3 EURYDICE Focus on the Structure of Higher Education in Europe 2003/04 National Trends in the Bologna Process EURYDICE The Information Network on Education in Europe 1
4 This document is published by the Eurydice European Unit with the financial support of the European Commission (Directorate-General for Education and Culture). Available in English, French and German. D/2003/4008/11 ISBN This document is also available on the Internet (http://www.eurydice.org). Text completed in September Eurydice, 2003 The contents of this publication may be reproduced in part, except for commercial purposes, provided that the extract is preceded by a complete reference to Eurydice, the information network on education in Europe, followed by the date of publication of the document. Requests for permission to reproduce the entire document must be made to the European Unit. Cover photograph: Photo: Richard Gardette/Fotostock, Brussels, Belgium EURYDICE European Unit Avenue Louise 240 B-1050 Brussels Tel Fax Internet: Printed in Belgium 2
5 PREFACE What is the current shape of higher education throughout Europe? How far is its recent development conducive to the transparency of higher education and training and the recognition of s, which are the sine qua non for greater ease of mobility and enhanced attractiveness of provision at this level? The Eurydice survey contained in the following pages shows that, as a result of effort invested above all in pursuing the Bologna Process, the foregoing intentions are close to being realised. The two-cycle structure is now established in most countries and almost all fields of study. The introduction of the European credit transfer system is or soon will be a reality in the majority of countries, as will the Diploma Supplement. These findings are the outcome of a study conducted by the Eurydice European Unit in the first half of 2003 using information gathered and validated after being processed by the National Units in the Network, in cooperation in most cases with national officials in the network of NARICs (National Academic Recognition and Information Centres). The investigation focuses on the changing structure of higher education in 29 countries taking part in the Socrates programme. The main emphasis has been on a diagrammatic representation of data both to describe the situation in each country and summarise developments throughout Europe as a whole. The present survey also represents an update of similar information published by Eurydice in 1999 with the title Organization of Higher Education Structures in Europe. Those interested should consult the earlier publication for any chronological comparison. Through publishing this survey, the Eurydice Network is also seeking to contribute to discussion and further investigation stemming from implementation of the Bologna Process, by providing all those working to establish a European Higher Education Area by 2010 with clear and readily comparable basic information. Patricia Wastiau-Schlüter Head of the Eurydice European Unit September
7 CONTENTS Preface 3 Contents 5 Introduction 7 From the Sorbonne Declaration to the Berlin conference a dynamic process 9 Comparative overview 10 Guide to reading the diagrams 14 Diagrams and national descriptions Belgium French Community Belgium German-speaking Community Belgium - Flemish Community Denmark Germany Greece Spain France Ireland Italy Luxembourg The Netherlands Austria Portugal Finland Sweden United Kingdom England, Wales and Northern Ireland United Kingdom Scotland Iceland Norway Bulgaria Czech Republic Estonia Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Hungary Malta Poland Romania Slovenia Slovakia Glossary 80 Country codes Classification used Terminology and other definitions National abbreviations with terms in their language of origin International abbreviations References 85 Acknowledgements
9 INTRODUCTION In this publication, the structure of higher education in Europe is illustrated in a succession of detailed diagrams. For each country in turn, they represent the courses and s most commonly offered by universities or other higher education institutions. The names of institutions and intermediate and final s are indicated in their language of origin. The main fields of study, the national, regional or institutional selection procedures adopted at the point of entry and the length of courses are also shown. Furthermore, by using the ISCED 1997 ( 1 ) system of classification (ISCED levels 5A, 5B and 6), the diagrams illustrate clearly whether or not there is a structure based on two main cycles as encouraged in the Bologna Process. Each country diagram is accompanied by a brief account of the current situation regarding the reforms or arrangements associated with the Bologna Process that have been introduced since Such measures are primarily concerned with the existence or otherwise of the model based on two main cycles, as well as with the adoption or general implementation of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and the introduction of the Diploma Supplement. In appropriate cases, there is also reference to other especially significant reforms introduced independently of measures linked to the Bologna Process or as a means of reinforcing it. They include changes in selection procedures or in the status of higher education institutions. Where no reform has yet been implemented, the date of the most recent reform or the focus of any ongoing national debate is indicated. The first part of the publication contains a brief review of the main trends apparent from a study of these diagrams and their summaries. This comparative overview is preceded by a short account of the background to the Bologna Process. A glossary of codes and national abbreviations, as well as definitions of frequently used terms, are also included. 7 ( 1 ) See the definition in the glossary at the end of the publication. 7
