Bioethics. Glossary. A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 1

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Bioethics. Glossary. A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 1"

Transcription

1 Bioethics Glossary in vitro fertilisation A method of assisted reproduction that involves collection of ova (female eggs) and sperm, which are then fertilised in the lab, before implantation in the mother to be s uterus. foetus A baby in the womb. In medical terms, the human foetal period is from eight weeks until the baby is born. embryo In humans, the embryo is the organism developing in the uterus between the second and the eighth week after fertilisation. genetic screening testing groups of people to check for potential hereditary disorders. stem cell research utilising undifferentiated primitive cells that have the potential to grow into a range of different cells. Stem research is seeking to find cures for a broad range of human disorders. cloning The process of making genetically identical copies of organisms. pre natal screening Medical techniques of examining the foetus in the womb to detect potential abnormalities. pre implantation screening In in vitro fertilisation assisted reproduction, the screening of embryos for genetic defects prior to the implantation. gene therapy Medical treatment that seeks to correct genetic defects or diseases by replacing dysfunctional or missing genes with functioning ones. Therapeutic cloning Cloning of a person to the five day embryo stage only. At this point, the stem cells are removed from the embryo (which is thus destroyed), for use in stem cell treatments. This technology is currently at the research stage. Adult cloning The cloning of a person with the intention of reproducing a person with the same DNA as the donor of the original genetic material. Adult cloning is currently not being actively pursued by any reputable medical team worldwide.] Bioethics is a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival. In practical terms, it is a branch of ethics A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 1

2 concerned with issues surrounding health care and the biological sciences. Such issues include the morality of abortion, euthanasia, in vitro fertilisation and organ transplantation. As suggested by the definition of bioethics above, there tends to be a spectrum of opinion about what is acceptable in bioethics, rather than a single, definitive answer. This is especially true of Judaism, a tradition that encourages, through its rabbinical teachers, interpretation of new life situations in the light of the halachah. As a living religion, Judaism will continue to dialogue with and respond to the moral dilemmas posed by advanced in science and technology. Jewish opinion can occupy the full spectrum. The mitzvah to procreate is strong in Judaism, and this would encourage support for the new technologies that allow married Jews who previously may not have been able to conceive children to have them. On the other hand, Judaism is inherently conservative: there is a Godgiven Law and it may not be right for people to have their every desire, as is seen above in Jewish sexual ethics. The slippery slope argument is sometimes employed in the discussion of ethics in Judaism. Some conservative authorities seek to build a fence around the Law, to avoid the slippery slope not permitting some behaviours which are not strictly forbidden according to the halachah, but which, if allowed, may lead to other prohibited behaviours. Generally speaking, Jewish bioethics operates within the tension created between the opposite ends of this spectrum. The appropriateness of any of the new technologies is considered on the merits of the individual case, dependent upon the motives of those using it and the insights gained by a reading of the halachah. A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 2

3 C Birth control and abortion As was noted in the previous section, Jews are required to be fruitful and multiply. Having children is therefore a mitzvah. There may be reasons for conception to be avoided, but it is also one s responsibility to participate in marital relations. For this reason, some birth control methods are not allowed in Judaism. Rabbinical opinion has generally approved only the use of female contraceptive devices, such as the diaphragm and the contraceptive pill. The reason is that as long as the male is attempting procreation with each act of sexual intercourse, the commandment to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled. Jewish views on abortion do not fit neatly into the pro choice or antiabortion camps. Generally, it is the life of the mother that is seen as paramount. In the Talmud, the foetus is not considered a person until the time of the birth. At the same time, Jewish commentators realise the potential human being status of the foetus. Abortion presents Judaism with a moral dilemma. In the first forty day of the existence of the embryo, it is considered by the Talmudic authorities to be merely water and thus abortion, given the right motivations, is acceptable. The question remains whether, in any particular case, the human potentiality of the foetus becomes so compelling a factor as to make abortion morally unjustifiable. An equally important question is whether the life or health (including mental health) of the mother becomes so threatened as to morally justify abortion. Traditional Judaism has had a strong anti abortion message in Israel in recent years through the work of Efrat The International Organization for Saving Jewish Babies. Efrat also has offices in the largest Jewish community in the world, the US. A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 3

4 C Reproductive technologies Reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization, genetic screening, stem cell research and cloning are relatively new and as such, the responsa to them are still emerging. In vitro fertilization has majority approval among Jewish ethicists. Whatever other concerns might exist are outweighed by the greater mitzvot of being fruitful. As mentioned above, the embryo in the first forty days does not have strong status in the halachah. The same thinking applies to concerns about embryos that are fertilized for the purposes of in vitro fertilization treatments but never implanted. That is not to say that Jewish ethicists trivialise the status of the embryo. Always, the expectation with in vitro fertilization and other reproductive technologies is that it is being done within the context of marriage and with the intention of bearing children to loving parent(s). Genetic screening is general strongly supported by most authorities in Judaism. Tay Sachs disease, an affliction that causes death in early childhood, is confined mostly to Jews of Eastern European descent. Genetic screening for Tay Sachs disease has been highly successful in Israel, resulting in dramatic reductions in the number of children born with the disease. A significant part of the success of this program has been attributed to the support given to it by rabbis in their religious communities. The screening has raised the ethical question, though, of how far screening should go. Genetic screening is seen as preferable to pre natal screening, which would suggest the possibility of abortion. A technology for dealing with Tay Sachs disease that is in between genetic screening and pre natal screening is pre implantation screening. This A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 4

