of value for the three companie, a detailed below:

17 EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES 2579 (1) For Chunghwa Telecom The company hould provide ervice from cutomer perpective and baed on an undertanding of cutomer demand. The company hould learn about the uer need from market urvey, thu improving the marketing efficiency and reducing the unneceary ervice to cutomer. The company hould handle problem encountered by mobile communication uer from the application tore in a timely manner, and follow up on the ervice effect in order to develop long-term cutomer ervice relationhip. Moreover, the company hould be familiar with the tranmiion of variou data type upported by the communication network (e.g., different tranmiion interface, peed, and network connection capabilitie), and provide tranmiion application ervice for thee type in order to meet the cutomer variou need regarding communication ervice. To enure a quick repone mode for electronic tranaction and other operation of mobile communication uer, the company hould provide a ytem tructure with elaticity, calability, compatibility, and tability for the mobile application tore. Moreover, the company hould undertand that error in the repone to cutomer, a well a handling abnormal information, are critical iue that may increae operational rik. (2) For Taiwan Mobile The company hould repond to the problem and complaint of mobile communication uer in the application tore in a timely manner, and follow up on the ervice effect, in order to develop long-term cutomer ervice relationhip. The ervice provider hould realize that interface deign i very important to the uer, and a good interface deign could make mobile communication uer more confident in the ue of ervice, thu, enabling them to learn the function more quickly. The company hould enure a rapid repone mode for mobile communication uer in electronic tranaction, and undertand the importance of the timely handling of any flaw in repone to cutomer or abnormal information. Moreover, the application tore hould provide a feedback information program, including detailed tranaction and payment data, to the mobile communication uer upon the completion of a tranaction, and inform the uer about the oftware download and intallation tatu. (3) For FET net The company hould treat uer in a friendly and profeional manner, more actively undertand the uer need, and provide correponding ervice. Firt, the company hould provide ervice from cutomer perpective, which are baed on an undertanding of cutomer demand. The company hould learn about the uer need from market urvey, thu improving marketing efficiency and reducing unneceary ervice to cutomer. Meanwhile, the company hould have profeional knowledge in the field of telecommunication, a well a the ervice provided in the application tore in order that the uer could develop greater trut in the company. Second, the company hould provide the ervice time of mobile application oftware (define the time period or time limit baed uer need), more importantly, the ervice time would be clear to uer. The ervice provider hould realize that the interface deign i very important to uer, a a good interface deign make mobile communication uer more confident in the ue of ervice, and enable them to learn the function more quickly. Finally, the company hould undertand ue experience type of the cutomer, a well a the approache of providing thee experience, thu, the application tore can provide cutomized application oftware ervice, uch a entertainment, leiure, information proviion, etc, according to pecific marketing objective. 5. Concluion. Thi tudy utilized the modified P-I analyi method to analyze the ervice quality of the mobile application tore of three telecommunication companie,

18 2580 L.-J. YANG, T.-C. CHOU AND J.-F. DING and conducted an empirical invetigation by quetionnaire urvey. The main finding are decribed a follow: (1) The quetionnaire urvey on the thirty-three ervice quality factor revealed that, none of the ervice quality item of the mobile application tore of the three telecommunication companie in Taiwan fall in the competitive trength region (poition II). Thi ugget that, the importance of mobile communication uer regarding ervice quality i higher than the perceived atifaction level, indicating that perceived atifaction for the mobile communication uer regarding application tore ervice hould be improved. Thi i an iue for the conideration of all telecommunication companie. (2) In a comparion of the ervice quality valued by the uer of the three mobile communication companie, nine ervice qualitie are the ame, namely, anwer quetion rapidly, incerity in repone to uer quetion, the importance of olving uer problem, proviion of reliable information, provide the application information required by uer, table network connection ervice, provide precie connection ignal, importance of communication network for uer, and mobile phone device allow ucceful tranaction, repectively. Thee nine ervice qualitie are the key factor for mobile application tore to provide good ervice quality. (3) All three companie hould analyze the ervice quality factor that are valued by cutomer that preent lower atifaction. Thi tudy uggeted that the telecommunication companie hould repond clearly and quickly to uer problem concerning application tore ervice. When uer encounter ytem or oftware problem, the ervice provider hould be able to olve their problem efficiently, and further provide them with neceary and reliable oftware information and intruction. Moreover, the telecommunication companie hould realize the importance of network ervice to mobile communication uer. The proviion of precie ignal, mooth tranaction and download procee, table network connection, and ucceful completion of the tranaction at the application tore through mart phone are the main factor affecting uer election and atifaction of ervice. (4) Compared with global application tore, uch a the iphone App Store and the Google Android Market, the three application tore in Taiwan provide only about one thouand oftware application, with increaed oftware election and download rate are far behind thoe of the iphone App Store and the Google Android Market. The only ditinguihable feature of the application oftware provided by the three telecommunication companie in Taiwan i the Chinee interface. The development trend of the application tore in Taiwan i inevitable. A the effect of uing voice communication ervice to enhance the average revenue per uer (ARPU) become le obviou, the telecommunication companie hould increae the data flow rate of application ervice in order to improve the ARPU. In um, the telecommunication companie in Taiwan hould continue to improve the ervice quality of their application tore in order to maintain poitive cutomer relationhip. The ubject of thi tudy were mobile communication uer in the metropolitan area of Taipei. The perceived importance and atifaction concerning ervice quality of other area may differ from the reult of thi tudy, thu, further tudie hould be conducted. Future tudie can alo apply other reearch framework or analyi method to enrich the reearch finding.