11 FROM THE SORBONNE DECLARATION TO THE BERLIN CONFERENCE A DYNAMIC PROCESS The Bologna Process may be regarded both as the product and continuation of a series of European conferences and a certain number of policy decisions aimed at establishing a European Higher Education Area by The four main cycles mapping out the Bologna Process so far are those of Paris-La Sorbonne (25 May 1998), Bologna (19 June 1999), Prague (19 May 2001) and Berlin (18-19 September 2003) ( 2 ). The premises of the Bologna Process are to be found in the Declaration of Paris-la Sorbonne on Harmonisation of the Architecture of the European Higher Education System signed in May 1998 by the education ministers of four States: France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. The 3 principles underlying Paris-La Sorbonne: Facilitating the mobility of students in the European area and their integration into the European labour market, as well as the mobility of teachers; Improving the international transparency of courses and the recognition of s by means of gradual convergence towards a common framework of s and cycles of study; Encouraging a return to studies or their continuation in the same or another institution, in a school or within arrangements for European mobility. A year later (in June 1999), the Bologna Declaration on the European Higher Education Area, which was largely inspired by the Sorbonne Declaration, was signed. Besides aspects of its content, one of its novel features lay in a broadening of the debate, which now had 29 States signatories (the 15 EU Member States, 3 EFTA countries Iceland, Norway and Switzerland and 11 candidate countries) and included institutions such as the European Commission, the Council of Europe and associations of universities, rectors or European students. ( 2 ) See references at the end of the publication. The six principles of the Bologna Declaration: Facilitating the readability and comparability of s; Implementing a system based essentially on two main cycles; Establishing a system of credits, such as ECTS; Developing arrangements to support the mobility of students, teachers and researchers; Promoting European cooperation in quality assurance; Promoting the European dimension in higher education (in terms of curricular development and inter-institutional cooperation). In May 2001, a conference was held in Prague, which included the same categories of participant, with now 33 States signatories (the newcomers were Liechtenstein, Cyprus, Croatia and Turkey). The purpose of this conference was to assess the progress already accomplished (particularly on the basis of national reports) and identify the main principles that should drive the Bologna Process in the years ahead. While the Prague conference confirmed the need to pursue the aims set out in the Bologna Declaration, it nevertheless attached importance to three points in particular. Three specific points emphasised by the Prague Conference: Lifelong learning; The involvement of higher education institutions and students as active partners; The need to enhance the attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area. In short, the major issues taken forward by the Bologna Process, on which the States signatories should take action in order to establish the European Higher Education Area are as follows: Adoption/general introduction of the model based on two main cycles; Adoption/general introduction of ECTS; Strengthening arrangements for greater mobility, particularly through introduction of a Diploma Supplement; Developing measures designed to support quality evaluation; Supporting measures designed to encourage lifelong learning. 9 9
12 COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW 10 BACKGROUND TO CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION In certain European countries, the organisation of higher education into two main cycles is a longstanding tradition. The common feature of this structure is that it offers a first final (Bachelor s) which provides direct access to courses leading to the second (Master s). The period of time covered by these cycles and sometimes the names of the s vary from one country to the next and do not always correspond to those in recommendations associated with the Bologna Process. Higher education has been organised in two cycles in this way for a very long time (at least in some fields of study) in the English-speaking countries (Ireland, the United Kingdom and Malta), Greece, France, Portugal, Iceland and Cyprus. In Denmark and Finland, this structure was introduced in the 1980s and 1990s but until 2002/03 applied to certain fields