1 Figuring Out the Codes: Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities and the Transfer Policy Inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) are hospitals (or subunits of a hospital) that offer intensive rehabilitation services to the inpatient population. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) reimburses IRFs according to the patient discharge status code indicated on the claim. Claims with a patient status code indicating that a beneficiary was discharged to a home will receive a higher repayment ( i.e. full federal prospective payment) then claims that demonstrate that a patient was transferred to another IRF, long term care hospital (LTCH), acute care inpatient hospital, or nursing home (i.e. adjusted federal prospective payment resulting in a per diem payment). The Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (OIG) continues to be concerned regarding IRFs compliance with the transfer policy under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 42 section Previous audits conducted by the OIG resulted in an estimated $12 million in overpayments. Therefore, the OIG is gravely concerned about the extent to which coding errors for claims that should have been paid as transfers have resulted in [IRFs submitting] improper claims under the Medicare payment system for inpatient rehabilitation facilities. The submission of improper claims results in not only excessive and unnecessary payments to IRFs but also has a negative impact on the federal health programs and beneficiaries. IRF Transfer Policy When a patient is admitted to an IRF, the patient is assigned one of 100 clinically distinct case mixed groups (CMGs). A CMG categorize[s] patients according to primary diagnosis, functional level and age which are weighted to account for variance in the resources used. Each CMG has a specified prospective payment rate which is determined by CMS and used to calculate the prospective payment. In addition, each CMG has an average length of stay (LOS). The average LOS is one component used to determine if a beneficiary s stay qualifies as a transfer. There are two criteria that must be fulfilled for a beneficiary s stay to qualify as a transfer: First, the beneficiary s IRF stay must be shorter than the average stay for a CMG; and Second, the beneficiary must be transferred to another IRF, LTCH, acute care inpatient hospital or a nursing home facility accepting Medicare or Medicaid payment. *Atlantic Information Services is a publishing and information company that has been serving the health care industry for more than 20 years. It develops highly targeted news, data and strategic information for managers in hospitals, health plans, medical group practices, pharmaceutical companies and other health care organizations. AIS products include print and electronic newsletters, Web sites, looseleafs, books, strategic reports, databases, audioconferences and live conferences.
2 2 The OIG and CMS have recognized non compliance among IRFs regarding the transfer policy regulation. According to the OIG s Work Plan for fiscal year 2009, the OIG intends to continue to audit IRF claims to determine the scope of coding errors related to the transfer policy. More specifically, the OIG will evaluate the incorrect use of discharge status codes with regards to the transfer policy. Thus, IRFs are at risk of being identified as non compliant and are encouraged to strategize and remediate coding errors. Complying with the IRF Transfer Policy As indicated above, a vital component in computing CMS reimbursement rate is the patient discharge status code. A patient discharge status code is defined as a two digit code that identifies where the patient is at the conclusion of a health care facility encounter or at the time end of a billing cycle. Discharge status codes are required for hospital inpatient claims including IRFs. Thus, to comply with the IRF transfer policy, the IRF must select the appropriate discharge status code. Failure to submit the appropriate code can result in denial of claims, delayed payments, or even return of reimbursement. The following diagram will assist IRFs in complying with the IRF transfer policy.
3 3 Diagram 1: Complying with CMS IRF Transfer Policy Audit Audit patient discharge/transfer codes to validate compliance with CMS' discharge and transfer regulations. For example, collect IRF claims with codes 01 and 06 (indicating discharge to home, and discharge to home under the care of an organized home health organization respectively) and assess if the beneficiary's stay was shorter than the average stay for the CMG. If the stay was shorter than the average stay for the CMG and the patient was transferred to a designated facility listed in 42 CFR the claim should be submitted as a transfer. Collect IRF claims with codes 02,03, and verify with medical documentation that claims are apporpirate transfers. Caveat: when performing audits of patient discharged/ /transfer codes, ensure that all requirements of the IRF transfer policy are fulfilled. Monitor Remediation Document the usage (i.e. frequency) of codes 01 03, 06, Stratify frequencies by month and/or department. If there is an increase in the use of code 01 and 06, questions to address include: Are theree particular months wheree there is an increase in the use of thesee codes? If so, was theree an influx of new employees within the facilitiy's billing administration? Did the individuals receive appropriate job specific compliance training? If there are decreases in the use of codes 02, 03, 61 64, questions to address include: Are theree particualar months where there was a decrease in the use of codes 02,03, 61 64? If so, are appropriate policies and procedures available as well as implemented to ensure compliance with the tranfer regulation? How often has job specific compliance training with regard to the transfer policy been conducted? Conduct routine compliance training with regards to the IRF transfer policy. Require all applicable employees to attend compliance training. Revise compliance education materials to include review of the IRF transfer policy. Develop and implement policies and procedures regarding compliance with coding and billing rules and regulations as well as appropriate patient discharge status codes. Return overpayments to appropriate third party payers (i.e. Medicare and Medicaid) when applicable. Reproduced from High Risk Areas in Medicare Billing Current Developments Newsletter 2008 by Strategic Management Systems, Inc. and Atlantic Information Services, Inc.* *, th Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C , or with Permission.
4 4 Frequently Asked Questions What patient discharge codes are affected by the IRF Transfer policy? Table 1 summarizes the patient discharge status codes that should be submitted for transfers. Table 1: Patient Applicable Discharge Status Codes under the IRF Transfer Policy Patient is transferred to: Patient Status Code Acute care inpatient hospital 02 Skilled Nursing Facility 03 Hospital with an approved swing bed 61 Another IRF 62 LTCH 63 Medicaid only nursing facility 64 A potential coding error may occur with discharge status code 64. Nursing facilities have the option to certify a portion or all the facility s beds under Medicare. If a patient is transferred to a nursing facility that has no Medicare certified beds, [code 64] is used. However, if the nursing facility is Medicare certified, the provider should use patient discharge status code 03 or 04 [discharged or transferred to an Intermediate Care Facility] depending on the level of care the patient is receiving and whether the bed is Medicare certified. What discharge status code should be used for a transfer to a SNF with a rehabilitation unit? Since the rehabilitation unit is a part of the SNF, the SNF will be paid under the SNF prospective payment system. Furthermore, moving a patient from one unit to another does not constitute a transfer for billing purposes and should not result in separate claims. Therefore, if a patient is transferred from an IRF to a SNF that participates in Medicare and/or Medicaid, the discharge status code used is code 03. Overall, IRFs should be cautious in submitting discharge and transfer claims. Identifying the appropriate patient discharge status code can be confusing; however, IRFs are encouraged to seek their regional Medicare Fiscal Intermediaries for clarification.
5 5 References CMS, Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility (IRF) annual Update: Prospective Payment System Pricer Changes for FY 2009, Trans. 1585, CR 6166 (September 5, 2008). CMS, Clarification on Patient Discharge Status Codes and Hospital Transfer Policies, MLN. SE0801 (January 23, 2008). The Office of Inspector General Work Plan for Fiscal Year 2009 The Office of Inspector General Nationwide Review of Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Claims Coded as Discharged to Home with Home Health Agency Services, November The Office of Inspector General Nationwide Review of Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities Compliance With Medicare s Transfer Regulation, September 2006
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