5 where in vitro fertilisation type techniques are used to separate out affected embryos and only implant healthy ones in the mother s uterus. Current Jewish ethical thinking sees this as less than ideal, but more acceptable than pre natal screening. Research Using the BBC Religion and Ethics: Ethics website, [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/index.shtml] compare and contrast non Jewish bioethical perspectives with those of Judaism that you have studied in this chapter.] C Stem cell research, gene therapy and genetic engineering Stem cell research that is derived from adult tissue does not present major ethical difficulties for Judaism. Among the greatest of the mitzvot is to save a human life. Stem cell research shows the potential to regrow human tissue and cure presently incurable human conditions. A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 5

6 A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 6

7 Diagram illustrating how stem cells can be harvested and used. This type of research is well advanced. There is less clarity about the acceptability of foetal stem cell research (although it still has considerable acceptance). To some, the embryo is not a human person, and the research is contributing to saving human lives, therefore the research is acceptable. To others, the issue is that some foetal stem cells may be derived from (prohibited) aborted foetuses, and thus the research is not acceptable. A major source of foetal stem cells is, in fact, embryos left over from in vitro fertilisations. Feature Box Cloned human embryos are stem cell breakthrough Scientists have demonstrated for the first time that therapeutic cloning in humans can be achieved. The researchers in South Korea created 30 cloned embryos that grew to about 100 cells in size further than any verified experiment so far. This meant they were able to harvest embryonic stem cells [ESC] from one of the embryos. They further showed that the ESCs could develop into a variety of tissue types. Their long term hope is that such a procedure would provide a source of perfectly matched transplant tissue for the treatment of diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's All the experts contacted by New Scientist agreed, praising the experiments as remarkable. Cloning in primates has been regarded as especially challenging and perhaps even impossible. A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 7

8 Sylvia Pagán Westphal From New Scientist Online News 12 February 04.] Gene therapy is acceptable in the Jewish tradition for similar reasons to those outlined for stem cell research; that is, the potential to save human lives is great, and the embryo does not have the status of human person. Judaism is quite clear that gene therapy can and should be used in the investigation of a cure for diseases such as Tay Sachs disease. It is equally cautious about the slippery slope of genetic engineering the potential use of these techniques to do things other than save human lives, for example, to choose for or manipulate height, intelligence, eye colour etc. Did You Know? Gene Therapy: how do the doctors get the new genes into defective cells? They use carrier viruses. Viruses have the special ability to penetrate cell walls.] C Cloning In keeping with the principles that underpin the Jewish ethical approach to contraception, abortion, reproductive and gene technologies, there is no halachic principle that opposes cloning. Therapeutic cloning thus has broad support. Adult cloning is more problematic. Adult cloning is potentially of use to couples who wish to have a child where the father, perhaps through some tragic accident, has no sperm at all. In this case, cloning would involve, in the lab, removing the DNA from the mother s embryo and replacing it with DNA from samples taken from the father. Then using in vitro fertilisation, the embryo would be implanted in the mother s uterus and the child would develop and be born normally. The child would be a copy of the father, A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 8

9 although not an exact copy, because a small amount of genetic material is contained in the mother s empty egg shell (see diagram below). In genetic term, the clone is closest to (although not exactly) an identical twin of the father, albeit many years younger. The halachah, which operates on the human rather than micro scientific level, would consider the child the son of the father and the mother. Research Search How Stuff Works [http://www.howstuffworks.com/] to gain a better understanding of how biomedical techniques work and some of the implications of them. Key terms to search are cloning, stem cells, genetic engineering and designer children. These techniques are possible but not yet practised in the medical world due to ethical considerations; the odds of success are extremely low and the possibility of things going wrong extremely high and horrible to contemplate. The possibilities are so new that there are very few responsa to deal with them. In principle, the halachah is ethically neutral to the kind of (successful) cloning described above, but concern for the slippery slope that the potential copying of another human person creates, however, has caused great caution against adult cloning. Considering the issue here is interesting, though, because it points out the Jewish ethical approach of openness to new possibilities and dealing with situations on a case by case basis. A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 9

10 One potential use of adult cloning for profoundly infertile couples that might be acceptable according to the halachah. Note that human adult cloning is not yet possible and is banned by some countries. Efforts at the United Nations level to ban it worldwide have failed. Activities 1 Identify the foundation beliefs and documents that underpin Jewish ethics. A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 10

11 2 Clarify the principal ethical teachings in Judaism which determine sexual ethics. 3 Classify the various bioethical technologies referred to in this chapter. Give a brief description of each and make connections between them where appropriate 4 Assess one of the arguments offered in this chapter in favour of the use of a particular bioethical technology. 5 Discuss the Jewish ethical perspective(s) on the use of reproductive technologies 6 Identify a genetic dysfunction or disease of particular interest to the Jewish population and synthesise the Jewish ethical issues that arise from the application of biomedical techniques to address it.] A.J. Taylor 2004 Page 11

1. Do Zombies have rights? 2. Do voodoo Zombies have different rights than virus Zombies? 5. Should Zombies be covered by universal health plans?

1. Do Zombies have rights? 2. Do voodoo Zombies have different rights than virus Zombies? 5. Should Zombies be covered by universal health plans? Exercise Nov. 22. Exam Nov. 29. Reproductive ethics No electronics PHIL 226 Biomedical Ethics Week 11 1 Zombie Ethics 1. Do Zombies have rights? 2. Do voodoo Zombies have different rights than virus Zombies?