of study. In Germany, a new graduation system of Bachelor s and Master s degrees has been implemented since 1998 in the universities, the theological colleges, the colleges for education, the colleges for art and music and the universities of applied sciences. In Slovenia, the structure based on two main cycles has existed in the higher education system since the 1960s without being fully comparable to the arrangements envisaged in the Bologna Process as far as the length of courses is concerned. It is planned to adapt this structure to the model in the years ahead. Many countries in Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia) adopted this structure based essentially on two main cycles when their education systems were thoroughly reformed following the fall of communism. Some of them have recently extended or consolidated this form of organisation. G Point reached in introducing the two-cycle structure J Structure introduced only in some courses H Length of courses not identical to Bologna proposals (:) Data not available 10 Figure 1: Trends in establishment of the basic structure with two main cycles. Higher education, 2003/04 B fr B de B nl DK D EL E F IRL I L A FIN NL P S UK Before Bologna J J H J G H J J G Adaptation or extension after Bologna G G G G Introduced after Bologna G G G Law approved but not yet implemented G G Adoption or adaptation planned but no law yet passed G G G G No measures (-) (-) IS LI NO BG CY CZ Before Bologna G (:) H G G G J J G J H H Adaptation or extension after Bologna Introduced after Bologna Law approved but not yet implemented Adoption or adaptation planned but no law yet passed No measures (:) Source: Eurydice. EE HU LT LV MT PL RO SI SK (:) G G G G G (:) G (:) G G G
13 THE TWO-CYCLE STRUCTURE HAS BEEN ADOPTED IN VIRTUALLY ALL FIELDS OF STUDY In most countries, the Bachelor s/master s structure applies to all or virtually all fields of study. However, this does not apply to courses in medicine and fields closely associated with it, except in the English-speaking countries, Denmark and Finland (in the next few years) and the Czech Republic (in principle). Courses in this subject area are provided in a single cycle lasting five to six years and lead directly to a Master s level. THE TWO-CYCLE STRUCTURE IS VERY UNCOMMON IN PROGRAMMES AT ISCED LEVEL 5B A marked feature of higher education in the majority of countries is that it is divided into academic programmes of an essentially theoretical nature (ISCED level 5A), which provide direct access to doctoral programmes (ISCED 6), and vocational programmes with a practical emphasis (ISCED 5B), which do not. In general, this distinction corresponds to the kind of (university or non-university) institution that provides the education or training entailed and to the level of awarded on the completion of studies. However, this clean-cut binary distinction is becoming increasingly blurred with the increasing tendency of university and non-university institutions to merge to an extent that varies depending on the country concerned. Thus in four countries (Greece, Finland, Norway and Malta), all courses recognised as higher education are at level 5A, even if they are provided by types of institutions other than universities. In most countries that have introduced a structure based essentially on two main cycles, this exists solely at ISCED level 5A. The two (Bachelor s/master s) s are considered to be at ISCED level 5A and offered by university and non-university institutions. Nevertheless, in a few countries that have introduced this structure, it is present in both branches, academic and vocational (corresponding to ISCED levels 5A and 5B, respectively). This distinction is very clear in five countries (the Netherlands, Cyprus, Estonia, Poland and Slovenia) where the Bachelor s and/or Master s may be academic (ISCED 5A) or vocationally oriented (ISCED 5B). In the Netherlands, Cyprus and Slovenia, students who have obtained the vocational Bachelor s may embark directly on second-cycle courses with a vocational emphasis at Master s level (ISCED 5B). In Estonia and Poland, even if the first is at ISCED level 5B, the Master s s are always at ISCED level 5A. Source: Eurydice. Additional notes Figure 2: Implementation of the two-cycle structure in ISCED 5A and 5B programmes, 2003/04 Structure applicable solely to level 5A Structure applicable to levels 5A and 5B No steps taken to introduce a two-cycle structure Data not available Belgium (B de) and Luxembourg: As there is no fully developed system of higher education, no immediate steps will be taken to introduce a two-cycle structure. Belgium (B nl) and Spain: Legislation has been approved but is not yet operational. Greece, Finland, Norway and Malta: Only ISCED level 5A exists. Italy: Law n. 508/99, which is not yet implemented, established that Accademie di belle arti, Accademie nazionali di danza, Istituti superiori per le industrie artistiche and Conservatori di musica offering ISCED level 5B courses, should also be organised in a two-cycle structure. Netherlands: The voortgezette opleidingen diploma is not yet part of an accredited Bachelor s/master s structure and does not lead to any other degree. Sweden: Proposals have been presented for the implementation of a two-cycle structure at levels 5A and 5B
