1 Key role of cultural and creative industries in the economy Hendrik van der Pol Director, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Canada Abstract As culture and creativity become an increasing driving force in the international marketplace, it is essential to measure their impact not only on the economy but also on society at large. UNESCO has always been at the forefront of addressing the dual cultural and economic nature of cultural goods and services, working on both the theory and the practice. The Organization s Institute of Statistics (UIS) is currently seeking to redefine international data collection standards for the culture and creative sector so that they take into account the needs and specificities of the developing world. Providing an overview of the main approaches to assessing the economic and social importance of culture, this paper highlights the numerous limitations in current statistical information. It also includes a series of proposals based on the pragmatic approach currently being developed at UIS. Introduction: Increasing role of cultural and creative industries In this era of extraordinary change and globalization, many acknowledge that creativity and innovation are now driving the new economy. Organizations and even economic regions that embrace creativity generate significantly higher revenue and provide greater stability into the future. Based on ideas rather than physical capital, the creative economy straddles economic, political, social, cultural and technological issues and is at the crossroads of the arts, business and technology. It is unique in that it relies on an unlimited global resource: human creativity. Growth strategies in the creative economy therefore focus on harnessing the development potential of an unlimited resource and not on optimizing limited resources (as in traditional manufacturing industries). Many stakeholders are involved in this process: the public sector which includes cultural institutions, e.g. museums, public service broadcasting organizations, etc.; the private sector which covers a wide range of commercial operations in all fields of cultural production and distribution; the non-profit sector including many theatre and dance companies, festivals, orchestras, which may receive government subsidies; and non-governmental organizations such as advocacy agencies, actors and musicians unions. Culture and creative industries have been increasingly integrated into the policy agenda of both developed and developing countries. In 2005, the United Kingdom s Commission for Africa reported that there was a real danger that a lack of attention to culture in policy making [ ] will overwhelm many of the collective mechanisms of
2 survival which are part of Africa s cultures (Commission for Africa 2005;130). In early May 2007, the European Commission announced its decision to adopt a strategy on the contribution of culture to economic growth and intercultural dialogue (European Commission, 2007). Culture is increasingly finding a route to the market, which is leading to radical transformations in the way people create, consume and enjoy cultural products. Globalisation and the convergence of multimedia and telecommunications technologies has transformed consumers from passive recipients of cultural messages into active cocreators of creative content. Digital distribution in industries such as design and music has transformed global markets and allowed new industries and consumers to emerge in developing regions such as Africa and Asia (OECD-2, 2005). It is estimated that licensed digital distribution of recorded music will rise from $653 million in 2005 to $4.9 billion in 2010, which represented a 49.5% compound annual increase (PWC, 2007). The digital distribution of music is but one aspect of much larger economic phenomena, as will be discussed in this paper. Yet it is important to note that culture and creativity also have a tremendous impact on social cohesion and development. In Europe, the role of culture in development shows that the arts enrich the social environment with stimulating or pleasing public amenities... [and] artistic activity, by stimulating creativity [and enhancing] innovation. Works of art and cultural products are a collective memory for a community, and serve as a reservoir of creative and intellectual ideas for future generations. Arts and cultural institutions improve the quality of life (Council of Europe, 1997). Likewise, Australia has underscored the fact that the culture and leisure sector contributes to economic development through facilitating creativity innovation and self reflection and, as such, recognises culture as a key component of society s well-being (ABS, 2001). Culture should not only be considered as a means (or a barrier) to achieve economic growth but also as a factor of social cohesion and human development. Before exploring the social and economic importance of culture any further, certain conceptual differences should be discussed. One choice of orientation, already highlighted in the very title of this session, is to differentiate between cultural industries and creative industries 1. (Another approach, adopting the term copyright industries, is considered briefly below while other categorisations, such as design industries, lie beyond the scope of this paper). Cultural industries relate to the creation, production and commercialisation of the products of human creativity, which are copied and reproduced by industrial processes and worldwide mass distribution. They are often protected by national and international copyright laws. They usually cover printing, publishing and multimedia, audiovisual, phonographic and cinematographic productions, crafts and design. Creative industries encompass a broader range of activities than cultural industries including architecture, advertising, visual and performing arts. The United Kingdom s Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) placed its definition of creative industries at the heart of its policy-marking agenda in the late 1990s and defined creative industries as those requiring creativity, skill and talent, with the potential for wealth and job creation through exploitation of their intellectual property. The principal practical difference between these approaches has been the definition of the sectors and occupations to be included in the statistics. 1 The development of notions of creative industries in the last ten years stems from the UK Dept of Culture Media and Sport Creative Industries Mapping Document (London 1998), with a revised version in 2001.
