1 A Systmatic Appoach to th Compaison of Rols in th Softwa Dvlopmnt Pocsss uat Yilmaz 1, Roy V. O Conno 2 and Paul Clak 1 1 Lo Gaduat School in Softwa Engining, Dublin City Univsity, Iland 2 Lo, th Iish Softwa Engining Rsach Cnt, Dublin City Univsity Abstact. Th vision of building a succssful softwa poduct quis tams of individuals quippd with a wid ang of social and tchnical skills. Futhmo, by combining ths skills with appopiat job ols, w should b abl to impov th poductivity of a softwa oganization. In od to idntify and compa diffnt ols in softwa dvlopmnt activitis, w conduct a systmatic compaison of softwa dvlopmnt modls, coving taditional appoachs though to agil tchniqus. To compa th ols in th litatu with industial softwa landscaps, w us data fom a suvy conductd on 266 softwa pactitions to asctain job ols in two middl siz softwa companis, on of which uss taditional mthods and in paticula ISO/IEC fo managing thi softwa dvlopmnt activitis whil oth uss a tailod agil mthodology. In light of ou intviws, w found that basd on pojct spcific nds, th ols usd in industy vay significantly fom th ols dfind in litatu. 1 Intoduction Softwa dvlopmnt is a complx socio-tchnical activity, which lis on tams of individuals woking hamoniously. Thfo, individuals should b abl to cop with challngs mbddd in softwa dvlopmnt tasks. Ths tasks, howv, should b pfomd as tamwok to accomplish a paticula contact with stakholds . Duing ths activitis, th socio-tchnical skills of individuals a an impotant considation whn foming tams. As mntiond in vy softwa dvlopmnt mthodology, th a job ols fo individuals to b assignd, and th is always a typ of pocss it follows to pogss . A ol, on th oth hand, is a sis of xpctations fom an individual basd on th tam-basd activitis that a dfind in a social contxt o a situation. To achiv succssful sults, ths individuals should b slctd fo a appopiat ol basd on th skills mntiond, which also usually cats a kind of dpndncy on thi tasks. Whil th dvlopmnt pocss involvs lots of social intactions, and paticipants with ovlapping sponsibilitis, dfining pop intactions among ths ols a impotant fo softwa dvlopmnt activitis so that th paticipants
2 will know what to do and which pats of a task fall und thi sponsibility. Howv, without potaying th nds of ths ols in a social stuctu, dfinition of ths ols may not b nough fo oganizing a softwa tam and paticulaly fo ochstating a softwa oganization as a whol. Th a sval softwa dvlopmnt ols that a dfind by taditional dvlopmnt appoachs. Th agil pspctiv somhow changd th flow of infomation in a softwa company, which causs altations in sval ols o job titls pviously dfind in taditional softwa dvlopmnt. This alignmnt has waknd som of th taditional ols to som xtnt: thfo vn som pactitions think that agil ducs th ability of manags to command thi tams . In this pap, w constitut a systmatic compaison famwok basd on actualizd ols and dfind ols in th softwa dvlopmnt pocsss. W fomaliz ou sach qustion as: In pactic, do softwa dvlopmnt ols diff fom th ol dfinitions povidd by th softwa dvlopmnt pocss mthodologis? To this nd, w viw th litatu to singl out th st of dfind ols fo th slctd softwa dvlopmnt pocsss and systmatically compa thm with th ols that a usd in industial sttings. Basd on a cas study with two middl siz softwa companis, w fist us th data collctd on ou suvys to undstand th woking ols o titls in an industial softwa oganization, and scondly w intviw softwa pactitions to validat ou sults. Th maind of this pap is stuctud as follows: In sction two, w intoduc ou sach viwpoint, which dfins ou systmatic appoach that nabls th compaison of diffnt ols. Th following sction viws th ols idntifid in litatu fo th diffnt softwa dvlopmnt pocsss. Th nxt sction valuats ou appoach by analyzing of data gathd fom th cas studis w conductd in two middl siz softwa companis. Th last sction will conclud th pap with a bif summay of contibutions. 2 Rsach Ovviw Th fist pat of ou systmatic appoach stats with constucting ou sach goal to valuat whth th is a significant amount of diffnc in pviously idntifid ols and thi actualizations spcially whn tailoing a ol-basd task assignmnt in softwa dvlopmnt. Nxt, w suvy th litatu fo th ols fo both taditional and agil mthodologis that a mntiond in softwa dvlopmnt litatu. W slctivly chos softwa mthodologis and pocsss and wok on th ols that a dfind by ths appoachs. In tchnical tms, w conduct a thmatic contnt analysis (i.. dsciptiv psntation of this litatu viw) basd on ols as th units of analysis. Aft idntifying softwa dvlopmnt ols in th litatu, scondly w conduct a focus goup study with on of ou industial patns, wh w sk opinions about actual ols that a usd in thi company. W initiat th focus goup convsation by using som pats on ou pviously conductd suvy, in which w ask pa-