14 12 THE MASTER S QUALIFICATION: A CONTRIBUTION TO ADULT EDUCATION IN SOME COUNTRIES In Norway and Estonia, Master s level programmes have been developed as part of adult education and training. And in Finland, trial polytechnic postgraduate degrees are implemented in line with the goals of adult education. These degrees may be taken by those who have previously obtained a first Bachelor s level and acquired one to three years of professional experience, depending on the country concerned. THE EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER SYSTEM (ECTS) HAS BEEN OR IS BEING INTRODUCED IN THE MAJORITY OF COUNTRIES Initially launched in 1989/90 as a credit transfer system for boosting student mobility, ECTS has, with the Bologna Declaration, become one of the central elements in the process of making the organisational patterns of higher education throughout Europe more compatible. Its scope has been substantially extended, since it now also concerns non-mobile students, is contributing increasingly to curricular reform, and offers all levels of higher education (including provision for lifelong learning) greater transparency and a more convenient means of comparing courses and s. ECTS is now operational or in the process of being introduced in the great majority of countries, with the exception of Belgium in its German-speaking Community, Luxembourg and Portugal. In the first case, this is because of the special nature of higher education in Belgium s German-speaking Community in which the system of provision is not fully developed. In Luxembourg, the higher education system is about to undergo a major reform that, once enacted, will involve the introduction of ECTS. Finally, in Portugal, the 2003 Law for the reform of higher education refers to the need to introduce it. In the majority of countries in which implementation of ECTS has been completed or is progressing, the decision to introduce it has been underpinned by legislation, except in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. In countries in which ECTS is being implemented, those that are introducing it directly should be distinguished from those that are currently adapting their national credit system. In the case of the first group (the French Community of Belgium, France, Malta, Poland and Romania) in which no national credit system previously existed, the implementation of ECTS is occurring without any prior reform. Except in Poland, the date at which ECTS first came or is coming into effect is specified in the legislation (2002 in France, 2003 in Malta and 2004 in the French Community of Belgium). In Romania, it is recommended that ECTS (which has been partially introduced since 1998) should become fully established in the period between 2002 and Some countries in the second group have already begun to adapt their credit systems to ECTS (Ireland, Finland, Iceland, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Latvia). In others, procedures for adapting them are under consideration as in Greece, Spain and the United Kingdom. Finally in Lithuania, it is expected that the national credit system will be only very slightly altered. It should be noted that in Estonia, the national system and ECTS exist alongside each other. It is expected that the latter should be introduced on a general basis from the 2006/07 academic year. Source: Eurydice. Figure 3: Situation regarding the introduction of ECTS. Higher education, 2003/04 Already introduced In the process of being introduced Ongoing adaptation of national systems/ongoing debate No measures introduced Data not available 12
15 USE OF THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE EUROPEAN MODEL IS VERY WIDESPREAD In the majority of countries, recent legislation has introduced the Diploma Supplement as an important aspect of support for mobility and the recognition of s. The Supplement describes in English each of the s obtained. In a few countries, namely Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Norway, Estonia and Poland, as well as in Slovakia (from 2004/05), the Diploma Supplement is mandatory and issued automatically when higher education s are awarded. While, in other countries, the Diploma Supplement is not compulsory, it is recommended in law or has to be issued simply on the request of students (the French Community of Belgium, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Austria, Finland, Iceland, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Romania and Slovenia). In Belgium (the Flemish Community) and the United Kingdom, a document very similar to the Diploma Supplement is in use. In Greece, Spain, Ireland, Portugal, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Malta, its possible use is the subject of ongoing debate but no legislation has yet been introduced. Figure 4: Status of the Diploma Supplement in higher education, 2003/04 Source: Eurydice. Additional notes Use recommended Issued as a matter of course A similar model exists Under discussion No measures introduced Data not available Latvia: The Diploma Supplement is mandatory only in ISCED 5B vocational programmes lasting 2-3 years (so-called college programmes ). Poland and Slovakia: The Diploma Supplement is to be automatically issued with effect from 2004/