3 Diverging conceptual terms is not, however, the only difficulty when trying to measure the impact of culture and creativity. For an organization like UNESCO, which is primarily concerned with developing countries, a lack of key data poses a major problem. Since most data on culture are from the developed world, such as OECD and the European Union (EU) countries, the most significant challenge facing UNESCO s Institute for Statistics (UIS) is to develop cultural indicators which are relevant to the developing world, especially Africa. A different approach to measuring culture must therefore be advocated but what form should it take? A certain number of proposals are presented in the latter half of this paper but first it is important to understand fully the economic and social role of culture. Key statistics on the economic and social role of culture The entertainment and media industry are forecast to grow from $1.3 trillion in 2005 to reach 1.8 trillion by 2010 (PWC, 2007). 2 Asia is expected to record the highest growth rate of all regions in the entertainment and media industry, increasing from $274 billion to $425 billion (with a 9.2% compound annual growth rate (CAGR)) and China will have the fastest growing industry in the world, with a 26% CAGR. In 1990s, the creative economy in OECD countries grew at an annual rate twice that of service industries and four times that of manufacturing (Howkins, 2001). The growth of the cultural and creative sector in the European Union from 1999 to 2003 was 12.3% higher than the growth of the overall economy (European Commission, 2006). Turnover of the culture and creative sector in the EU, which comprises television, cinema, music, performing arts, and entertainment, generated 654 billion and contributed to 2.6% of the European Union s GDP in The culture sector employed at least 5.8 million people in Europe in 2004, which is more than the total working population of Greece and Ireland put together. Furthermore, it is often noted that the quality of jobs generated in the creative industries may provide higher levels of job satisfaction, given a strong sense of commitment to the sector and involvement in cultural life. While these statistics are vital to our understanding of the increasing economic contribution of culture, it should be noted that there are several other ways to measure the importance of cultural industries. One such alternative source of data can be found in national satellite accounts, which are being adopted by several MERCOSUR countries. Initial results are provided in Figure 1, where it is shown that the contribution of culture (here understood as publishing, leisure, cultural services and sports) to the GDP for the MERCOSUR countries was less than 3% in While this figure seems to be lower than for European countries, varying definitions may explain these differences; for example, the European study incorporates gambling and casinos and internet transactions, which is not the case for MERCOSUR. 2 The media and entertainment industry includes filmed entertainment; TV; recorded music; radio and out-of-home advertising; internet advertising and access spending; video games; business information; magazine publishing; newspaper publishing; book publishing; theme parks and amusement parks; casino and other regulated gaming; sports.
4 Figure 1: Contribution of the value added of selected cultural industries to the GDP for MERCOSUR countries in 2003 in percentage Uruguay Argentina Chile Colombia Venezuela Brazil Peru Source: Cuenta satélite de cultura, Secretaria de cultura, Argentina, Another way of assessing the creative economy is by examining what is referred to as the copyright industries. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, 2003) developed a framework that enables countries to estimate the size of their creative and information sector. The guide separates out this sector into four categories of industries, which are the Core Copyright Industries, the Interdependent Copyright Industries, the Partial Copyright Industries, and the Non-Dedicated Support Industries. These industries differ by their level of involvement in creation, production and manufacturing in the literary, scientific and artistic domain. The core copyright industries 3 are usually those characterized as typical cultural industries. Table 1 shows the contribution to GDP and employment of the Core Copyright Industries and Copyright Industries as a whole (including the Interdependent and Partial Copyright sectors). When all copyright industries are factored into the economic model, the total value of the contribution to GDP or the workforce can vary considerably depending on how they are defined. 3 The core copyright industries are industries that are wholly engaged in creation, production and manufacturing, performance, broadcast, communication ad exhibition, or distribution and sales of works and other protected subject matter,
5 Table 1 Contribution of copyright industries to the GDP and employment in % for several countries in 2001 Contribution of copyright industries % to Countries Industries GDP Workforce Singapore Copyright industries Core copyright industries Canada Copyright industries Core copyright industries 3.9 USA Copyright industries Core copyright industries Hungary Copyright industries Core copyright industries Latvia Core + interdependent Source: WIPO, National Studies on Assessing the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-Based Industries, A final key source of data on the creative economy is information related to the consumption of cultural activities or products, which can be captured by statistics on household spending on recreation and culture. The inclusion of recreation covers domains beyond the common definition of creative industries, such as the purchase of leisure equipment for camping. The percentage of GDP spent on household expenditure on recreation and culture for most OECD countries shows a positive correlation with per capita income (OECD, 2007). The richer a country is, the more chance there is that the population will spend a higher percentage of their income on culture and leisure. However, there are some anomalies: in Ireland, considered a rich country, the population spends relatively little on recreation and culture, while the Czech Republic, considered a poorer country, spends a rather high share. Figure 2 shows that in OECD countries, the percentage of household expenditures on recreation and culture is included in a range between 2% for Mexico and 8% of the GDP for the United Kingdom. The trend has remained fairly stable at around 5% of GDP over the last decade.