3 ticipants about thi oganizational ols and xpinc lvls on that ol (s figu 1). Scondly, w intviw tam lads and dvlopmnt manags about how accuat th actualization of th job ols. Contnt analysis is an oganizd study of chaactistics found in a contnt of any typ of communication, such as books, wbsits, nwspaps, tc . Ou appoach uss th contnt analysis tchniqu fo making intptations to cat a ol slction schma basd on litatu of ols in softwa dvlopmnt mthodologis. Basd on th suvy data collctd pviously, ths ols will b systmatically compad to thi industial actualizations. To this nd, w fist collct data fom litatu and consult industy about th dfind ols fquntly usd in softwa ngining sttings. Scondly, w conduct a focus goup, wh w cod th sssion and a contnt analysis was pfomd on paticipants dfinition of ols that a actualizd in softwa dvlopmnt landscaps. W fom a numb of aconyms basd on th ols that a found fom th litatu. H, w a making patial us of a coding mchanism to constuct a ol-basd schma with th dfind ols fom th litatu. Th coding aims to cat vaiabls basd on th ols dfind in softwa dvlopmnt. It is don fo asy compaison of ols by constucting a uniqu ky fo ach ol found fom th litatu. Ou coding schma allows us to obsv th commonalitis and diffncs btwn softwa ngining ols. It hlps us to invstigat causffct lationships, intlationships, and situational conditions fo ach ol catgoy. H, w dsign sval qustions to sk validity fo ou coding in th dfind catgois, and analysis of idntifid ols fom th litatu. Is this ol th sam as a ol in th oth catgois? A th any duplicatd ol codings in a catgoy? In which contxt do ths ols mg? What kind of ols hav changd o volvd in mging mthods? Is th any obsvabl chang fo oth ols whn a ol volvd to an oth fom (i.. covaianc btwn catgois)? Th objctiv coding  is a tchniqu to viw a bunch of documnts fo xtacting and indxing th infomation so as to fom a nw pspctiv on psnting th data. W us an objctiv coding schm on th collctd infomation of ols. This coding should b hlpful fo visually compaing actualizd ols systmatically with th ons citd in th litatu. In addition, a diagam is dawn to suppot th dvlopmnt of th lationship among ols (s Figu 1). Finally, w aim to fomulat a famwok fo softwa pactitions, which nabl thm to slct pop ols fo thi softwa dvlopmnt mthodologis. Consquntly, by using such a famwok, a softwa pactition may asily choos o customiz th ncssay ols fo his o h dvlopmnt activitis.
4 Suvying Rols in Litatu Fom a hypothsis Cat a uniqu ID fo Rols Idntify Rols Dfind in Agil thodologis Idntify Rols in th Taditional Appoachs Conduct an Industial Focus Goup Invstigat th Actuallization of Rols Us a Suvy Data Cat a Schma fo th Idntifid Rols Pfom a Contnt Analysis of th Rols Fig. 1: Ou Systmatic Appoach fo Invstigating th Rols in Softwa Dvlopmnt Envionmnts. 3 Rols in Softwa Dvlopmnt Pocsss any diffnt vaiants of dvlopmnt modls and mthodologis hav bn catd. In this sction, w suvy th ols that a dfind in th litatu stating fom taditional softwa dvlopmnt and woking though ISO/IEC 12207, and agil mthodologis such as xtm pogamming (XP), scum and fatu divn dvlopmnt (FDD). 3.1 Rols in taditional softwa dvlopmnt Softwa ngining tams addss th complx poblms of softwa dvlopmnt by shaing th tasks among its mmbs with spct to thi ols. Rols a th dsciptions of dutis o assignmnts and comptnc fo paticipants that a quid to achiv a dfind tasks and activitis of softwa dvlopmnt . In his ssay, Th Cathdal and th Bazaa, Raymond stats that bcaus of th stict ols dfind in taditional softwa dvlopmnt, taditional appoach is simila to building a cathdal, wh a small tam of popl woking in an isolatd nvionmnt . Thfo, this could b considd as a dawback bcaus sval atifacts a only visibl fo a limitd numb of individuals in this stting.