16 GUIDE TO THE DIAGRAMS 14 The diagrams illustrate the main possible paths through higher education. Each of these paths should be studied horizontally across the page. Each diagram consists of a number of graphical units that varies depending on the situation in the country concerned. A different colour shading is used to distinguish between study programmes at ISCED levels 5A, 5B and 6 ( 3 ). Within a given ISCED level, fields of study are placed together when they have the following characteristics in common: entry to their courses is in accordance with similar procedures (with or without selection), they are offered by the same institution(s), their courses are of the same duration, their courses lead to the same type of (with the same title). Where the same institution or institutions offer different fields of study whose course characteristics vary in relation to one or more of the above-mentioned criteria, the name of the institution concerned is not repeated for each separate graphical unit. A selection procedure at the point of entry to a programme is shown by either a vertical bold or dotted line depending on whether it is organised by a higher (national or regional) authority or by the institution concerned. Bold and dotted lines are combined wherever both higher and institutional levels are involved. Where first-cycle (ISCED level 5A or 5B) s obtained on the completion of courses whose characteristics differ (for example in terms of differences in selection procedure and/or duration), provide admission to one or more identical secondcycle (ISCED level 5A or 5B) courses, the latter are duplicated in each graphical unit concerned. Where it is possible, on completion of the first qualifying programme, to continue with (ISCED 5A or 5B) second-cycle studies or enter the employment market, the second-cycle cell is reduced in height. However, horizontal lines extending from first-cycle or second-cycle ISCED 5A and 5B programme cells indicate that it is also possible to continue with higher studies at ISCED level 5 and/or 6. ( 3 ) See the definition of ISCED levels 5A, 5B and 6 in the glossary at the end of the publication.
17 LEGEND Field of studies NAME OF INSTITUTION IN LANGUAGE OF THE COUNTRY (5-6) Field of studies NAME OF INSTITUTION IN LANGUAGE OF THE COUNTRY (2) ( ) Field of studies NAME OF INSTITUTION... (2) Field of studies NAME OF INSTITUTION IN LANGUAGE OF THE COUNTRY * 2 Field of studies NAME OF INSTITUTION IN LANGUAGE OF THE COUNTRY * ISCED 5A ISCED 5B ISCED 6 programme Further (national/regional level) (institutional level) Intermediate diploma /n/ Compulsory work experience + its duration (n) Duration of the programme (for ISCED 6 and further ISCED 5) Qualifying Qualification ( ) Variable duration degree + field of specialisation 15
18 BELGIUM FRENCH COMMUNITY 16 In the French Community of Belgium, the structure of university education is governed by the decree of 5 September 1994 and the structure of non-university higher education by the decree of 5 August The two-cycle structure is being evaluated in the French Community of Belgium. In university education the structure is moving towards a 3+1 or 3+2 model depending on the discipline concerned. The first cycle will essentially be an intermediate cycle. In the case of non-university higher education of the long type, the first cycle will last 3 years and be followed by another cycle of one year (two years for commercial engineering, architecture and certain artistic studies). Non-university higher education of the short type will consist of a single cycle of three (or in some cases four) years, leading directly to a professional. The reform should be implemented as from the 2004/05 academic year. Institutions have begun to express their courses in terms of ECTS credits. This reform will be progressively introduced and generally adopted from the 2004/05 academic year at the latest. In accordance with the model proposed by the European Union, the Diploma Supplement will be increasingly awarded on a voluntary basis by universities and non-university higher education institutions. The first Diploma Supplements are likely to be awarded from June 2003 onwards. An agency for evaluating the quality of higher education provided or grant aided by the French Community, was set up under a decree of 14 November The Agency, which should start functioning during the 2003/04 academic year, will represent the French Community in national and international bodies for quality assessment in higher education, and particularly the European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA). No specific measures to support lifelong learning have been introduced as part of the Bologna Process. However, higher education courses in the area of social betterment are provided for people beyond the upper age limit for compulsory education. These courses are organised during the evenings or weekends to meet the needs of people engaged in professional activity. A full debate has also been initiated following the Commission Communication on lifelong learning. Each University has been free to set additional requirements for admission to doctoral courses. In practice, the diplôme d études approfondies is often the main basic additional requirement.
