Logistic Regression. Vibhav Gogate The University of Texas at Dallas. Some Slides from Carlos Guestrin, Luke Zettlemoyer and Dan Weld.

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1 Logistic Regression Vibhav Gogate The University of Texas at Dallas Some Slides from Carlos Guestrin, Luke Zettlemoyer and Dan Weld.

2 Generative vs. Discriminative Classifiers Want to Learn: h:x Y X features Y target classes Generative classifier, e.g., Naïve Bayes: Assume some functional form for P(X Y), P(Y) Estimate parameters of P(X Y), P(Y) directly from training data Use Bayes rule to calculate P(Y X= x) This is a generative model Indirect computation of P(Y X) through Bayes rule As a result, can also generate a sample of the data, P(X) = y P(y) P(X y) Discriminative classifiers, e.g., Logistic Regression: Assume some functional form for P(Y X) Estimate parameters of P(Y X) directly from training data This is the discriminative model Directly learn P(Y X) But cannot obtain a sample of the data, because P(X) is not available P(Y X) P(X Y) P(Y) 2

3 Optimization Linear Regression! (Point-wise) squared error Problem: Minimize error 3

4 Question: How to solve the optimization problem Set the derivative of J to zero and solve 4

5 Question: How to solve the optimization problem Homework: Prove this! (Messy; algebraic manipulation) 5

6 Multivariate Linear Regression Assuming a dummy attribute x 0 =1 for all examples Inner product or dot product (yields a number) X is a m-by-n matrix 6

7 Overfitting MLE estimate: Some weights are large because of chance (coincidental regularities) Regularize!! Penalize high weights (complex hypothesis) Minimize cost: Loss + Complexity p=1: L1 regularization (Lasso) p=2: L2 regularization 7

8 Regularization L1 L2 8

9 Gradient Descent Closed form solution is not always possible. In that case, we can use the following iterative approach. Algorithm Gradient Descent Learning rate

11 Gradient Descent: 1-D Remember: Derivative is the slope of the line that is tangent to the function Question: What if the learning rate is small? (Slow convergence) Question: What if the learning rate is large? (Fail to converge; even diverge) Rule: 11

12 Back to Classification P(edible X)=1 Decision Boundary P(edible X)=0 12

13 Logistic Regression Learn P(Y X) directly! Assume a particular functional form Not differentiable P(Y)=0 P(Y)=1 13

14 Logistic Regression Learn P(Y X) directly! Assume a particular functional form Logistic Function Aka Sigmoid 14

15 Functional Form: Two classes implies Classification Rule: Assign the label Y=0 if Take logs and simplify: linear classification rule! Y=0 if the RHS>0 17

16 How to learn the weights? Evaluation function: Maximize the conditional log-likelihood indexes the examples Weight vector Note that actually we are just computing P(Y X) W is included in P(Y X) just to show that the probability is computed using W 18

17 How to Learn the weights? 19

18 How to Learn the weights? Why? If the domain of a variable Y is {0,1} Then any function f(y) can be written as: f(y) = Yf(Y=1)+(1-Y)f(Y=0) 20

19 How to learn the weights? Remember Log of this = -ln(denominator) 21

20 How to Learn the weights? Bad news: no closed-form solution to maximize l(w) Good news: l(w) is concave function of W! No local minima Concave functions easy to optimize using Gradient Ascent Update w i as follows: w i =w i +(learning rate)*(partial derivate of l(w) w.r.t. w i ) Notice that unlike gradient descent, in gradient ascent we are interested in the maximim value and therefore we have a + sign on the RHS of the update rule instead of - sign. Carlos Guestrin

21 How to learn the weights? The term inside the parenthesis is the prediction error (difference between the observed value and the predicted probability) Learning rate 23

22 Large parameters a=1 a=5 a=10 Maximum likelihood solution: prefers higher weights higher likelihood of (properly classified) examples close to decision boundary larger influence of corresponding features on decision can cause overfitting!!! Regularization: penalize high weights