6 4 Figure 2 Household expenditure on recreation and culture as percentage of GDP in 2005 or latest year available Percentage of GDP United Kingdom Australia Austria Iceland United States Japan Czech Republic Finland Spain Canada Sweden Slovenia Greece Germany France Denmark Slovak Republic Switzerland Netherlands Belgium Poland Hungary Italy Korea Luxembourg Ireland Mexico Source: OECD, OECD Factbook Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, Measuring progress: the limits of current cultural statistics Despite these different methodologies to measure the creative economy, there are a number of limitations to such data collection. Not only do varying definitions and categorizations often make information incomparable, as we have already seen, but data is also frequently scarce or at best incomplete. Furthermore, there is a widespread lack of resources and expertise to ensure high quality statistical work, especially in the developing world, as data collection on the creative sector remains a low priority area for many countries. Many different initiatives to measure culture and map out cultural and copyright industries have been developed in Latin America in the past ten years, not only at the local and national level but also sub-regionally (e.g. Mercosur, Grupo Andino and CONACULTA). Statistical data and indicators have reached an advanced level of detail and sophistication in some cases (such as Colombia and Chile), but are non-existent in 4 Household expenditure on recreation and culture includes purchases of audio-visual, photographic and computer equipment; CDs and DVDs; musical instruments; camper vans; caravans; sports equipment; toys; domestic pets and related products; gardening tools and plants; newspapers; tickets to sporting matches, cinemas and theatres; and spending on gambling (including lottery tickets) less any winnings. It excludes expenditures on restaurants, hotels, and travel and holiday homes but includes package holidays.
7 other countries of the region, particularly those in Central America. The Organization of American States and the Organization of Ibero-American States are currently striving to establish cultural information systems (CIS) through knowledge-sharing activities among countries in the region. However, these tend to be highly descriptive and a common set of core indicators has yet to be identified. As for Africa, the role of cultural industries in the continent s development was acknowledged in the 1992 Dakar Plan of Action (UNESCO, 1992). The document serves as a reference point for current strategies in this area, as described in the New Partnership for Africa s Development (NEPAD) plan for culture and development (UNESCO, 2003). Having said this, few culture statistics are currently collected on a regular basis, despite increasing policy needs to assess the importance of revenue generated from cultural industries which thrive on the continent, such as music and crafts. This requires a better characterization within international classification systems in order to provide clear guidance to National Statistics Offices. On a more global scale, one of the major failings of current statistical data is that it does not accurately capture copyright flows and other intangible assets. World trade in core cultural goods taken as recorded media (music, CDs, etc) and printed media (books, newspapers, periodicals, etc.) amounted to almost $60 million in 2002 (UIS, 2005). However, these figures do not capture the value of copyright cultural products traded worldwide. Trade statistics are captured through customs data and therefore relate only to the physical characteristics of products. What they fail to take into account is the value of ideas, creativity and innovation which, in most cases, are transformed into productive capacity requiring intellectual property protection. As mentioned in the introduction, the cultural sector exploits an infinite raw material creativity which proves difficult to trace in physical form. Data on imports and exports of films can be used to indicate diversity in production and exchange by indicating diversity in the origin of films entering a country, but it presents the severe limitations of customs and balance of payments data (UIS, 2005). Typically, films are exported to the destination market, then copied and distributed locally. As a result, the level of exports may bear little relation to the volume distributed in the recipient country. While an exported film has an almost negligible value at customs, the bulk of international exchanges relating to its export are compiled in data from balance of payments, in the form of receipts for royalties and licences through copies, exhibition rights and reproduction licence fees. Another major challenge to data collection is the question of how to measure cultural employment. In order to understand cultural employment within a country, occupations within cultural industries need to be supplemented with cultural occupations in noncultural industries. These could include, for example, design activities in manufacturing and other sectors. Furthermore, cultural occupations in developing countries are often a secondary occupation for agricultural labourers or other workers and, as such, are often not declared or captured in censuses and labour force surveys. The International Standard Classification by Occupations (ISCO) currently does not provide the level of detail required to identify cultural occupations in a truly comprehensive manner. In some cases, it is necessary to link employment data with industry data to calculate total cultural employment. These hidden or embedded cultural occupations may not include a large enough number of practitioners to be accurately measured in sample surveys. Moreover, self-employed or informal work, and even small companies of less than ten people are not captured in surveys. In this respect, even European statistics may well underestimate cultural employment.