19 HIGHER EDUCATION STRUCTURE BELGIUM FRENCH COMMUNITY 2003/ General medicine Veterinary medicine Applied sciences Sciences, economics, agronomy, pharmacy Law, dentistry, psychology, speech therapy, educational sciences Philosophy, humanities, economics, sciences, medical sciences, etc. Architecture Artistic studies Economics Economics, translation, agriculture, technical studies, physiotherapy, etc. Paramedical studies Agriculture, economics, pedagogy, paramedical studies, etc. ISCED 5A ISCED 5B ISCED 6 programme Further UNIVERSITÉ candidature candidature candidature candidature candidature candidature INSTITUT SUPÉRIEUR D'ARCHITECTURE candidature ÉCOLE SUPÉRIEURE DES ARTS candidature candidature graduat* HAUTE ÉCOLE candidature candidature (national/regional level) (institutional level) docteur en médecine vétérinaire ingénieur civil ingénieur / maître / diplôme de pharmacien licence / ingénieur industriel graduat* licence* graduat* Intermediate diploma licence* diplôme d'architecte licence* licence* ingénieur commercial /n/ docteur en médecine (2-6) ( ) (1-2) (1) (1-2) (1) Compulsory work experience + its duration (n) spécialisation doctorat DEA / DES / DEC licence notariat DESS diplôme de spécialisation Duration of the programme (for ISCED 6 and further ISCED 5) Qualifying degree Qualification + field of specialisation ( ) Variable duration Source: Eurydice. 17 DEA Diplôme d Études Approfondies DES Diplôme d Études Spécialisées DEC Diplôme d Études Complémentaires DESS Diplôme d Études Supérieures Spécialisées Under the decree of 8 May 2003, a competitive entrance examination has been introduced for veterinary medicine in the 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 academic years. The Haute École and the Université also provide training for the of agrégé de l enseignement secondaire supérieur which is only open to students who have an ISCED level 5A (solely in courses in economics in the case of the Haute École), or who are enrolled at this level. The course leading to the Certificat d aptitude pédagogique approprié à l enseignement supérieur (CAPAES) is also provided by universities or Hautes Écoles offering courses in economics. It is open to those with an academic providing for their recruitment to the posts of maître de formation pratique, maître assistant or chargé de cours in a Haute École, provided they do not already occupy one of these positions. The licence en notariat is open solely to students who have the of licencié en droit.
20 BELGIUM GERMAN-SPEAKING COMMUNITY Because the provision of higher education in the German-speaking Community of Belgium is not at all widespread, the great majority of young people who study at this level do so in the French Community of Belgium or in Germany. No tangible reform associated with the aims of the Bologna Process has therefore been initiated. The most recent reform concerned with the organisation of higher education dates from 3 July It extended the period of study from two to three years in the Instituts supérieurs pédagogiques (higher teacher training institutes), introduced new forms of general education and training, and reorganised professional training placements for prospective teachers. A decree to implement urgently required measures in education was approved by the Council of the German-speaking Community on 30 June It seeks to supplement paramedical training in higher education by introducing further oneyear training for the of infirmier gradué spécialisé (specialist graduate nurse). The decree also proposes a special form of course (Brückenstudium) leading to the of infirmier gradué (graduate nurse) for those who have the brevet d infirmier (nursing certificate) and at least five years of professional experience. Although there is no credit system, such a system is envisaged in the plans to restructure higher education in the German-speaking Community. The plans mainly involve replacing the two Pädagogische Hochschulen (schools for teacher training) by a single Institut supérieur de pédagogie at which courses would be provided in accordance with a credit system. The necessary negotiations are under way and the Ministry currently expects the Institute to be established in September