More information

it right? activity (page 4) to highlight ethical issues associated with IVF

it right? activity (page 4) to highlight ethical issues associated with IVF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION I V F In some cases, a sperm is directly injected into an egg IVF: THE MEETING OF SPERM AND EGG IN GLASS Louise Brown, the first test tube baby was born in 1978. Since then, there

More information

Religious Attitudes to Matters of Life

Religious Attitudes to Matters of Life Religious Attitudes to Matters of Life Sanctity of Life Life is a sacred God-given gift. It is only for God to decide when it starts and ends. It is extremely precious and should be treated with the utmost

More information

SOYO. North American Council Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America. January 2008

SOYO. North American Council Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America. January 2008 SOYO North American Council Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America January 2008 I read section one of the book, God with Us, critical issues in Christian life and faith by Fr. John

More information

Genetics, Ethics &Meaning. Module 4

Genetics, Ethics &Meaning. Module 4 Genetics, Ethics &Meaning INItiative (GEMINI) Life Sciences and Society @University of Michigan Module 4 Myths versus Facts The University of Michigan s Stem Cell Research Environment A Case Study MYTH:

More information

Ethical issues in assisted reproductive technologies. Effy Vayena

Ethical issues in assisted reproductive technologies. Effy Vayena Ethical issues in assisted reproductive technologies Effy Vayena Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) All treatments or procedures that include the in vitro handling of human oocytes and human sperm

More information

Act of 5 December 2003 No. 100 relating to the application of biotechnology in human medicine, etc

Act of 5 December 2003 No. 100 relating to the application of biotechnology in human medicine, etc Act of 5 December 2003 No. 100 relating to the application of biotechnology in human medicine, etc Cf. earlier Acts of 5 August 1994 No. 56 and 12 June 1987 No. 68 Chapter 1. Purpose and scope 1-1. Purpose

More information

Stem Cells. Part 1: What is a Stem Cell?

Stem Cells. Part 1: What is a Stem Cell? Stem Cells Part 1: What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells in the body. When a stem cell divides by mitosis, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become

More information

Guidance For Research Involving Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Germ Cells, And Cells Obtained From Cord Blood

Guidance For Research Involving Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Germ Cells, And Cells Obtained From Cord Blood Guidance For Research Involving Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Germ Cells, And Cells Obtained From Cord Blood Supreme Council of Health Department of Research Guidance Regarding Research Involving Human Embryonic

More information

Choosing the sex of babies: Ethical debate

Choosing the sex of babies: Ethical debate Choosing the sex of babies: Ethical debate This activity is designed to get students thinking about the moral and ethical implications of sex selection. The resources will encourage students to form their

More information

ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY Adopted 2013

ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY Adopted 2013 ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY Adopted 2013 The Christian Medical & Dental Association is a public voice for Christian healthcare professionals and students. Founded in 1931, CMDA provides programs and

More information

YouGov / Daily Telegraph Survey Results

YouGov / Daily Telegraph Survey Results YouGov / Daily Telegraph Survey Results YouGov questioned 2432 adults aged 18+ throughout Britain online between 19th and 24nd August 2005 At the moment abortion is legal in Britain up to the 24th week

More information

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Ethical Aspects. Sonya Al-Mohammed, MBBS, Arab Board, MSc*

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Ethical Aspects. Sonya Al-Mohammed, MBBS, Arab Board, MSc* Bahrain Medical Bulletin, Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2014 Education-Family Physician Corner Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Ethical Aspects Sonya Al-Mohammed, MBBS, Arab Board, MSc* In vitro fertilization

More information

Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics

Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Quick Guide: Stem Cell Basics What is a Stem Cell? Stem cells are the starting point from which the rest of the body grows. The adult human body is made up of hundreds of millions of different

More information

Europe, protection of life and respect for human dignity

Europe, protection of life and respect for human dignity ONE OF US, questionnaire on bioethics f o r candidates for European elections 2014 Europe, protection of life and respect for human dignity Last year, almost 2,000,000 EU citizens all over the 28 Member

More information

Reproductive Technology. Chapter 21

Reproductive Technology. Chapter 21 Reproductive Technology Chapter 21 Assisted Reproduction When a couple is sub-fertile or infertile they may need Assisted Reproduction to become pregnant: Replace source of gametes Sperm, oocyte or zygote

More information

Debate Motion. This house proposes that the procurement and use of embryonic stem cells for scientific research is unethical. Stem Cell Research

Debate Motion. This house proposes that the procurement and use of embryonic stem cells for scientific research is unethical. Stem Cell Research Stem Cell Research Debate Motion Stem Cell Research This house proposes that the procurement and use of embryonic stem cells for scientific research is unethical. The dominant view in the scientific community

More information

GCSE RE Revision & Homework Booklet:

GCSE RE Revision & Homework Booklet: GCSE RE Revision & Homework Booklet: Name:.. Topics of study: 1. Religious teaching on the Sanctity of Life 2. Whose choice is it anyway? 3. Is there anything medicine cannot do? 4. Medical Ethics Key

More information

In vitro Fertilization: The status of the frozen embryo

In vitro Fertilization: The status of the frozen embryo In vitro Fertilization: The status of the frozen embryo Prof Anne Muigai Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Juja, Kenya The first Kenyan IVF babies were born on 8 th May 2006 The event

More information

Stem Cells. What Are Stem Cells? Sources for Stem Cells. Stem cells. Medical Ethics 1. Cells able to develop into nearly any other type of cell.