5 Cod Rol Nam Pimay Typ of Valu P Pojct anag Rsouc Allocation and Budgting SD Softwa Dvlop Dvlopmnt Activitis UID Us Intfac Dsign Dsign Scn Intfacs DD Databas Dsigns Data odling SA Softwa Achitcts Softwa odling BA Businss Analyst Stakhold anagmnt RE Rquimnt Engin Gathing Rquimnts SQA Softwa Quality Assuanc Cating and aintaining Quality SAN Systm Analyst Constuction of a Systm Tabl 1: Taditional Softwa Dvlopmnt Rols Taditional ols includ: Pojct manag who is sponsibl fo allocation of soucs, pojct xpnditus, and sponsibl fom th gnal objctivs of a softwa pojct. Anoth typical ol in th dvlopmnt pocsss is th ol of a dvlop. A softwa dvlop is sponsibl fo dsigning and maintaining th softwa pogams, whas a softwa tst is sponsibl fo cating tst plans and tsting th dvlopd pogams. In many cass us intfac dsigns (dsign scn intfacs), databas dsigns (dsign databas schma) and th softwa achitcts (dsign tchnical blupints) a also includd as a gnic softwa pactition catgoy. A businss analyst is not only sponsibl fo solving th poblms by gulating th connctions btwn th businss and th tchnical popl but also fo documnting sval pats (.g. quimnt documnts) of a softwa pojct. In addition to ths ols som oths can also b sn gading sval nds;.g. quimnts ngin, systms analyst, softwa quality assuanc ngin (s Tabl 1). Cod Rol Nam Pimay Typ of Valu RO Rquimnts Own Undstanding Nd SD Systm Dsign Accomplishing wok SA Systm Analysis Rducing Risks VV Validation & Vification itigating Risks LO Logistics and Opations Undstanding nd G Glu among th subsystms Accomplishing wok, Rducing Risks CI Custom Intfac Undstanding th Nd T Tchnical anag Tchnical anagmnt I Infomation anag Knowldg anagmnt PE Pocss Engin anaging and Undstanding Nds CO Coodinato Oganizational anagmnt CA Classifid Ads SE Accomplishing Wok (assumd) Tabl 2: Systms Engining Rols and thi valus fom  Shad  idntifis twlv ols (s Tabl 2) of dvlopmnt fom systm ngining viwpoint whil invstigating th lationship btwn th ols and thi impotanc fo cating a valu. This wok not only suggsts that th valu is asstd in qualitativ tms and it should b quantifid in futh sach but it also claims that it should b obsvd as a qustd impovmnt within a
6 poduct by btt (i) dfinition of th quimnts, (ii) managmnt statgis, (iii) ways fo mitigating isks, (s  fo dtails). 3.2 Rols in ISO/IEC ISO/IEC  has th main goups of ols fo its paticipants. Th fist goup consists of th pincipal ols a th acqui, who is a fom of stakhold that obtains poducts o svics fom suppli, who is an individual o anoth oganization ag on poviding a softwa poducts o svics. Implmnt xcuts dvlopmnt tasks, whil th maintain can b ith an oganization o an individual who pfoms th upkp of dvlopd softwa), and opato is sponsibl fo th xcution of a systm . Th scond catgoy consists of configuation and suppoting ols; th configuato is sponsibl fo th stablishmnt and tansfomation of th infomation ndd by an individual o a goup, valuato tsts and masu a softwa pocss o a poduct by using th data collctd duing th actual tasks that a pfomd, th audito invstigats th poducts and pocsss a compatibl with th agmnts, th usability spcialist dals with th dmands and nds of th stakholds such as th dsign activitis basd on human factos and skills and thi fulfillmnt . Cod Rol Nam Pimay Typ of Valu AC Acqui Softwa Clint o Us o Poduct Own SU Suppli Softwa Poduc, Poduct Sll IP Implmnt Ralization of Dvlopmnt Tasks N aintain aintain th Softwa OP Opato Systm Excution CON Configuato Accomplishing Wok, Rducing Risks EV Evaluato Tst & asu a Pocss o a Poduct AU Audito Contact anagmnt US Usability Spcialist Poblms Rgading to Popl Factos A anag anaging A Asst anag anaging Assts C Knowldg anag Knowldg anagmnt RA Rus Administato Sking fo Rusabl Pats Tabl 3: Rols in ISO/IEC (adaptd fom [10, 11]) Th thid goup has th oganizational ols, th manag idntifis and manags