Pavement Thickness. esign and RCC-Pave Software. Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement: Design and Construction. October 24, 2006 Atlanta, Georgia

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Pavement Thickness. esign and RCC-Pave Software. Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement: Design and Construction. October 24, 2006 Atlanta, Georgia"

Transcription

1 Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement: Design and Construction Pavement Thickness esign and RCC-Pave Software Gregory E. Halsted, P.E. Pavements Engineer Portland Cement Association October 24, 2006 Atlanta, Georgia

2 Since its founding in 1916, the Portland Cement Association has had the same mission: "Improve and expand the uses of portland cement and concrete." Divisions Market Promotion Research Technical Services Codes and Standards Affiliates American Concrete Pavement Association The CTL Group Cement Association of Canada

3 Regional Promotion Groups

4 Cement-Based Pavement Materials Roller-Compacted Concrete Conventional Concrete Cement Content Soil-Cement Full-Depth Reclamation Cement-Modified Soil Cement- Treated Base Rolled Cast No Wearing Course Required Wearing Course Required Flowable Fill Water Content

5 Definition Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is a no-slump concrete that is compacted by vibratory rollers. Zero slump (consistency of damp gravel) No forms No reinforcing steel No finishing Consolidated with vibratory rollers Concrete pavement placed in a different way!

6 Pavement Thickness Design

7 Engineering Properties Compressive strength 4,000 to 10,000 psi Flexural strength 500 to 1,000 psi f r = C(f c ) 1/2 Modulus of Elasticity 3,000,000 to 5,500,000 psi E = C E (f c ) 1/2

8 Engineering Properties RCC can provide higher flexural strength than conventional concrete

9 Mixture Design Conventional concrete mixture procedures are not appropriate! Not air-entrained Lower water content Lower paste content Larger fine aggregate content Nominal maximum size aggregate (NMSA) = 3/4 or 5/8

10 Dry enough to support a vibratory roller Wet enough to permit adequate distribution of paste Important!

11 Aggregate selection very important Responsible for mix workability, segregation, ease of consolidation Pre-blended or stored separately Aggregate Selection

12 Aggregate Selection Highway base course, asphalt, or concrete aggregates can be used 3/4 or 5/8 NMSA For smooth surface, lower segregation Higher fine aggregate content than conventional concrete mixes For adequate stability under vibratory roller 2% to 8% passing #200 sieve Provides paste to fill voids and maintain tight surface

13 Aggregate Gradation for RCC Percent Passing #200 #40 #10 #4 1/2" 1" 2" Sieve Opening (mm)

14 Cementitious Materials Select materials based upon availability, economics, and design requirements: Portland cement: Type I or II Fly ash Slag or silica fume Normally lb/cy cementitious (12% to 17% of dry weight) If used, fly ash proportions are typically 15% to 25%

15 Admixtures Retarders or water reducers can be used to increase working time Superplasticizers commonly used in dry batch production to improve workability Air entraining admixtures have been shown to be technologically possible, but RCC is extremely freeze/thaw resistant even without Fibers seldom used as their benefits have not been demonstrated Newest trend in RCC mix production

16 Soil Compaction Method 1. Determine moisture content Construct moisture/density curve Modified Proctor ASTM D1557 Assume a median cement content for example: 15 percent

17 Moisture-Density Relationship 144 Dry Density (lb/cf) % 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% Moisture Content

18 Soil Compaction Method 2. Determine cementitious materials content Use optimum moisture content Run cement series e.g., 11%, 13%, 15%, 17% Select cement content which yields appropriate strength

19 View Of Casting First Lift Of Cylinder Using ASTM C1435

20 Completed Test Cylinders

21 Strength vs. Cement Content 6, Day Compressive Strength (psi) 6,000 5,500 5,000 4,500 4,000 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% Cement Content

22 Sample RCC Mix Designs Units Port of Tacoma Intermodal Yard Brownsville, TX Border Station Coarse Aggregate lb/cy 1,700 1,287 (#67 river gravel) Fine Aggregate lb/cy 1,700 1,762 (concrete sand) Maximum Size Aggregate in 5/8 3/4 % Finer Than #200 % Cement lb/cy Fly Ash lb/cy Water lb/cy Unit Weight lb/cf Compressive: 3 day psi 1,810 3,046 Compressive: 28 day psi 6,050 4,946 Flexural: 3 day psi Flexural: 28 day psi