Stem Cells. What Are Stem Cells? Sources for Stem Cells. Stem cells. Medical Ethics 1. Cells able to develop into nearly any other type of cell. Stem Cells What Are Stem Cells? Cells able to develop into nearly any other type of cell. Adult stem cells found in skin, gut, blood Embryonic stem cells found in very early development of embryo (when

More information

Christian Bioethics. An introduction to reproductive technologies

Christian Bioethics. An introduction to reproductive technologies Christian Bioethics An introduction to reproductive technologies Key Facts The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 (amended in 2001) permits scientists to conduct tests on and then destroy human

More information

Stem Cell Research. Debate motion

Stem Cell Research. Debate motion Stem Cell Research Debate motion This house proposes that the potential benefits of using embryonic stem cells to develop new medical treatments mean we have a moral obligation to support this type of

More information

Whitney Fasbender. The University Of Kansas School of Nursing

Whitney Fasbender. The University Of Kansas School of Nursing The Savior Child: Having a Child to Save a Sibling Is this Right? Whitney Fasbender The University Of Kansas School of Nursing About the author: A native of Cheney, Kansas, Whitney was inducted into Delta

More information

Stem Cells and Hope for Patients

Stem Cells and Hope for Patients Stem Cells and Hope for Patients by Maureen Condic, Ph.D. Most Americans know someone afflicted with an incurable medical condition. The possibility of stem cell cures has given hope to many who face such

More information

Lesson. Case Study: One Family s Dilemma

Lesson. Case Study: One Family s Dilemma Lesson 3 Case Study: One Family s Dilemma Objectives Students will be able to: Describe major biomedical ethical principles. Analyze how a particular position relates to the principles. Class Time About

More information

A Kantian Ethical Analysis of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis by Emily Delk

A Kantian Ethical Analysis of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis by Emily Delk A Kantian Ethical Analysis of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis by Emily Delk Introduction In an era where new genetic and reproductive technologies are increasing, ethical concerns continue to grow as

More information

Federal Act on Medically Assisted Reproduction

Federal Act on Medically Assisted Reproduction English is not an official language of the Swiss Confederation. This translation is provided for information purposes only and has no legal force. Federal Act on Medically Assisted Reproduction (Reproductive

More information

Areas of Concern. Reproductive Ethics: Issues &

Areas of Concern. Reproductive Ethics: Issues & Reproductive Ethics: Issues & Areas of Concern Conception Control: under what conditions is conception control in harmony with a Christian ethic? Genetic Screening & Counseling: under what conditions should

More information

tem ells /background /information Stem cell research Copyright 2007 MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Stem Cell Research

tem ells /background /information Stem cell research Copyright 2007 MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Stem Cell Research tem ells /background /information Stem cell research Copyright 2007 MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Stem Cell Research /02 /information Table of contents Page 01. What are stem cells?

More information

IVF Philosophy of Medical Ethics series

IVF Philosophy of Medical Ethics series Philosophy of Medical Ethics series Program Support Notes by: Laura Beilby Teacher of Philosophy and Religion Produced by: Classroom Video Ltd Commissioning Editor: Dee Powell Classroom Video Ltd 2011

More information

Playing God? The Ethics of Genetic Manipulation

Playing God? The Ethics of Genetic Manipulation Playing God? The Ethics of Genetic Manipulation Lawrence M. Hinman, Ph.D. Co-Director Center for Ethics in Science & Technology Professor of Philosophy University of San Diego 4/7/2009 Lawrence M. Hinman

More information

THE SINGAPORE APPROACH TO HUMAN STEM CELL RESEARCH, THERAPEUTIC AND REPRODUCTIVE CLONING

THE SINGAPORE APPROACH TO HUMAN STEM CELL RESEARCH, THERAPEUTIC AND REPRODUCTIVE CLONING Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Oxford, UK and Malden, USABIOTBioethics0269-9702Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 20052005193290303ArticlesTHE SINGAPORE APPROACH CATHERINE TAY SWEE KIAN AND TIEN SIM LENG Bioethics ISSN

More information

World Human Cloning Policies

World Human Cloning Policies World Human Cloning Policies By Kathryn Wheat and Kirstin Matthews, Ph.D. The information in this section is provide to illustrate the diversity of approaches various different parts of the world are taking

More information

Just Living. In Vitro Fertilization. The Truth about Freedom; engaging faith and reason

Just Living. In Vitro Fertilization. The Truth about Freedom; engaging faith and reason Just Living Striving for Truth and Justice in a Culture of Death Fall, 2014 In Vitro Fertilization The Truth about Freedom; engaging faith and reason In an age of moral relativism, when Absolute Truth

More information

Introducing stem cells Stem cells in the news

Introducing stem cells Stem cells in the news Introducing stem cells Stem cells in the news Stem cells: Therapeutic Value 16+ year olds February 2010, updated 2012 Objective: Understand the therapeutic value of stem cells About tissue stem cells Stem

More information

Class Time: 30 minutes. Other activities in the Stem Cells in the Spotlight module can be found at: http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/teachers/tindex/

Class Time: 30 minutes. Other activities in the Stem Cells in the Spotlight module can be found at: http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/teachers/tindex/ Teacher Guide: Color-Label-Learn: Creating Stem Cells for Research ACTIVITY OVERVIEW Abstract: Students color and label images on a worksheet and answer questions about the on-line content featured in