th stat of th play (i.. condition and pogssion of th pojct) with spcts to pojct constaints (.g. objctivs, budgt, schduls), th asst manag is a typ of manag dals with th managmnt and optimization of th assts gading to th plan h o sh ppad, th knowldg manag ol woks on th collction of paticula knowldg and skills thoughout th oganization and usd fo impovmnt fo th poducts and svics. Th us pogam administato sks to find favoabl o advantagous cicumstancs fo usabl pats of a poduct o a svic. Unlik th oth two subfilds of softwa ngining (i.. quimnts ngining and softwa dvlopmnt), domain ngin is a fom sponsibl fo dsigning th domain modls (i.. softwa modls) and domain dsciptions fo a softwa systm (s Tabl 3).
7 3.3 Rols in Extm Pogamming Accoding to Bck , th paticipants and thi ols a as follows; Pogamms a th individuals who nd to hav good communication and collaboation skills fo both tam and individual lvls. Thy a sponsibl fo dvloping, maintaining and tsting th softwa. On of thi main sponsibilitis is to nsu that thi wok is clan and lan. Th tchnical dcisions a mad by pogamms. Customs fom th sting tams in businss tms and in paticula in quimnt satisfaction dcisions. Tsts hlp customs to wit functional tst cass. Businss dcisions a mad by customs . Th tack ol composs a tac and fdback mchanism in XP. Th stimations, goals and itations mad by tams a contolld by a tack, who povids fdback. Th tack is also sponsibl fo masuing constaints such as scac soucs and dlivy tims vsus goal valuation. Th coach is th ol which is accountabl fo XP pojct who nds to undstand th poblms occuing duing th pocss to instuct tam mmbs and tansf th infomation o somtims xpinc among tams and individuals. Finally, th manag is sponsibl fo final dcisions, and also an aim of this ol is to cogniz poblms likly occu duing th dvlopmnt lif-cycl (s tabl 4). Cod Rol Nam Pimay Typ of Valu PRG Pogamms aintaining and Tsting Softwa CU Customs anaging Businss Dcisions TST Tsts Hlps Costums fo Functional Tst Cass TRC Tack Fdbacks and Estimations CO Coach Supvis Tam CON Consultant Guids th Tam fo Poblm Solving A anag anagmnt Tabl 4: Rols in XP (adaptd fom [12, 13]) 3.4 Rols in Scum Schwab and Bdl  singl out six ols fo th paticipants of Scum. Th Scum ast is a typ of managmnt ol spcific to Scum, who is sponsibl fo th alignmnt of pactics and uls as thy hav oganizd. This ol intacts not only with pojct tam but also custom and managmnt. Its aim is to maximiz poductivity by pacticing th agil and scum valus and monitoing th tam to avoid any kind of complications. Th Poduct Own is th ol which is sponsibl fo xcising th pojct managmnt and contol activitis. Additionally, this ol is also sponsibl fo tansfoming th poduct backlog into poduct fatus. Scum Tam should b considd as a slf oganizing stuctu to poduc a woking pic of a poduct, wh its main goal is to achiv tim tagtd objctivs of ach spint. Th custom ol will continuously valuat th backlog itms, and hlps th slction fo a spint. Th managmnt ol is sponsibl fo implmnting th pop standads fo
8 th softwa dvlopmnt pocss. Additionally, this ol ncompasss dcision making activitis and finalizing thm at diffnt stags of dvlopmnt pocss such as valuating goals, gathing quimnts, tc. (s Tabl 5). Cod Rol Nam Pimay Typ of Valu S Scum ast anaging Scum Tam PO Poduct Own Poduct anagmnt Dcisions CUS Custom Evaluation of backlog itms ST Scum Tam Oganizd itslf fo tim boxd goals NG anagmnt Evaluat Dcisions and Goals USR Us Evaluat Systm Functionalitis Tabl 5: Rols in SCRU (adaptd fom ) 3.5 Rols in FDD FDD has th most comphnsiv ol dsciption with a flxibility of ols . Fo xampl, an individual can play multipl ols, o ith a ol can b shad by multipl psons . Th th main catgois of ols, which a: ky, suppoting and additional ols. Th ky ols a pojct manag, who administs th nti pojct and maintains th wok sttings of th