23 Thickness Design of RCC Pavements Design methods based on CTL and COE Research in the 1980 s Follows rigid pavement design strategies Plain, un-doweled, un-reinforced concrete pavement

24 RCC - Unique Loadings Highway loadings just the start Industrial pavements present design challenge Container and log sort yard loadings can greatly exceed highway loadings 18,000 vs 220,000+ lb. axle loads

25 Slab Tensile Stress is Critical Stress is affected by: load tire pressure and spacing slab thickness subbase support concrete stiffness

26 Design for Stress Ratio Stress Ratio = critical applied tensile stress Modulus of Rupture (flexural strength) where: critical applied stress is the maximum tensile stress at the bottom of the concrete pavement slab and the Modulus of Rupture is the tensile strength of a concrete beam tested using 3-point loading at 28 days Flexural (tensile) strength controls for RCC pavements

27 Thickness Design Procedure The desired stress ratio is reached by either increasing the RCC pavement thickness or by increasing the strength of the concrete

28 Design Assumptions Interior loading Monolithic slab action for multi-layer construction Load transfer across joints/cracks Conservatism: Design curve below fatigue tests Strength gain with age

29 Thickness Design Procedure 1. Support strength of subgrade (k value) 2. Vehicle characteristics Wheel loads Wheel spacing Tire characteristics Load repetitions during design life 3. Flexural strength 4. Modulus of Elasticity

30 Thickness Design Procedure Subgrade Support k value Use plate load test, or estimated relationships Vehicle Loads Normally, heaviest wheel load controls Contact area: wheel load/tire pressure Wheel spacing: per manufacturer

31 Software Demonstration

32 Design Example One Single Axle Single Wheel

33 Design Example One Passenger Car, Single Axle - Single Wheel Total weight: 4,000 pounds Axle load: 2,000 pounds Wheel load: 1,000 pounds Subgrade k value: 210 pci Tire pressure: 35 psi Tire contact area 1,000/35 = 29 sq in RCC flexural strength: 600 psi RCC modulus of elasticity: 3,500,000 psi Load repetitions/day = 35; therefore, 20 years: 35 x 365 x 20 = 255,500

34 Design Example Two Tandem Axle Dual Wheel

35 Design Example Two Truck, Tandem Axle - Dual Wheel Total weight: 40,000 pounds Subgrade k value: 150 pci RCC compressive strength: 4,000 psi Load repetitions/day = 50; therefore, 20 years: 50 x 365 x 20 = 365,000

36 Design Example Three Multiple Loads Equipment + Truck Loads Top/Side Lifter Equipment Design period = 20 years 100,000 design traffic 50,000 pounds 40,000 pounds 30,000 pounds 20,000 pounds ME = 4,000,000 psi MR = 700 psi k = 200 pci Tire pressure = 200 psi Number of wheels = 1

37 Design Example Three Multiple Loads Equipment + Truck Loads Load (lbs) Thickness (in) Stress (psi) Stress Ratio Applications to Failure Number of Applications Fractional Damage 50, ,175 5, , ,874 50, , unlimited 25, , unlimited 20, Total 1.078

38 Design Example Three Multiple Loads Equipment + Truck Loads Load (lbs) Thickness (in) Stress (psi) Stress Ratio Applications to Failure Number of Applications Fractional Damage 50, ,997 5, , ,418 50, , unlimited 25, , unlimited 20, Total 0.462

39 for additional information, please visit our website at

40 Thank You!

Roller-Compacted Concrete: Highway/Street Applications

Roller-Compacted Concrete: Highway/Street Applications Roller-Compacted Concrete: Highway/Street Applications 2009 Louisiana Transportation Conference Tim McConnell Portland Cement Association Definition Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is a no-slump concrete

More information

The AASHO Road Test site (which eventually became part of I-80) at Ottawa, Illinois, was typical of northern climates (see Table 1).