8 UIS s role in defining standards In 2006, the UIS began to revise the 1986 UNESCO Statistical Framework for Culture. Preliminary proposals have been well received by countries and present a further opportunity to rally countries around a common standard. It is recognized that, in the past, such initiatives have often failed as few countries have sufficient resources for dedicated surveys of culture, and that earlier standards have seen to be centred on OECD or EU perspectives rather than those of developing countries. Instead, UIS will concentrate on a pragmatic approach building on a regular collection of statistical instruments, such as labour force surveys and population censuses. Proposals will focus on standard-setting, which involves marginal adaptations to these existing data collection instruments, thus minimizing costs and maximizing the potential for regular collection of cultural data once the project has been completed. They will present a comprehensive approach to measuring culture in both social and economic spheres while allowing countries the flexibility to identify different national priorities. 5 UIS has produced two reports on the international trade in cultural goods, but the Institute must now also consider the question of the consumption of cultural goods. Consumption is seen by some as an economic approach whereas culture demands a wider view in which enjoyment has more than an economic value. Nevertheless, specialists in the culture field are quick to point out that participation in cultural activities has strong social benefits, such as confirming identity with a social group, increasing social cohesion, or, through an encounter with a different culture, allowing people to question assumptions about how they act or think about their own emotional and moral values. UIS is therefore interested in developing instruments for national and international studies, which will evaluate participation in a wide range of cultural activities. The Institute s approach is a fundamentally pragmatic one since it realises that estimating the full value of cultural goods would be too costly. Developing countries in particular do not have the financial resources to carry out extensive surveys to assess cultural value, and expertise on the special methodologies involved is scarce. Instead, UIS recommends that countries take a broad-based approach, while understanding the inevitable imperfections of the results produced. A measurement strategy, which draws on common existing statistical instruments and standards, is required. As such, UIS advocates the use of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) and Classification of Occupations (ISCO). UIS is currently working with the International Labour Organization to ensure that they represent the full range of cultural employment. At the same time, UIS will advise national statistical offices that, while adhering to international standards, they should aim to identify the informal sector in any cultural industries that are a national priority. For example, all national statistical offices conduct a labour force survey and, if such surveys asked about a second occupation, it is likely that many craftsmen would be identified. In addition to making small adjustments to existing surveys, it is always possible for countries to undertake dedicated surveys for priority issues. In the realm of culture, 5 It is suggested that the Framework will allow countries to choose the sectors which are most appropriate for their national policy, but that the sector definitions will be based on international standards. As such, while countries may choose different sectors, they will be able to compare themselves with other countries that choose the same sector or sectors.
9 dedicated surveys could be used to drill down in depth in a particular sector, to consider the implications of a particular event, or to measure the overall participation of a certain population in cultural activities. In the case of a sector study, considerable care should be taken with sample design to ensure that informal, artisan, and amateur craft production is captured. Another common form of survey covers a particular event or place, usually registering the number of visitors to a site, event or festival. While in OECD countries it is easy to separate tourists and audiences from locals and performers respectively, this is more difficult in other countries in the world. Many sites, whether natural or architectural heritage, play a central role in the lives of local communities. This means that local participation and use of these sites should be surveyed alongside those of visitors from further a field. Similarly, in many festivals in non-oecd countries audience and performers cannot be separated as people move between roles at different times. This is clearest in music, dance and drama, and artistic production where local shows are often an opportunity for artists to exchange ideas and inspirations as much as they are about displaying works to the general public. Recognizing the many limitations of current cultural statistics, UIS proposes three main aspects in which data collection on a particular cultural industry may require data of other forms: education, traditional knowledge, and archiving and preserving. Education teaches people how to value culture and is the principal means of transmitting culture from one generation to the next. Enrolment rates in cultural education programmes are therefore useful indicators on how different aspects of culture are covered in school and higher education. Traditional knowledge represents cultural production that is not included in the conventional market because it is subject to informal exchange, nonmonetary exchange (e.g. exchange of gifts) or amateur/informal production. Examples might include the practice of traditional medicine, rural textile production, production of traditional musical instruments or dress. While these articles may not enter the market, their production can be a very significant share of cultural production in a particular sector and many countries will want more accurate data on the scale of this production. Archiving and preserving is not merely the way in which significant works of art are conserved and safeguarded for posterity. Important works of art or traditions can be powerful forces for acculturation and inspiration for future artists. Works of art, heritage sites and intangible heritage are therefore assets, which, if invested in, can provide returns in terms of new cultural products, and visitor revenues. Figure 3 shows an initial view of some sectors showing how the three suggested transverse dimensions might be measured.
