MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

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1 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE GROUP TECHNOLOGY/PWBS/IPC GT is not new Has only had limited application in shipyards. Typical uses have been structural part variety reduction and development of pipe piece families. Many shipyards say they use it but they only think so as they use Work Breakdown Structures, classification and coding. This is not GT. GT is necessary if a shipyard wants to utilize automated pipe shop, Computer Aided Process Planning and/or robotics. However, GT is not for everyone. It should not be used unless a clear understanding of why they need it. Many people need a classification and coding system but not GT. 10/15/98 1

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14 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE GROUP TECHNOLOGY/PWBS/IPC (Continued) Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) have been used for many years in many industries. WBSs are a convenient method to show desired tasks and/or processes to be used to build a product. A WBS can be Custom, Group Technology or Standard based. Custom based is when the product and its components are all different and no attempt is made to group the tasks or processes. Group Technology based is when, even though the end products may be different the tasks or processes can be group into similar categories based on work requirements. Standard based is when the product is completely made up of standard components in the same way every time. 10/15/98 14

15 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE GROUP TECHNOLOGY/PWBS/IPC (Continued) A Product Breakdown Structure is a graphic representation of an indented Bill of Material, where the indentations reflect the order in which the components are assembled. The term Product-oriented Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS) refers to the specific case where the product, work and organization are combined into a system to address a specific industrial product, like ships. The concept was introduced into U.S. shipbuilding by the IHI Technology Transfer in 1982 by the NSRP Report Productoriented Work Breakdown Structure. Since then most U.S. shipbuilders have adopted the concept to some level, but not to the extent or the way that the report described. In fact the report is confusing in many ways and has caused implementers considerable trouble. 10/15/98 15

16 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE GROUP TECHNOLOGY/PWBS/IPC (Continued) A PWBS can be one of the most important tools in a shipyard s attempt to improve it s performance. This is because when it is developed correctly and applied to assist in the integration of the many systems in a shipyard, the benefits are significant. Some shipyards develop a more detailed breakdown in the form of an Interim Product Catalog. The catalog can range from a few basic interim product types to a very comprehensive catalog of all parts through to erection. It can also identify work stations and processes used to manufacture the interim products as well as manhour budget and manning. 10/15/98 16

17 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES A breakdown structure is a structured representation of hierarchical information related to products of work. Bills of Material (BOM) are tabular representations of the components that are required to assemble a product. BOM can be simple sequential lists of all material or they can be indented to represent what components go into higher level components. A PRODUCT Structure (PS) is formed by making a hierarchical tree in place of the indented BOM. For convenience it is usually turned 90 degrees to present a vertical cascade. 10/15/98 17

18 BILL OF MATERIAL >>Assembly 1 >>Assembly 2 >>Sub-Assembly 1 >>Sub-Assembly 2 >>Sub-Assembly 3 >>Sub-Assembly 4 >>Part 1 >>Part 2 >>Part 3 >>Part 4 >>Part 5 >>Part 6 >>Part 7 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE 10/15/98 18

19 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE INDENTED BILL OF MATERIAL >>Assembly 1 Sub-Assembly 1 Part 1 Part 2 Sub-Assembly 2 Part 3 >>Assembly 2 Sub-Assembly 3 Part 4 Part 5 Sub-Assembly 4 Part 6 Part 7 10/15/98 19

20 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) have been used for many years in many industries WBS are a convenient way to show desired tasks and/or processes to be used to build a product A WBS can be standard, group technology or custom based Standard is when the product is completely made up of standard components I the same way every time. Group technology is when, even though the end products may be different, the tasks or processes can be grouped into similar categories based on work requirements. Custom is when the product and its components are all different and no attempt is made to group the tasks or processes. 10/15/98 20

21 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (continued) There are many other types of breakdown structures used in a shipyard such as Labor Charging Structure and Cost Accounting Structure. Combining product and work in the same breakdown structure is illogical and confusing. However, there is normally a relationship between the product, the work that is required to manufacture it and the stage in the overall process at which it is done. If these standard relationships are identified and documented in an Interim Product Catalog, then only the product structure is required to identify the work required to produce the product. The work and stage naturally fall out of the system. 10/15/98 21