More information

Assignment Discovery Online Curriculum

Assignment Discovery Online Curriculum Assignment Discovery Online Curriculum Lesson title: In Vitro Fertilization Grade level: 9-12, with adaptation for younger students Subject area: Life Science Duration: Two class periods Objectives: Students

More information

Carol Ludowese, MS, CGC Certified Genetic Counselor HDSA Center of Excellence at Hennepin County Medical Center Minneapolis, Minnesota

Carol Ludowese, MS, CGC Certified Genetic Counselor HDSA Center of Excellence at Hennepin County Medical Center Minneapolis, Minnesota Carol Ludowese, MS, CGC Certified Genetic Counselor HDSA Center of Excellence at Hennepin County Medical Center Minneapolis, Minnesota The information provided by speakers in workshops, forums, sharing/networking

More information

Human stem cell research: a novel technology that will benefit patients Information and Position Paper

Human stem cell research: a novel technology that will benefit patients Information and Position Paper October 2003 Human stem cell research: a novel technology that will benefit patients Information and Position Paper EuropaBio, the European Association for Bio-industries, has 35 corporate members operating

More information

The issues concerning euthanasia, contraception and abortion are related to the competing rights to life and reproduction.

The issues concerning euthanasia, contraception and abortion are related to the competing rights to life and reproduction. The value of life According to Islam, life is the most important aim in the universe and its greatest result. It is the distilled essence and the most perfect fruit of the universe. Life is seen as a miraculous

More information

guides BIOLOGY OF AGING STEM CELLS An introduction to aging science brought to you by the American Federation for Aging Research

guides BIOLOGY OF AGING STEM CELLS An introduction to aging science brought to you by the American Federation for Aging Research infoaging guides BIOLOGY OF AGING STEM CELLS An introduction to aging science brought to you by the American Federation for Aging Research WHAT ARE STEM CELLS? Stem cells are cells that, in cell cultures

More information

Playing God? Part One: The Ethics of Genetic Manipulation

Playing God? Part One: The Ethics of Genetic Manipulation Playing God? Part One: The Ethics of Genetic Manipulation Phil. 321: Social Ethics Spring 2009 Lawrence M. Hinman Co-Director, Center for Ethics in Science & Technology Professor of Philosophy University

More information

MEDICAL ETHICS MEDICAL ETHICS STUDIES PRINCIPLES OF RIGHT AND WRONG FOUR PRINCIPLES OF MEDICAL ETHICS AUTONOMY JUSTICE BENEFICENCE NON-MALEFICENCE

MEDICAL ETHICS MEDICAL ETHICS STUDIES PRINCIPLES OF RIGHT AND WRONG FOUR PRINCIPLES OF MEDICAL ETHICS AUTONOMY JUSTICE BENEFICENCE NON-MALEFICENCE MEDICAL ETHICS MEDICAL ETHICS STUDIES PRINCIPLES OF RIGHT AND WRONG FOUR PRINCIPLES OF MEDICAL ETHICS AUTONOMY JUSTICE BENEFICENCE NON-MALEFICENCE AUTONOMY REQUIRES THAT THE PATIENT HAVE AUTONOMY OF THOUGHT,

More information

PROCREATION ETHICS SERIES A Joint Project of the ALC, LCA, and the AELC, 1983

PROCREATION ETHICS SERIES A Joint Project of the ALC, LCA, and the AELC, 1983 PROCREATION ETHICS SERIES A Joint Project of the ALC, LCA, and the AELC, 1983 In Vitro Fertilization Paul Jersild [1] The expression "test-tube babies" has become familiar to most Americans since the birth

More information

HUMAN FERTILISATION AND EMBRYOLOGY AUTHORITY REPORT:

HUMAN FERTILISATION AND EMBRYOLOGY AUTHORITY REPORT: HUMAN FERTILISATION AND EMBRYOLOGY AUTHORITY REPORT: Introduction 1. Preimplantation tissue typing is a new technique which allows the selection of embryos in order to bring about the birth of a child

More information

The Infertility Problem

The Infertility Problem The Infertility Problem Fr. Jarosław Szymczak, PhD It is no accident that the issue of nfertility appears in the session devoted to the culture of life as opposed to the culture of death, between abortion

More information

Differentiation = Making specialized cells

Differentiation = Making specialized cells Differentiation = Making specialized cells What is a stem cell? Screws: JM www.logodesignweb.com/stockphoto Differentiation = Making specialized cells What is a stem cell? What the photo shows A lump of

More information

Stem Cells Astonishing promises but at what cost?

Stem Cells Astonishing promises but at what cost? Catholic Organization for Life and Family Life Matters Stem Cells Astonishing promises but at what cost? T he scientific advances of the last few years have opened up incredible new possibilities for the

More information

The Ethics of Stem Cell Research and Prenatal Genetic Alteration

The Ethics of Stem Cell Research and Prenatal Genetic Alteration The Ethics of Stem Cell Research and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Blake Rodgers, Brandon Peterson Introduction Technological advancements associated with the medical industry create opportunities to conduct

More information

New Issues in Stem cells and Regenerative Medicine

New Issues in Stem cells and Regenerative Medicine New Issues in Stem cells and Regenerative Medicine Bioethics and Biological Sciences Working Group Conference of European Churches Church and Society Commission 8, rue du Fossé des Treize, FR - 67000 Strasbourg,

More information

Frances Kamm, Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A Moral Defense