10 Fig. 3 Examples of some indicators for cultural industries across four sectors and the three transverse dimensions ISICs nuanced by occupation and product classifications Arts Visual, fine, performing arts Heritage Natural Cultural Tangible and Intangible Audio-visual Film, video, new media Books & Press Production & Consumption Employment Value Performances Employment Value Employment Value No of titles Employment Value No of titles Education Enrolment Performances in/by schools Enrolment Attendance (visitors & locals) ICTs in education School textbooks Traditional knowledge Craft artisan Story tellers Festivals ($, attendance) Intangible heritage (no Traditional knowledge on of themes) the Internet Biodiversity, language, Audio-visual medicines documentaries Languages in print Archiving & Preserving Document centres Conservation (jobs, spending) Film archives (volumes) Libraries (volumes, transactions) UNESCO s approach to measuring creativity and culture UNESCO has always been at the forefront of addressing the dual cultural and economic nature of cultural goods and services. The Organization has worked extensively on this interface, exploring both the theory and the practice. 6 In May 2008, it is set to publish its next World Report on the theme of cultural diversity. Building on the considerable amount of critical reflection that lies behind the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001) and its Action Plan, the report will aim to identify key policies and policy-making instruments to ensure that cultural diversity, sometimes perceived as a threat or a source of insecurity, is truly fruitful and can flourish for the benefit of all. This report is to include a statistical annex provided by UIS. An example of UNESCO s practical involvement in the field, the Global Alliance for Culture Diversity is a pilot project that forges public-private partnerships to strengthen cultural industries and enterprises in developing countries. In terms of normative action, UNESCO adopted the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions in Following an unprecedented ratification rate, the Convention entered into force on 18 March This binding legal instrument promotes cultural industries as key to sustainable development and poverty reduction and seeks to strengthen international cooperation in the field of cultural industries. One of the aims of the Convention is to gain a greater understanding of how to measure the 6 UNESCO has published a number of works on the subject matter: Our Creative Diversity, report by World Commission on Culture and Development, 1995; Culture, Creativity and Markets, World Culture Report, 1998; Cultural Diversity, Conflict and Pluralism, World Culture Report, 2000 and International Flows of Selected Cultural Goods and Services, , UIS, 2005.
11 diversity of cultural expressions. To that end, UNESCO s international standards in the field of culture will be reviewed in close collaboration with UIS, in particular those related to creative industries and their impact on economic development. Conclusion A broader assessment of the economic impact of cultural sectors and products is key to providing a fuller picture of the real impact of culture. As a final example, we should consider the impact of the Great Wall of China. It attracts huge tourist income, investment by national authorities and local people. Yet a quick search finds the Great Wall also used as a symbol to sell a wide range of products, including a brand of car, a packaging machine, the Olympics, Chinese language courses, software, music, hotels, cigarettes, medicine, fireworks, food, hydraulic fluid and so on. The Wall contributes to the sale of all these products, extending its economic impact far beyond the heritage sector. In theory, an assessment of the economic impact of the Great Wall should take into account its value as a brand for all these products, its value to the people of China as a symbol of national identity as well as its value to the people of the world as an outstanding achievement of humanity. It is of course this latter aspect which has led to its inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage lists. The example of the Great Wall illustrates how far we have to go to measure the full impact of culture in the economy, as well as the extensive contribution that culture makes to both economy and society as a whole. Having said this, a sense of optimism should prevail since the studies cited at the beginning of this article indicate that an initial assessment of cultural industries using existing data can bring great benefits. All countries that have carried out such an assessment have been surprised by the extent to which such industries contribute to national economic performance. Such an initial study can help identify which industries are the most important and where the evidence requires further work to present a full picture. Often the impact of an initial study into such cultural industries creates momentum for statistical agencies to examine the issue in greater depth. The more that the impact of cultural industries is studied using the approaches suggested in this article, the more officials and members of the public will be able to appreciate the breadth and richness of what culture has to offer a country. In addition, the more that the economic value of culture is appreciated, the more people are willing to invest in culture, whether they be public agencies or private companies who recognize the real returns that culture provides. All these issues can only be addressed through close international co-operation. This must include partnerships between different international agencies (such as the OECD, EUROSTAT and UNESCO), professional associations (such as the International Federation of Library Associations) and national authorities for whom the resulting statistics should be relevant, timely and of high quality. Only then will we be able to measure the full impact on culture and creative on our economies and our societies.
12 References Australian Bureau of Statistics, Measuring well being, Council of Europe, From The Margins: A contribution to the debate on Culture and Development in Europe, European Task Force on Culture and Development, Department for Culture Media and Sport, United Kingdom (DCMS), Mapping Document, Department for Culture Media and Sport, United Kingdom (DCMS), Creative Industries Economic Estimates Statistical Bulletin, European Commission, Communication for a European agenda for culture in a globalizing world, John Howkins, The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas, OECD-1, Culture and Local Development, OECD-2, Digital broadband content: mobile content, new content for new platforms, Working party on the information economy, OECD, OECD Factbook Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, Price WaterHouse Coopers (PWC), Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: , Presidencia de la nación, Secretaria de cultura, Argentina, Cuenta satélite de cultura, UIS, UNESCO, International Flows of Selected Cultural Goods and Services, , UNESCO, Culture industries for development in Africa: Dakar plan of action, Organization of African Unity, UNESCO, Atelier sur la culture et le développement dans le progamme d action du NEPAD, World Commission on culture and development, Our creative diversity, World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), Guide on surveying the economic contribution of the copyright-based industries, WIPO, National studies on Assessing the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-Based Industries, 2006.