22 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (continued) A WORK Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a hierarchical representation of the work that is required to produce a product or interim product. A WBS divides the total work into all the tasks to be accomplished in building a product. The tasks are arranged showing their dependencies of the sequence in which they should be performed. 10/15/98 22

23 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (continued) Block Erecting On-Block Outfitting Block Painting Block Constructing Assembling Fabricating Preparing 10/15/98 23

24 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE OTHER BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES Product Breakdown Structures (PBS) is a graphic representation of an indented bill of material, where the indentations reflect the order in which the components are assembled. The term Product-Oriented Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS) refers to the specific case where the product, work and organization are combined into a single system to address a specific industrial product, like a ship. Since the PWBS concept was introduced into U.S. shipbuilding by the 1982 NSRP Report, most shipbuilders have adopted the concept to some level, but not to the level suggested by the NSRP report. 10/15/98 24

25 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE PRODUCT BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE Ship Grand Block or Construction Zone Block or Outfitting Zone Assembly or Unit Sub-Assembly Part Material/Equipment 10/15/98 25

26 INTERIM PRODUCTS MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE Product Any finished (company deliverable object). Interim Product An in process object which is the output of a work stage (process) and is complete in and of itself. Interim Product A library of all interim products with Catalog complete description of physical properties, cost data, manufacturing process, task duration, and resource requirements. 10/15/98 26

27 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE PWBS/IPC REQUIREMENTS Based on shipyard practices Satisfy as many individual group needs as possible Support computer-aided systems throughout company Integrate all shipbuilding information As simple as possible - easy to understand At learning level of all users 10/15/98 27

28 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE IDENTIFICATION IMPORTANCE Identification system has a direct and SIGNIFICANT impact on performance of any manufacturing company Identification system must be the INTEGRATOR for information management system 10/15/98 28

29 IDENTIFICATION NEEDS MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE Estimating Drawings Manufactured and purchased parts Bills of material Purchase specifications In process interim products Design and production zones Work packages Work sequence Material kitting Labor planning Activity scheduling Material control Production control Budgeting 10/15/98 29

30 POTENTIAL APPROACHES MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE Product/Work Station Structure Interim Product Catalog - Product based Interim Product Catalog - Process based 10/15/98 30

31 MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE PRODUCTS/WS STRUCTURES PRODUCT WORK STATION/PROCESS PRODUCTION SUPPORT Blocks- Bottom Stockyard Engineering Bilge Blast & Prime Planning Side Plate Plasma Cut Purchasing Bulkhead Plate Oxy Cut Material Cont. Deck Profile Cut & Mark Production Cont. Loopbelt Tower Plate Flange Transportation Belt (M) Plate Form Lower Bow Profile Form Upper Bow Sub-Assembly Lower Stern Robot Welder Upper Stern Panel Line- Plate Butt Tack Mach Space Bottom Plate Butt Weld Mach Space Sides Etc. Mach Space Flats Block Construction Mach Space Deck Block Hot Outfit Deckhouse Block Clean and Pain Block Cold Outfit Outfitting Zones Dock Block Erection, Fit & Weld Package Unit Assembly Zone Outfit System Test Dock Trial Sea Trial Delivery 10/15/98 31

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33 INTERIM PRODUCT CATALOG MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE PRODUCT BASED PROCESS BASED Design Designing Engineering Engineering Purchase Equipment Planning Raw Material - Plate Controlling - Material/Production Profiles Handling - Plate/Profiles/Pipe/Equipment Castings Blasting & Priming - Plate/Profile/Pipe Forgings Flame Planing Pipe Contour Cutting - Insulation Profile Cutting - Manual/Robotic Paint Plate Forming Electric Cable Profile Bending Parts- Structure Sub-Assembling Machinery Assembling Electrical Block Constructing Auxiliary Block Painting Hull Outfit Package Unit Outfitting Sub-Assemblies Block Outfitting Block Erection Block Erection Welding Assemblies Zone Outfitting Testing Blocks Dock Trialing Sea Trialing Ship Delivering 10/15/98 33

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