softwa tam, th lad softwa achitct is th ol which maks th appopiat dcisions fo softwa dvlopmnt, th softwa dvlopmnt manag is a ol which focuss on daily activitis and tam ngotiations duing th softwa dvlopmnt activitis. Th lad pogamm, th class own and th domain xpt a th th ols usd in FDD. Th suppoting ols includs; manag (las), knowldg xpt, build pocss ngin, toolsmith and systm administato. oov, tsts, tchnical documnt xpt and softwa dploymnt psonnl a th oth ols usd in this pactics (s tabl 6). Cod Rol Nam Pimay Typ of Valu P Pojct anag Rsouc anagmnt LSA Lad Softwa Achitct Achitctual Dcisions DE Dvlopmnt anag Evaluation of backlog itms LP Lad Pogamm Oganizd itslf fo tim boxd goals CO Class Own Fom Tams fo Implmnting Fatus DE Domain Expt Infom Tams fo Adquat Fatus R Rlas anag anaging th dvlopmnt pocss D Domain anag anaging Domain Expts LG Languag Guu Acquiing a Knowldg on Tchnology BE Build Engin Excuting a Build Pocss TA Toolsmith Cating Utilitis fo pojct SYA Systm Administato Administation of Wok Systms TE Tsting Vifying th Actualization of a Systm DEP Dploy Rlas of Fatu Dploymnt TEW Tchnical Wit Th Documntation fo Uss Tabl 6: Rols in FDD (adaptd fom [15, 13])
9 4 Evaluation of Rols fom Industial Sttings As a pat of a suvy, w askd 266 paticipants fom two diffnt softwa companis about thi ols in thi applid sttings in od to idntify th commonality of maning in th diffnt ols. On of th softwa companis (with a staff about 400 psonnl) is woking in tlcommunication scto, which composs solutions fo lag-scal -govnmnt pojcts. Th oth company supplis tun ky softwa solutions to tlcommunications opatos and mobil svic povids. It has a staff of about 40 psonnl. By cating a list of ols basd on th ols mntiond in th litatu, w conduct a focus goup in on of th companis about th actualization of ols in dvlopmnt nvionmnts. This bings individuals togth to dbat about softwa dvlopmnt ols in thi company and thi actualizations with spct to thi xpincs. Nxt, w ask ou sach qustion to a slction of popl mostly to th individuals fom th managmnt tams. Company A is using th taditional softwa dvlopmnt appoachs to dfin th ols: P, SD, UID, SA, BA, SQA, wh DD is mbddd in SD, and RE ol is somhow split with BA and SD. Th ol of systm analyst povids th quimnt ngining pocsss. Intviw quotation: Duing ou dvlopmnt activitis, w obsv lots of ovlapping ols, which somtims hind ou ability to handl som dvlopmnt tasks. Fo xampl, som of ou tams hav ky plays with ovlapping ols and som individuals pfom mo than on ol by th natu of ou dvlopmnt pocss. W found it intsting to hav a big pictu of th ols in th diffnt softwa dvlopmnt pocsss. Company A uss ISO/IEC combind with an itativ dvlopmnt schma and a customizd ol slction basd on th taditional viwpoint fo dvloping and maintaining softwa pojct. Howv th ols dfind by ISO/IEC a not fully usd to pofil th psonnl. Instad, thy us th ol nams (s Tabl 1) that a taditionally usd in softwa dvlopmnt. Intviw quotation: W us appoximatly 14 out of 43 pocsss, 60 out of 95 activitis, 180 out of 406 tasks fom ISO/IEC W bliv that assigning suitabl ols to tams and individuals is vy impotant fo ou succss. A viw of ols in diffnt mthodologis is usful fom an industial pspctiv. All typ of ols should b visibl to vyon in th company, and thy should b dfind in a simpl languag to povid a way of nsuing vyon undstands thm. Thfo, w a not using th ol nams povidd by ISO/IEC I would say, w mostly us th classical ol nams you hav mntiond. Accoding to th managmnt tam of Company A, th ol of tam lad should not dictat anything to tammats but communicatd th vision of a