Frances Kamm, Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A Moral Defense Frances Kamm, Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A Moral Defense University of San Diego Lawrence M. Hinman, Ph.D. Director, The Values Institute 2/8/2006 Lawrence M. Hinman 1 Source Originally published

More information

Global Gametes: Reproductive Tourism and Islamic Bioethics in the High-tech Middle East

Global Gametes: Reproductive Tourism and Islamic Bioethics in the High-tech Middle East Global Gametes: Reproductive Tourism and Islamic Bioethics in the High-tech Middle East Marcia C. Inhorn William K. Lanman, Jr. Professor Anthropology and International Affairs Council on Middle East Studies

More information

Roche Position on Human Stem Cells

Roche Position on Human Stem Cells Roche Position on Human Stem Cells Background Stem cells and treating diseases. Stem cells and their applications offer an enormous potential for the treatment and even the cure of diseases, along with

More information

SOUTH AUSTRALIA REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY (CODE OF ETHICAL CLINICAL PRACTICE) REGULATIONS 1995

SOUTH AUSTRALIA REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY (CODE OF ETHICAL CLINICAL PRACTICE) REGULATIONS 1995 SOUTH AUSTRALIA REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY (CODE OF ETHICAL CLINICAL PRACTICE) REGULATIONS 1995 1. Citation 2. Commencement 3. Code of ethical (clinical) practice 1. Citation 2. Interpretation SUMMARY OF

More information

Rationale: Revisions enhanced current content by shortening it through deletions of language

Rationale: Revisions enhanced current content by shortening it through deletions of language Total Number of Pages: 1 of 4 Rationale: Revisions enhanced current content by shortening it through deletions of language that occurs in other resolutions, such as 3182 Human Cloning. Amend Delete last

More information

Sources of human embryonic stem cells and ethics

Sources of human embryonic stem cells and ethics This text has been taken from the following article, Hug K. Sources of human embryos for stem cell research: ethical problems and their possible solutions. Medicina (Kaunas) 2005; 41 (12): 1002-10. The

More information

Watermark Community Church In Vitro Fertilization FAQ

Watermark Community Church In Vitro Fertilization FAQ Watermark Community Church In Vitro Fertilization FAQ Infertility is a difficult and sensitive issue that many couples must face in their marriage. For many of these couples, questions about the complicated

More information

Jewish and Islamic Ethical Perspectives on Human Stem Cell Research

Jewish and Islamic Ethical Perspectives on Human Stem Cell Research Jewish and Islamic Ethical Perspectives on Human Stem Cell Research Bernard Epel, PhD, Professor Emeritus Tel Aviv University Abstract: Stem cell research promises to provide invaluable tools in basic

More information

LIFE: WHAT REALLY MATTERS?

LIFE: WHAT REALLY MATTERS? LIFE: WHAT REALLY MATTERS? A CULTURE OF LIFE "The culture of life means respect for nature and protection of God's work of creation. In a special way, it means respect for human life from the first moment

More information

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. Evaluation for single gene disorders

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. Evaluation for single gene disorders Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Evaluation for single gene disorders What is Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis? Preimplantation genetic diagnosis or PGD is a technology that allows genetic testing of

More information

An Introduction to Stem Cells

An Introduction to Stem Cells By Kirstin Matthews, Ph.D. An Introduction to Stem Cells Overview Stem cells are cells that have the potential to replicate themselves for indefinite periods and to divide, producing one of themselves

More information

Human genetic engineering: Saviour siblings

Human genetic engineering: Saviour siblings Human genetic engineering: Saviour siblings Lesson objectives To understand what a saviour sibling is. To consider whether saviour siblings should be created. What might Christians think about saviour

More information

Differentiation = Making specialized cells. Your body needs stem cells. What is a stem cell?

Differentiation = Making specialized cells. Your body needs stem cells. What is a stem cell? Differentiation = Making specialized cells What is a stem cell? What the photo shows A lump of metal and lots of different kinds of screws. Things to think about Lumps of metal that start off the same

More information

Fertility Facts and Figures 2008

Fertility Facts and Figures 2008 Fertility Facts and Figures 2008 Contents About these statistics... 2 Accessing our data... 2 The scale of fertility problems... 3 Treatment abroad... 3 Contacts regarding this publication... 3 Latest

More information

THE PROMISE OF STEM CELL RESEARCH

THE PROMISE OF STEM CELL RESEARCH THE PROMISE OF STEM CELL RESEARCH MALIGNANT OSTEOPETROSIS AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE DENSE SCLEROTIC SKELETON HEMATOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES NEUROLOGIC ABNOMALITIES DEATH IN INFANCY OR EARLY CHILDHOOD SUCCESS RATE

More information

I. The Basic Science and Current Context

I. The Basic Science and Current Context I. The Basic Science and Current Context Stem cells, or "master cells," are cells in the human body that have not yet differentiated into a particular type of tissue. As such, they seem to have the potential

More information

Regulation of Human and Therapeutic Cloning

Regulation of Human and Therapeutic Cloning Regulation of Human and Therapeutic Cloning The purpose of this bill is to establish and regulate what types of cloning technologies and processes will be legal in the United States; furthermore, the bill

More information

Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research Summary of Caravan ORC International National Survey

Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research Summary of Caravan ORC International National Survey Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research Summary of Caravan ORC International National Survey The Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research (CAMR) commissioned Caravan ORC International

More information

Stem cell research and Parkinson's

Stem cell research and Parkinson's Parkinson's research Stem cell research and Parkinson's T his information sheet looks at what stem cells are and why they are important for research into a cure for Parkinson s. It also discusses where

More information

Should Stem Cells Be Used To Treat Human Diseases?