From: Education at a Glance 2012 Highlights Access the complete publication at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag_highlights-2012-en How many students study abroad and where do they go? Please cite this chapter
What Is the Total Public Spending on Education? Indicator On average, OECD countries devote 12.9% of total public expenditure to, but values for individual countries range from less than 10% in the Czech
Indicator What Proportion of National Wealth Is Spent on Education? In 2008, OECD countries spent 6.1% of their collective GDP on al institutions and this proportion exceeds 7.0% in Chile, Denmark, Iceland,
Indicator On What Resources and Services Is Education Funding Spent? In primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education combined, current accounts for an average of 92% of total spending in
Creative Industries Economic Estimates January 2015 Statistical Release Date: 13/01/2015 The Creative Industries Economic Estimates are Official Statistics and have been produced to the standards set out
THE UK FILM MARKET AS A WHOLE BFI Research and Statistics PUBLISHED DECEMBER 2015 Image: The Lady in the Van courtesy of Sony Pictures THE UK FILM MARKET AS A WHOLE THE UK WAS THE SECOND LARGEST FILM MARKET
Indicator to Which fields of education are students attracted? Women represent the majority of students and graduates in almost all OECD countries and largely dominate in the fields of education, health
ON OECD I-O DATABASE AND ITS EXTENSION TO INTER-COUNTRY INTER- INDUSTRY ANALYSIS " Norihiko YAMANO" OECD Directorate for Science Technology and Industry" " 1 February 2012" INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON FRONTIERS
TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division 10 th Public Procurement Knowledge Exchange Platform Istanbul, May 2014 The Organization for Economic
Understanding Creative Industries: their definitions, models, measurements and drivers 1. Conceptual framework for the creative industries The concept of creative industries is relatively new and remains
Appendix C National Subscription Television Regulations Australia At least 10% of annual programme expenditure on pay TV drama services must be on new eligible (Australian) Same requirements as cable television
Education at a Glance 2014 OECD indicators 2014 Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators For more information on Education at a Glance 2014 and to access the full set of Indicators, visit www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm.
A new ranking of the world s An Economist Intelligence Unit report Sponsored by Cisco Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 2009 A new ranking of the world s Preface In April 2009, the Economist Intelligence
Indicator How Many Students Finish Tertiary Education? Based on current patterns of graduation, it is estimated that an average of 46% of today s women and 31% of today s men in OECD countries will complete
INFORMAL E.U. CULTURE MINISTERS MEETING Venaria Reale, Turin, 24 September 2014 Discussion Paper This document is intended to nurture the debate of the informal Council of Ministers meeting in Turin on
ISSN 2072-7925 How intuitive design in schools can be achieved by engaging with the consumer CELE Exchange 2010/12 OECD 2010 How intuitive design in schools can be achieved by engaging with the consumer
2015 Country RepTrak The World s Most Reputable Countries July 2015 The World s View on Countries: An Online Study of the Reputation of 55 Countries RepTrak is a registered trademark of Reputation Institute.
2012 Country RepTrak Topline Report The World s View on Countries: An Online Study of the Reputation of 50 Countries RepTrak is a registered trademark of Reputation Institute. Global Reputation Knowledge
Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg (firstname.lastname@example.org) Chief, Creative Economy Programme Euro-African Campus for Cultural Cooperation, Maputo, June 2009 1 Context and Objective First UN multi-agency report
Chapter B Financial and Human Resources Invested In Education Education at a Glance OECD 2011 203 chapter B Classification of al expenditure Educational expenditure in this chapter is classified through
COPYRIGHT + CREATIVITY = JOBS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH WIPO STUDIES ON THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF THE COPYRIGHT INDUSTRIES World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Background
U.S. Trade Overview, 213 Stephanie Han & Natalie Soroka Trade and Economic Analysis Industry and Analysis Department of Commerce International Trade Administration October 214 Trade: A Vital Part of the
PRINCIPLES FOR EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE PARIS, 1991 DAC Principles for Evaluation of Development Assistance Development Assistance Committee Abstract: The following
ISSN 2072-7925 Managing the university campus: Exploring future models and supporting today s decisions CELE Exchange 2012/2 OECD 2012 Managing the university campus: Exploring models for the future and
Chapter 9 Exporting Services In this chapter... Role of the service sector in the United States and in world economies Differences between service and product exporting Places where service exporters can
Collaboration Grant How to APPLY Contents Introduction 2 Eligibility criteria who is eligible and what is eligible? 3 What we don t fund 6 How we assess the applications 7 Application form 6 INTRODUCTION
The World in 211 ICT Facts and Figures One third of the world s population is online 45% of Internet users below the age of 25 Share of Internet users in the total population Users, developed Using Internet:
Gini Coefficient The Gini Coefficient is a measure of income inequality which is based on data relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates perfect income equality, whereas
2 OECD RECOMMENDATION OF THE COUNCIL ON THE PROTECTION OF CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of
PORTABILITY OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND HEALTH CARE BENEFITS IN ITALY Johanna Avato Human Development Network Social Protection and Labor The World Bank Background study March 2008 The Italian Social Security
Education at a Glance 2011 OECD Indicators DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2011-en OECD 2011 Under embargo until 13 September, at 11:00 Paris time Education at a Glance 2011 Country note China Questions
Finland must take a leap towards new innovations Innovation Policy Guidelines up to 2015 Summary Finland must take a leap towards new innovations Innovation Policy Guidelines up to 2015 Summary 3 Foreword
Last updated: 4 September 2015 Reporting practices for domestic and total debt securities While the BIS debt securities statistics are in principle harmonised with the recommendations in the Handbook on
ISSN 2072-7925 OECD review of the secondary school modernisation programme in Portugal CELE Exchange 2010/1 OECD 2010 OECD review of the secondary school modernisation programme in Portugal By Alastair
Overview of the OECD work on transfer pricing Written contribution to the Conference Alternative Methods of Taxation of Multinationals (13-14 June 2012, Helsinki, Finland) by Marlies de Ruiter, Head of
34 McKinsey on Payments September 2013 Global payments trends: Challenges amid rebounding revenues Global payments revenue rebounded to $1.34 trillion in 2011, a steep increase from 2009 s $1.1 trillion.