23 That s all MCLE. How about MCAP? One common approach is to define priors on W Normal distribution, zero mean, identity covariance Pushes parameters towards zero Regularization Helps avoid very large weights and overfitting MAP estimate:

24 MCAP as Regularization Weight update rule: Quadratic penalty: drives weights towards zero Adds a negative linear term to the gradients Penalizes high weights, like we did in linear regression

25 Naïve Bayes Learning: h:x Y vs. Logistic Regression X features Y target classes Generative Assume functional form for P(X Y) assume cond indep P(Y) Est params from train data Gaussian NB for cont features Bayes rule to calc. P(Y X= x) P(Y X) P(X Y) P(Y) Indirect computation Can also generate a sample of the data 28 Discriminative Assume functional form for P(Y X) no assumptions Est params from training data Handles discrete & cont features Directly calculate P(Y X=x) Can t generate data sample

26 Remember Gaussian Naïve Bayes? Sometimes Assume Variance is independent of Y (i.e., i ), or independent of X i (i.e., k ) or both (i.e., ) P(X i =x Y=y k ) = N( ik, ik ) P(Y X) P(X Y) P(Y) N( ik, ik ) =

27 Gaussian Naïve Bayes vs. Logistic Regression Learning: h:x Y X Real-valued features Y target classes Generative What can we say about the Assume functional form for form of P(Y=1 X i )? P(X Y) assume X i cond indep given Y P(Y) Est params from train data Gaussian NB for continuous features model P(X i Y = y k ) as Gaussian N( ik, i ) model P(Y) as Bernoulli (π,1-π) Bayes rule to calc. P(Y X= x) P(Y X) P(X Y) P(Y) 30 Cool!!!!

28 Derive form for P(Y X) for continuous X i up to now, all arithmetic only for Naïve Bayes models Looks like a setting for w 0? Can we solve for w i? Yes, but only in Gaussian case

29 Ratio of class-conditional probabilities Linear function! Coefficients expressed with original Gaussian parameters!

30 Derive form for P(Y X) for continuous X i Just like Logistic Regression!!!

31 Gaussian Naïve Bayes vs. Logistic Regression Set of Gaussian Naïve Bayes parameters (feature variance independent of class label) Can go both ways, we only did one way Set of Logistic Regression parameters Representation equivalence But only in a special case!!! (GNB with class-independent variances) But what s the difference??? LR makes no assumptions about P(X Y) in learning!!! ---- Optimize different functions! Obtain different solutions

32 Naïve Bayes vs. Logistic Regression Generative vs. Discriminative classifiers Asymptotic comparison (# training examples infinity) when model correct GNB (with class independent variances) and LR produce identical classifiers when model incorrect LR is less biased does not assume conditional independence therefore LR expected to outperform GNB [Ng & Jordan, 2002]

33 Naïve Bayes vs. Logistic Regression [Ng & Jordan, 2002] Generative vs. Discriminative classifiers Non-asymptotic analysis convergence rate of parameter estimates, (n = # of attributes in X) Size of training data to get close to infinite data solution Naïve Bayes needs O(log n) samples Logistic Regression needs O(n) samples GNB converges more quickly to its (perhaps less helpful) asymptotic estimates

34 Naïve bayes Logistic Regression Some experiments from UCI data sets Carlos Guestrin

35 What you should know about Logistic Regression (LR) Gaussian Naïve Bayes with class-independent variances representationally equivalent to LR Solution differs because of objective (loss) function In general, NB and LR make different assumptions NB: Features independent given class! assumption on P(X Y) LR: Functional form of P(Y X), no assumption on P(X Y) LR is a linear classifier decision rule is a hyperplane LR optimized by conditional likelihood no closed-form solution concave! global optimum with gradient ascent Maximum conditional a posteriori corresponds to regularization Convergence rates GNB (usually) needs less data LR (usually) gets to better solutions in the limit

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