Should Stem Cells Be Used To Treat Human Diseases? SAMPLE ESSAY C Should Stem Cells Be Used To Treat Human Diseases? Stem cells can be defined as undifferentiated cells that are generated during the development of the embryo. There are two functions ascribed

More information

Embryonic Choices. Scientist Toolkit for Public Engagement: Clinical Embryology, Genetics and Haematology

Embryonic Choices. Scientist Toolkit for Public Engagement: Clinical Embryology, Genetics and Haematology Embryonic Choices An A-level workshop on Assisted Conception and Saviour Siblings Scientist Toolkit for Public Engagement: Clinical Embryology, Genetics and Haematology Pathology: the science behind the

More information

A Brief Ethical Primer on Artificial Reproductive Technologies in the Catholic Tradition

A Brief Ethical Primer on Artificial Reproductive Technologies in the Catholic Tradition Father Tom Knoblach, Ph.D. Consultant for Healthcare Ethics, Diocese of Saint Cloud Introduction Infertility is a significant problem for many couples. Estimates suggest that one in six married couples

More information

Cord blood for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young children

Cord blood for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young children Cord blood for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in young children By Caitlin McGreevy Kiara Paramjothy Pass with Merit RESEARCH PAPER BASED ON PATHOLOGY LECTURES AT MEDLINK 2011 1 Abstract:

More information

Reproductive System & Development: Practice Questions #1

Reproductive System & Development: Practice Questions #1 Reproductive System & Development: Practice Questions #1 1. Which two glands in the diagram produce gametes? A. glands A and B B. glands B and E C. glands C and F D. glands E and F 2. Base your answer

More information

Recent Developments in Governmental Regulation of Biomedicine in Japan. Eiji Maruyama Kobe University Graduate School of Law Kobe, Japan

Recent Developments in Governmental Regulation of Biomedicine in Japan. Eiji Maruyama Kobe University Graduate School of Law Kobe, Japan Recent Developments in Governmental Regulation of Biomedicine in Japan Eiji Maruyama Kobe University Graduate School of Law Kobe, Japan A Law and Several Sets of Ethical Guidelines for Biomedicine in Japan

More information

BIOTECHNOLOGY Vol.XII The Status of the Extracorporeal Embryo (Stem Cells) - H. Nys and B. Hansen

BIOTECHNOLOGY Vol.XII The Status of the Extracorporeal Embryo (Stem Cells) - H. Nys and B. Hansen THE STATUS OF THE EXTRACORPOREAL EMBRYO (STEM CELLS) H. Nys and B. Hansen Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium

More information

REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE AND INFERTILITY ASSOCIATES Woodbury Medical Arts Building 2101 Woodwinds Drive Woodbury, MN 55125 (651) 222-6050

REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE AND INFERTILITY ASSOCIATES Woodbury Medical Arts Building 2101 Woodwinds Drive Woodbury, MN 55125 (651) 222-6050 REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE AND INFERTILITY ASSOCIATES Woodbury Medical Arts Building 2101 Woodwinds Drive Woodbury, MN 55125 (651) 222-6050 RECIPIENT COUPLE INFORMED CONSENT AND AUTHORIZATION FOR IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

More information

34 Stem Cell Research and Applications: Monitoring the Frontiers of Biomedical Research

34 Stem Cell Research and Applications: Monitoring the Frontiers of Biomedical Research 34 Stem Cell Research and Applications: Monitoring the Frontiers of Biomedical Research Audrey R. Chapman, Mark S. Frankel and Michele S. Garfinkel In the face of extraordinary advances in the prevention,

More information

Countries with laws or policies on sex selection

Countries with laws or policies on sex selection Countries with laws or policies on sex selection Marcy Darnovsky, Center for Genetics and Society, April 2009 This memo was prepared for the April 13 New York City sex selection meeting, and updated May

More information

Ethics Term Paper, Part III. Prepared by Alan Soskel. The ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research will be explored in this paper.

Ethics Term Paper, Part III. Prepared by Alan Soskel. The ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research will be explored in this paper. Ethics Term Paper, Part III Prepared by Alan Soskel The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research The ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research will be explored in this paper. I present a utilitarian argument

More information

09 LC 37 0857 A BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT

09 LC 37 0857 A BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT Senate Bill 169 By: Senators Hudgens of the 47th, Williams of the 19th, Rogers of the 21st, Thomas of the 54th, Shafer of the 48th and others A BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT 1 To amend Chapter 7 of Title

More information

Briefing on the second reading of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill, Monday 19 November 2007.

Briefing on the second reading of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill, Monday 19 November 2007. Briefing on the second reading of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill, Monday 19 November 2007. Prepared by the Medical Research Council, Royal Society and Wellcome Trust The Medical Research Council,

More information

Human Cloning The Science and Ethics of Nuclear Transplantation

Human Cloning The Science and Ethics of Nuclear Transplantation Human Cloning The Science and Ethics of Transplantation Rudolf Jaenisch, M.D. In addition to the moral argument against the use of somatic-cell nuclear for the creation of a child ( reproductive cloning

More information

Stem Cell Research, Abortion and the Soul of the Embryo? Professor Linda Woodhead Lancaster University

Stem Cell Research, Abortion and the Soul of the Embryo? Professor Linda Woodhead Lancaster University Stem Cell Research, Abortion and the Soul of the Embryo? Professor Linda Woodhead Lancaster University DofH Abortion Statistics, England and Wales: 2011 There were 189,931 abortions to residents of England

More information

Genes/Embryos/Stem Cells: Bioethics. READING: pp. 313-321 website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/bioethics

Genes/Embryos/Stem Cells: Bioethics. READING: pp. 313-321 website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/bioethics Genes/Embryos/Stem Cells: Bioethics READING: pp. 313-321 website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/bioethics Ethics - The study of right vs wrong, good vs bad, moral judgment, etc. Bioethics - Ethical questions

More information

Should Research on Stem Cells Be Allowed?