Government at a Glance 2015 Size of public procurement Strategic public procurement E-procurement Central purchasing bodies 135 Size of public procurement Public procurement refers to the purchase by governments
Hong Kong s Health Spending 1989 to 2033 Gabriel M Leung School of Public Health The University of Hong Kong What are Domestic Health Accounts? Methodology used to determine a territory s health expenditure
PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS Australia Permanent worker: Permanent workers are employees with paid leave entitlements in jobs or work contracts of unlimited duration, including regular workers whose
From: Government at a Glance 2009 Access the complete publication at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264075061-en Delegation in human resource management Please cite this chapter as: OECD (2009), Delegation
European Film Agency Directors Study on the economic and cultural impact, notably on co-productions, of territorialisation clauses of State aid schemes for films and audio-visual productions Contribution
ISBN 978-92-64-04661-0 Trends Shaping Education OECD 2008 Chapter 1 Ageing OECD Societies FEWER CHILDREN LIVING LONGER CHANGING AGE STRUCTURES The notion of ageing societies covers a major set of trends
TTIP AND CULTURE In 2013, the European Union (EU) started negotiations for a free trade agreement (FTA) the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership or TTIP with the United States (US), the largest
Understanding Creative Industries Cultural statistics for public-policy making Contents Introduction 1. Cultural Industries and Creative Industries 2. International studies and UNESCO s mandate 3. National
Office of Research & Analysis National Endowment for the Arts January 2015 ACPSA Issue Brief #4: Arts and Cultural Contributions to the Creative Economy The United States currently lacks an official definition
EUROPE 2020 TARGETS: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Research, development and innovation are key policy components of the EU strategy for economic growth: Europe 2020. By fostering market take-up of new, innovative
The Community Innovation Survey 2010 (CIS 2010) THE HARMONISED SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE The Community Innovation Survey 2010 FINAL VERSION July 9, 2010 This survey collects information on your enterprise s
The Borderless Workforce 2011 Australia and New Zealand Research Results Introduction Given the fact that neither Australia or New Zealand are facing problems, like high unemployment rates during the labour
FDI IN FIGURES December 2014 International investment continues to struggle Figures for the first half of 2014 point to stalled FDI flows Findings FDI fell in the first quarter of 2014 before rebounding
Consumer Credit Worldwide at year end 2012 Introduction For the fifth consecutive year, Crédit Agricole Consumer Finance has published the Consumer Credit Overview, its yearly report on the international
Education at a Glance Interim Report: Update of Employment and Educational Attainment Indicators Education at a Glance Interim Report: Update of Employment and Educational Attainment Indicators January
Creative Industries Economic Estimates January 2014 Statistical Release Date: 14/01/2014 The Creative Industries Economic Estimates are Official Statistics and have been produced to the standards set out
The Economic Impact of the Cultural Sector in Scotland Stewart Dunlop*, Susan Galloway**, Christine Hamilton** and Adrienne Scullion** *Fraser of Allander Institute, University of Strathclyde ** Centre
NSW Creative Industry Economic Fundamentals Department of State and Regional Development NSW Creative Industry: Economic Fundamentals Contents 1. Overview...6 1.1. Data... 6 2. The creative industry...7
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 1. Size of GDP 2. GDP growth 3. GDP per capita 15 1. Size of GDP 1. Gross Size domestic of GDP product (GDP) is the standard measure of the value of final goods and services
Early Childhood Education and Care Participation in education by three- and four-year-olds tends now to be high, though coverage is a third or less of the age group in several OECD countries. Early childhood
OUTLOOK2016 Media Cost Forecasts November 2015 Introduction All network media agencies and media auditors invited to submit cost forecasts for 2016 and actuals for 2015; 46 markets covered across 7 media
A Nielsen Report Global Trust in Advertising and Brand Messages April 2012 CONSUMER TRUST IN EARNED ADVERTISING GROWS IN IMPORTANCE Earned media sources remain most credible Trust in traditional paid advertising
Rebecca FREEMAN July 2008 OECD Statistics Directorate Division of Structural Economic Statistics LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY INDICATORS COMPARISON OF TWO OECD DATABASES PRODUCTIVITY DIFFERENTIALS & THE BALASSA-SAMUELSON
Joint Oireachtas Committee on Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation Job creation, innovation and balanced economic development in the creative economy 28 th April 2015 Opening Statement by Brian Dalton, Managing