10 company o a pojct. Thfo, maintaining a findship and tust is mo impotant than dictating th facts to softwa tams. Intviw quotation: Popl usually tust oth popl to som xtnt. Th a always poblms, whn it coms to ol assignmnt as wll as dlgations basd on ths ols. I psonally obsvd sval situations, wh impop dlgation did caus lots of conflicts and tnsions. I would stongly suggst that ol tailoing should not b takn lightly. Company B uss a customizd agil mthodology, which lis on XP and Scum. Thy us agil mthodology so as to cop with dynamically challnging quimnts and to fulfill th qust of thi custom fo continuous intgation with small incmnts. Thy us all ols dfind by scum (i.. S, PO, CUS, ST, NG, USR) and a tst ol (TST) and a pogss tack (TRC) ol fom XP. Intviw quotation: Th is th notion of tailoing mthodologis, how about th ols? It is always a poblm fo us to slct th suitabl ols fo ou customizd mthodology. Thfo, boad viw of ols in softwa dvlopmnt activitis a vy impotant fo us. Howv, just as th is no on-siz-fits-all mthodology fo dvloping applications in softwa dvlopmnt, th should not b a on-siz-fits-all appoach to ol slction. Finally, Company B highlights th impotanc of fac to fac communication fo agil landscaps, and thfo slction of suitabl ols fo dvlopmnt activitis bcoms mo impotant. Intviw quotation: Th pocss of customization of ols is vy impotant paticulaly in agil dvlopmnt nvionmnts. A summay with ols containd in diffnt agil appoachs is vy hlpful fo us to s th suitabl ols fo ou pocss. 5 Conclusions In this pap, w highlight how ols in litatu and thi actualizations on industial nvionmnts vay fo both plan divn and agil mthodologis. Softwa dvlopmnt is a collaboativ ndavo that dpnds on its dvlopmnt mthodology. Howv, slction of a pop mthodology is not nough fo achiving goals of a softwa oganization. Th vidnc suggsts that w should also tailo th ncssay ols dpnding on dvlopmnt activitis. Aft analyzing th dfind catgois in light of th qustions abov, w confimd that sval ols psntd in old mthods a mgd with a
11 us dg R w l RA Kno anag K asst A an ag st ciali A ity Sp sabil US U ito d AU Au to EV Evalua CON Configuato OP Opato N ainta in IP Impl mnt SU S uppli AC Acq ui CA Cl C P O C assif id oo I E P d Ad ina In oc ss fo s t E o m s En at io n g in an ag sig n D v iv D tu m p lo Agil F a n n g in i n g n t Rols t lopmn Xtm g P o g a m mi n g na a l a fac nic t s ch In tm T sys m sub T usto g n C mo CI a tions Glu Opa GL cs & ti is g o n LO L & Vificatio VV Validation st m TS Tst CU Custom P R G Pog amm TEW T c DE h nica P lw D TE it plo y SY Ts t A Sy SA Systm Analyst SD S ystm RO Dsig Rq n ui S m n Sc ts O PO um wn ast CU Pod uc S to Cu ST wn sto Sc m u m T am Ad m i to ta ni s t n m ag an NG Us R g na US nt a ulta A Cons N CO oach CO C ack TRC T ith in u sm Eng Gu ol To uild ag ag u an B T0 g g na in BE Lan a ma LG Do as t xp D Rl in E R om a n D Ow DE ss m Cla am nag og CO dp t a La mn LP lop Dv DE ft. Achitct LSA Lad So P Pojct anag SAN Syst m Analyst SQA Softw a BA Qu a B li ty usin Assua RE nc Rq ss An alys SA ui t So m D f n t t w s a E UI D D A ngin a D ch Us taba itc s ts in D t sig fa n c SD P P m Ta di S p u m D Pla n nal Dvlo E tm tio ys D n Dv nt / IEC Sc v D lop ag to a an ta ftw ct nis ag i o S oj Adm an iv ISO Fig. 2: A Summay of Rols Containd in th Diffnt Appoachs diffnt nam, with simila sponsibilitis in nw appoachs. Som of th ols, howv, hav thi sponsibilitis changd whil valing in diffnt softwa dvlopmnt oganizations. ost fquntly, th ol dfinitions that an oganization uss basd on a domain and a st of cicumstancs. Ou study xhibits that a ol-basd schma can b usful fo a tailoing pocss of ols gading to th oganizational nds. Futhmo, w agu that a softwa dvlopmnt oganization should customiz thi own ols suitabl fo thi social stuctu, wh w suggst that ou ol basd constuct (s Figu 2) will b bnficial fo such activitis. In oth wods, it nabls thm to slct pop ols fo thi softwa dvlopmnt mthodologis. Consquntly, by using such a famwok, a softwa tams may asily choos o customiz th ncssay ols basd on thi activitis.
