# A Defense Security Approach against Hacking Using Trusted Graphs

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3 Figure 4: The three categories of local neighbors, longer, and longest contacts and Selection of next neighbors. Figure 2: Trusted Graph There are three key steps, namely, preprocessing a social network (PSN), building a trust network (BTN), and generating a trusted graph (GTG) [7]. B. BTN: Building the Trust Network To build a trust network from SOURCE to SINK, two things need to be done: 1. Find as many short paths for the two given nodes as possible, which is a typical breadth-first search. 2. Add trust information between directly connected nodes. We use the breadth-first search in BTN process: A. PSN Process Figure 3: Framework 1. Divide the neighbors of user i into three categories by their social distance from i, and one neighbor can be in only one category. Category 1: local neighbors. Category 2: longer contact. Category 3: longest contact. In each Category, sort the neighbors with their priority in descending order. 2. Select next hop neighbors uniformly from the three categories in this way: Firstly, choose the one with the highest priority in Category 3; then, choose the one with the highest priority in Category 2; finally, choose the one with the highest priority in Category 1. If it is necessary to choose more nodes, do the same process iteratively with the remaining nodes. Let G be the social network after the PSN process, let L be the max length of paths, and let c be used to control the path length. Let L+(u) denote the set of trusted acquaintances of u, which are selected by the PSN process and are sorted in descending order by their priorities in each category of longest contacts, longer contacts, and local neighbors. Let Rsource denote the unvisited nodes. Algorithm 1: CBFS (G, SOURCE, SINK) 1: Input: G. SOURCE, a trustor; SINK, a trustee. 2: Output: D, a path set from SOURCE to SINK. 3: c L 1. Let SOURCE be the current node. 4: for each neighbor u in Rsource of current node do 5: if u is SINK then 6: do backtracking to get a path P, add P into D. 7: Continue to next loop. 8: else 9: if c > 0 then 10: Add all nodes in L+(u) into Rsource. c c 1. 11: Set u as visited. 12: end if 13: end if 14: end for Algorithm 1 is executed in a centralized server, where the network information is stored. Therefore, the server will have to provide both storage and computation. If many users are requesting trust evaluations of someone else, the server will be very busy. Paper ID:

4 Figure 5:.An example of the BSN and GTG process Consider above example. After running CBFS or DBFS on Fig.5 (a), we will get paths: SOURCE-1-SINK, SOURCE SINK, SOURCE-3-7- SINK, SOURCE-4-SINK. The edge e(3, 8) and node 8 are excluded because they cannot reach SINK. The path SOURCE SINK is also deleted because when node 5 is being visited, its neighbor 9 has been visited by 6 (who has a higher priority than 5, since p(2, 6) = 0.8 and p(2, 5) = 0.7), and there is no other neighbor available for 5 to reach the sink. C. GTG: Generating the Trusted Graph The goal of the GTG process is to select short, trusted paths from the trust network. Algorithm 2: GTG (D, SOURCE, SINK) 1: Input: D. SOURCE, SINK. 2: Output: Set D, a trusted path set from SOURCE to SINK. 3: for each path P in D do 4: Delete P if the length of P is bigger than L. 5: Delete P if any RT(i, j) of P is lower than trust threshold. 6: end for Trusted Graphs Example: The example of the trusted graph illustrates the virtual connection between all nodes. In order for an endpoint, this holds an IP address ( ), to require communication with a host ( ). The trusted graph in that example (see figure) shows that the host ( ) is directly connected to two hosts ( ) and ( ) which means that the original host cannot communicate directly with its intended destination ( ). Instead, it has two options: 1) Send the packet to and the host ( ) will send that packet to ( ) and afterwards to ) A direct connection to via host ( ). In designing this approach, we are fully aware of hackers abilities to investigate the system and generate a cracking method for it. Thus, the approach contains a dynamic feature that updates the trusted graph architecture in a period of time which is not enough for hackers to understand the current architecture of the trusted graph. GTG (Algorithm 2) can be used to generate the trusted graph. Let D represent the resulting path set from the BTN process, let RT(i, j) represent the referral trust from node i to node j, and let e(i, j) be an edge of a path. Referral trust - referral trust from i to j is equal to the priority of j to be selected as the next hop. Take Fig 5(b) as an example. Suppose that we get the trust values as labeled on the edges in Fig 5 (b), and the trust threshold th = 0.5. After the GTG process, the path SOURCE-1-SINK will be excluded, since the trust value from SOURCE to node 1 is lower than th. Up until now, the trusted graph from SOURCE to SINK is generated. Figure 6: Communication Sequence in trusted graph Paper ID:

5 4.1.2 Dynamic Protocol Decoder International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) The IP addresses within the infrastructure is generated in a dynamic and randomized method, which means that in every protocol, every endpoint will hold a new identification number different to that of regular IP addresses. The actual identification for every host is shuffled with the sequence of bits within packets. Every host obtains its new identification number from the dynamic protocol decoder based on the randomization function that ensures how the new IP address is structured in the reformed packets [1]. The dynamic protocol decoder is responsible for a count of all endpoints inside an infrastructure and then forming a new connection graph that consists of all these endpoints. The dynamic protocol defines the communication sequence between all nodes, the number of fragment required and the arrangement of bits inside these packets [1] Understanding Agent The understanding agent controls incoming and outgoing traffic in all endpoints. One of the main tasks of the understanding agent is to receive the ambiguous packets and decode it back to the original (TCP/IP or OSI network protocols), which is necessary for upper layers in the original network protocols. This concept is employed to avoid major changes in the upper layers (above the network layer) [1]. Figure 7: A network with approach s components Fig.8 illustrates the understanding agents main function between a client and server via a router. The dynamic protocol decoder generates the new communication protocol based on the fundamentals and concepts illustrated in the previous sections. Then, it distributes the new protocol to all nodes integrated with the network and these new protocols must be encrypted. After that, understanding agents decrypt that massage and function in the respect to the new generated protocol Monitor Engine The monitor engine in our approach is the decision maker, which is basically made for intrusion detection. Generating decision by monitor engine is heavily relied on the generated dynamic protocol by the dynamic protocol decoder. The detection mechanism is simple, if an endpoint repeatedly does not comply with the current dynamic protocol; it is an intruder [1]. 5. Demonstration of the approach work It is important to show a scenario of the approach in practice. The figure shows the architecture of a network with our approach. The network setup won t get affected since the approach has been designed in respect to existing technologies including OSs, routers, servers or even network cables [1]. In fig. 7, the understanding agents are connected to every host inside the infrastructure. Also, a one understanding agent is connected to every router inside the network. The only possible way for all hosts, servers and routers to communicate properly is by the understanding agents since this approach performs its tasks on packet level. Figure 8: Understanding agents main functions Figure 9 illustrates the actual physical network setup; however, the virtual communication between these nodes is different, see figure 6. For example, in order for client 2 to communicate with server 5; the client 2 must follow the structure of the trusted graph and the dynamic protocol which enforces client 2 to go throw the client 3 and then to the server 5 and vice versa. So the physical communication will be in that sequence. First, client 2 sends a request to server 5. The actual request is generated normally by the OS in client 2 without any interference from its understanding agent. Then, the understanding agent for client 2 obtains that request before it goes to the network cable. The understanding agent right now reforms the packet into the current communication protocol (dividing the original packet into more than one packets, shuffled up packets bits, hiding the identity of the host itself) generated by dynamic protocol decoder. After that, the understanding agent for client 2 sends these packets normally to the router. Paper ID:

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