Facts: Population Facts: Population 6 big nations: > 35 million (Germany, the UK, France, Italy, Spain and Poland). Netherlands: 16 million people. 8 small nations (size of a big city): 8 to 11 million:
97 98 99 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 11 12 97 98 99 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 11 12 p p FDI IN FIGURES April 213 According to preliminary estimates, global FDI flows have declined in 212 by 14% from 211 to USD 1.4 trillion
The Role of Banks in Global Mergers and Acquisitions by James R. Barth, Triphon Phumiwasana, and Keven Yost * There has been substantial consolidation among firms in many industries in countries around
THE LOW INTEREST RATE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON INSURANCE MARKETS Mamiko Yokoi-Arai Current macro economic environment is of Low interest rate Low inflation and nominal wage growth Slow growth Demographic
Sell Globally in a Snap Supported Payment Methods Global In the global payments market, credit cards are the most popular payment method. However, BlueSnap expands the payment selection by including not
ISSN 2072-7925 Schools of the Future initiative in California CELE Exchange 2011/7 OECD 2011 Schools of the Future initiative in California By Kathleen Moore, California Department of Education, California,
Statistical Data on Women Entrepreneurs in Europe September 2014 Enterprise and Industry EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry Directorate D SMEs and Entrepreneurship Unit
Opportunities for Growth in the UK Events Industry Roles & responsibilities A report to the All Party Parliamentary Group For Events Presented jointly by the October 2011 1 Contents 1.0 The UK events industry
World Consumer Income and Expenditure Patterns 2014 14th edi tion Euromonitor International Ltd. 60-61 Britton Street, EC1M 5UX TableTypeID: 30010; ITtableID: 22914 Income Algeria Income Algeria Income
2014 IMD World Talent Report By the IMD World Competitiveness Center November 2014 IMD World Talent Report 2014 Copyright 2014 by IMD: Institute for Management Development, Lausanne, Switzerland For further
Global Media Report 203 Global Industry Overview McKinsey & Company Global Media Report 203 McKinsey & Company s Global Media and Entertainment Practice Never before has an integrated view across the media
IPA Global Publishing Statistics Rüdiger Wischenbart 1 International Publishers Association The 20 Largest Publishing Markets A list of the 20 largest publishing markets therefore highlights complex dynamics
The 1 Economic Impact of the Creative Industries in the Americas A report prepared by for The aim of this research is to assess and demonstrate the economic contribution and potential of the creative and
legislative standards on electronic communications and electronic signatures: an introduction Luca Castellani Legal Officer secretariat International harmonization of e-commerce law Model Law on Electronic
Please cite this paper as: Greville, E. (2009), Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Schools in Ireland, CELE Exchange, Centre for Effective Learning Environments, 2009/01, OECD Publishing.
Introduction to Macroeconomics Sebastian Koch Lauder Business School Summer term 2016 Course Outline 2 LBS Intranet CIS Access to course description via LBS Intranet: https://cis.lbs.ac.at/ Check the course
International overview of arrangements for national support of R&D Options for African Nations. Paul van Gardingen & Anna Karp The University of Edinburgh Centre for the study of Environmental Change and
CREATIVE North Carolina 2014 Fact Sheet: Creativity At Work www.ncarts.org/creative_economy Creative North Carolina includes Nonprofit arts, humanities and cultural organizations Audiences and cultural
SWINBURNE SCHOOL OF DESIGN 1 Welcome Professor Scott Thompson-Whiteside Dean, School of Design email@example.com 2 What is Design? 3 What is Design? A human-centered problem solving process 4
Energy Briefing: Global Crude Oil Demand & Supply November 6, 215 Dr. Edward Yardeni 516-972-7683 eyardeni@ Debbie Johnson 48-664-1333 djohnson@ Please visit our sites at www. blog. thinking outside the
Creative media and digital activity This information sheet is for prospective applicants to the Grants for the arts programme, who will be applying from 1 July 2013. Please also read our How to apply guidance
Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures Economic Growth, Human Welfare and Inequality Lord Turner Chairman of the Financial Services Authority, the Climate Change Committee and the Overseas Development Institute
PISA FOR SCHOOLS How is my school comparing internationally? Andreas Schleicher Director for Education and Skills OECD Madrid, September 22 nd PISA in brief Over half a million students representing 28
THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF PURCHASING AND SUPPLY MANAGEMENT Your global network of procurement professionals A Global Network Do you want to reach a market of 250,000 procurement professionals internationally?