12 Analysis of idntifid ols fom th litatu is potayd in Figu 2. W can confim that sval ols psntd in old mthods a mgd with a diffnt nam with simila sponsibilitis in nw appoachs. Th ols, howv, mostly hav thi sponsibilitis changd and appad as anoth fom whil valing in diffnt softwa dvlopmnt oganizations. ost fquntly, th ol dfinitions that an oganization uss basd on a domain and a st of cicumstancs. oov, it is impotant to choos ols, basd on th social stuctu of an oganization and quid intactions. Ths customizd ols a found to b oganizational cntic, which also claly suppots th notion of spaation of concns . Acknowldgmnts This wok is suppotd, in pat, by Scinc Foundation Iland gant numb 03/CE2/I303-1 to Lo, th Iish Softwa Engining Rsach Cnt (www.lo.i). Rfncs 1. Humphy, W.: Intoduction to th tam softwa pocss (sm). Addison-Wsly Pofssional (2000) 2. Zahan, S.: Softwa Pocss Impovmnt: Pactical Guidlins fo Businss Succss. Addison Wsly (1998) 3. Laman, C.: Agil and itativ dvlopmnt: a manag s guid. Addison-Wsly Pofssional (2004) 4. Kippndoff, K.: Contnt analysis: An intoduction to its mthodology. Sag Publications, Inc (2004) 5. Glas, B., Stauss, A.: Th discovy of goundd thoy: Statgis fo qualitativ sach. Aldin Tansaction (2007) 6. Sommvill, I.: Softwa Engining (9th Edition). Addison Wsly (2009) 7. Raymond, E.: Th cathdal and th bazaa. Knowldg, Tchnology & Policy 12 (1999) Shad, S.: Th valu of Twlv systms ngining ols. In: Pocdings of INCOSE, Cits (1996) 9. Shad, S.: Twlv systms ngining ols. In: Pocdings of INCOSE, Cits (1996) 10. ISO/IEC: Amndmnt to ISO/IEC Systms and softwa ngining Softwa lif cycl pocsss. (2008) 11. Acuna, S.T., Juisto, N., ono, A.., on, A.: A Softwa Pocss odl Handbook fo Incopoating Popl s Capabilitis. Sping-Vlag (2005) 12. Bck, K.: Extm pogamming xplaind. Addison-Wsly (2000) 13. Abahamsson, P., Salo, O., Ronkainn, J., Wasta, J.: Agil softwa dvlopmnt mthods: Rviw and Analysis. Volum VTT Publications 478. Tchnical Rsach Cnt of Finland (2002) 14. Schwab, K., Bdl,.: Agil Softwa Dvlopmnt with SCRU. Pntic Hall (2002) 15. Palm, S.R., Flsing, J..: A pactical guid to fatu-divn dvlopmnt. Pntic Hall PTR (2002) 16. Panas, D.L., Clmnts, P.C.: A ational dsign pocss: How and why to fak it. IEEE Tans. Softw. Eng. 12 (1986)