Should Research on Stem Cells Be Allowed? Should Research on Stem Cells Be Allowed? 1 Peter Schaber (University of Zurich) Research with stem cells promises new therapies for injuries and diseases. This applies particularly to embryonic stem cells

More information

The Controversy Over Stem Cell Research

The Controversy Over Stem Cell Research The Controversy Over Stem Cell Research Ray Bohlin What Are Stem Cells and Why Are They Important? President Bush recently decided to allow the use of federal funds to research the therapeutic properties

More information

15 Stem Cell Research

15 Stem Cell Research 15 Stem Cell Research t a l k it o v e r 1 c l a s s se s s i o n Overview Students read about current scientific research on and the social controversy over embryonic stem cells. On a KWL literacy strategy

More information

Cloning, Genetic Engineering, and IVF

Cloning, Genetic Engineering, and IVF Cloning, Genetic Engineering, and IVF A Valley Bible Church Position Paper www.valleybible.net This paper will outline some of the biblical, moral, and scientific issues surrounding cloning, genetic engineering,

More information

THE LAW - CONCEPTION USING DONOR EGGS OR SPERM

THE LAW - CONCEPTION USING DONOR EGGS OR SPERM Assisted Conception Unit 11 th Floor, Tower Wing Guy s Hospital, Great Maze Pond London SE1 9RT Tel:.020 7188 2300 Fax: 020 7188 0490 THE LAW - CONCEPTION USING DONOR EGGS OR SPERM Introduction If you

More information

Much Has Changed in Surrogate Pregnancies

Much Has Changed in Surrogate Pregnancies Much Has Changed in Surrogate Pregnancies Robin Layton/Associated Press Sarah Jessica Parker and Matthew Broderick, with son, James, and daughters Marion, left, and Tabitha, born through surrogacy. By

More information

Chapter 16 Reproductive Technology, Gene Therapy, and Stem Cells (modified)

Chapter 16 Reproductive Technology, Gene Therapy, and Stem Cells (modified) Chapter 16 Reproductive Technology, Gene Therapy, and Stem Cells (modified) Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) Artificial insemination (AI) In vitro fertilization (IVF) Gamete intrafallopian transfer

More information

HUMAN STEM CELLS AN ETHICAL OVERVIEW

HUMAN STEM CELLS AN ETHICAL OVERVIEW HUMAN STEM CELLS AN ETHICAL OVERVIEW CONTENTS PART I: WHAT ARE STEM CELLS AND WHAT DO THEY DO? What are stem cells? Page 4 Different types of stem cells Page 5 Different sources of stem cells Page 7 Preliminary

More information

Human Genetic Engineering on the Doorstep

Human Genetic Engineering on the Doorstep November 2012 Human Genetic Engineering on the Doorstep The threat of mitochondrial replacement techniques Summary The British government is currently proposing to legalise a new technique for treating

More information

EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH

EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH E m b r y o n i c S t e m C e l l R e s e a r c h 1 EMBRYONICSTEMCELLRESEARCH bydaniela.brown,phd The debate over embryonic stem cell research is one of those engagement moments when, rather than drawing

More information

Illinois Insurance Facts Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation Division of Insurance

Illinois Insurance Facts Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation Division of Insurance Illinois Insurance Facts Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation Division of Insurance Insurance Coverage for Infertility Treatment Revised November 2004 Infertility is a condition

More information

Notes on Science & Christian Belief Chapter 9 2009. Chapter 9 GENETICS, REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS. Allan J Day. Author: Allan J Day 9-1

Notes on Science & Christian Belief Chapter 9 2009. Chapter 9 GENETICS, REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS. Allan J Day. Author: Allan J Day 9-1 Chapter 9 GENETICS, REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS Allan J Day Author: Allan J Day 9-1 CONTENTS CHAPTER 9 Chapter 9 - GENETICS, REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS 9-1 9.1 INTRODUCTION - GENETICS, ETHICS

More information

The ethics of stem cell research and treatment

The ethics of stem cell research and treatment The ethics of stem cell research and treatment Bernard Lo, M.D. March 12, 2009 1 hesc: ethical controversies Moral status of embryo? Clearly a potential person Some believe a person with rights Is hesc

More information

In Vitro Fertilization. New England Fertility

In Vitro Fertilization. New England Fertility In Vitro Fertilization New England Fertility In Vitro Fertilization New England Fertility offers a wide variety of infertility treatments to individuals and couples struggling to conceive, including in

More information

The Christian and Assisted Procreation Joseph W. Francis

The Christian and Assisted Procreation Joseph W. Francis This article first appeared in The Baptist Bulletin, January, 2000. The Christian and Assisted Procreation Joseph W. Francis Raising children today is hard work, but the blessings are great. In fact, the

More information