19 EVALUATING SERVICE QUALITY OF MOBILE APPLICATION STORES 2581 REFERENCES [1] S. H. Chen, Ranking fuzzy number with maximizing et and minimizing et, Fuzzy Set and Sytem, vol.17, no.2, pp , [2] C. C. Chou, Application of a fuzzy MCDM model to the evaluation of plant location, International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, vol.6, no.6, pp , [3] P. F. Chou and C. S. Lu, Aeing ervice quality, witching cot, and cutomer loyalty in homedelivery ervice in Taiwan, Tranport Review, vol.29, no.6, pp , [4] J. K. Cochran and H. N. Chen, Fuzzy multi-criteria election of object-oriented imulation oftware for production ytem analyi, Computer and Operation Reearch, vol.32, no.1, pp , [5] J. J. Cronin and S. A. Taylor, Meauring ervice quality: A reexamination and extenion, Journal of Marketing, vol.56, no.3, pp.55-68, [6] W. J. Deng and Y. C. Lee, Applying Kano model and IPA to identify critical ervice quality attribute for hot pring hotel in Peitou, Journal of Quality, vol.14, no.1, pp , [7] J. F. Ding, Evaluating cutomer value for liner hipping companie in Taiwan: An empirical tudy, International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, vol.5, no.7, pp , [8] J. F. Ding, A numerical tudy on trategic partner election for an ocean freight forwarder by uing fuzzy MCDM approach, ICIC Expre Letter, Part B: Application, vol.1, no.2, pp , [9] D. Duboi and H. Prade, Operation on fuzzy number, The International Journal of Sytem Science, vol.9, no.6, pp , [10] C. Grönroo, Service Management and Marketing: A Cutomer Relationhip Management Approach, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Son Inc, UK, [11] C. H. Hieh and S. H. Chen, A model and algorithm of fuzzy product poitioning, Information Science, vol.121, no.1, pp.61-82, [12] Y. F. Kuo, C. M. Wu and W. J. Deng, The relationhip among ervice quality, perceived value, cutomer atifaction, and pot-purchae intention in mobile value-added ervice, Computer in Human Behavior, vol.25, no.4, pp , [13] B. R. Lewi and W. M. Vincent, Defining and meauring the quality of cutomer ervice, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol.18, no.6, pp.11-17, [14] C. L. Lin, C. W. Chen and G. H. Tzeng, Planning the development trategy for the mobile communication package baed on conumer choice preference, Expert ytem with Application, vol.37, no.7, pp , [15] H. T. Lin, Fuzzy application in ervice quality analyi: An empirical tudy, Expert Sytem with Application, vol.37, no.1, pp , [16] Y. M. Lu and H. H. Wu, Applying IPA in evaluating ervice quality requirement of paenger of Taiwan high peed rail, Journal of Quality, vol.17, no.1, pp.21-43, [17] Y. Lu, L. Zhang and B. Wang, A multidimenional and hierarchical model of mobile ervice quality, Electronic Commerce Reearch and Application, vol.8, no.5, pp , [18] J. A. Martilla and J. C. Jame, Importance-performance analyi, Journal of Marketing, vol.41, no.1, pp.77-79, [19] A. Parauraman, V. A. Zethaml and L. L. Berry, A conceptual model of ervice quality and it implication for future reearch, Journal of Marketing, vol.49, no.4, pp.41-50, [20] A. Parauraman, V. A. Zethaml and L. L. Berry, SERVQUAL: A multiple-item cale for meauring conumer perception of ervice quality, Journal of Retailing, vol.64, no.1, pp.12-40, [21] H. Y. Wu, E. L. Cheng, M. T. Wang and J. Chen, Applying SERVQUAL and QFD to promote ervice quality of cultural education indutry, Journal of Cutomer Satifaction, vol.4, no.1, pp , [22] L. A. Zadeh, Fuzzy et, Information and Control, vol.8, no.3, pp , [23] L. A. Zadeh, The concept of a linguitic variable and it application to approximate reaoning, Part 1, 2 and 3, Information Science, vol.8, no.3, pp , 1975; vol.8, no.4, pp , 1975; vol.9, no.1, pp.43-80, [24] Webite of National Communication Commiion in Taiwan, /10112/ doc.

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