The AASHO Road Test site (which eventually became part of I-80) at Ottawa, Illinois, was typical of northern climates (see Table 1). Página 1 de 12 AASHO Road Test The AASHO Road Test, a $27 million (1960 dollars) investment and the largest road experiment of its time, was conceived and sponsored by the American Association of State

More information

Design and Construction of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavements for Container Terminals. David R. Luhr PhD PE *

Design and Construction of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavements for Container Terminals. David R. Luhr PhD PE * Design and Construction of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavements for Container Terminals David R. Luhr PhD PE * Program Manager, Portland Cement Association, PO Box 5895, Cary, NC 27511; PH 919-462-0840;

More information

Recent Advances in the Design & Construction of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements -1-

Recent Advances in the Design & Construction of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements -1- Recent Advances in the Design & Construction of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements -1- AGENDA Roller Compacted Concrete What is it? Where has it Been Used? and Why? RCC Construction Process Recent Advances

More information

PROPERTIES AND MIX DESIGNATIONS 5-694.200

PROPERTIES AND MIX DESIGNATIONS 5-694.200 September 1, 2003 CONCRETE MANUAL 5-694.200 5-694.210 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE PROPERTIES AND MIX DESIGNATIONS 5-694.200 Inspectors should familiarize themselves with the most important properties of concrete:

More information

Concrete Mix Design Guide

Concrete Mix Design Guide The following is a design guide for selecting proportions for initial concrete mix design for normal weight concrete. This guide references ACI 211.1-91 (Reapproved 2009), Standard Practice for Selecting

More information

Lab 1 Concrete Proportioning, Mixing, and Testing

Lab 1 Concrete Proportioning, Mixing, and Testing Lab 1 Concrete Proportioning, Mixing, and Testing Supplemental Lab manual Objectives Concepts Background Experimental Procedure Report Requirements Discussion Prepared By Mutlu Ozer Objectives Students

More information

RECYCLED CRUSHED CONCRETE BASE COURSE

RECYCLED CRUSHED CONCRETE BASE COURSE Section 02713 PART 1 G E N E R A L 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES A. Recycled crushed concrete base (RCCB) course. 1.02 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT A. Unit Prices. 1. Payment for RCCB is on per ton basis furnished

More information

Shotcrete Quality Control and Testing for an Underground Mine in Canada

Shotcrete Quality Control and Testing for an Underground Mine in Canada Shotcrete Quality Control and Testing for an Underground Mine in Canada By Dudley R. (Rusty) Morgan and Mazin Ezzet AMEC Earth & Environmental, a division of AMEC Americas Limited SHOTCRETE FOR AFRICA

More information

Construction Specifications for Keyhole Pavement Coring and Reinstatement

Construction Specifications for Keyhole Pavement Coring and Reinstatement F I N A L Construction Specifications for Keyhole Pavement Coring and Reinstatement Gas Technology Institute 1700 S. Mount Prospect Rd. Des Plaines, Illinois 60018 www.gastechnology.org Version 13 October

More information

GRADATION OF AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE BLOCK

GRADATION OF AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE BLOCK GRADATION OF AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE BLOCK Although numerous papers have been written concerning the proper gradation for concrete mixes, they have generally dealt with plastic mixes, and very little published

More information

1.5 Concrete (Part I)

1.5 Concrete (Part I) 1.5 Concrete (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Constituents of Concrete Properties of Hardened Concrete (Part I) 1.5.1 Constituents of Concrete Introduction Concrete is a composite material

More information

REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition

REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition CHAPTER REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced Concrete Design A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition CONCRETE Fifth Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

More information

Concrete Pavement Innovation & Technology Transfer Workshop Composite Pavements: Roller Compacted Concrete - 1 -

Concrete Pavement Innovation & Technology Transfer Workshop Composite Pavements: Roller Compacted Concrete - 1 - Concrete Pavement Innovation & Technology Transfer Workshop Composite Pavements: Roller Compacted Concrete - 1 - AGENDA Roller Compacted Concrete What is it? Where has it Been Used? and Why? Pavement Design

More information

NOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT.

NOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT. September 1, 2003 CONCRETE MANUAL 5-694.300 MIX DESIGN 5-694.300 NOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT. 5-694.301

More information

C. Section 014510 TESTING LABORATORY SERVICE.

C. Section 014510 TESTING LABORATORY SERVICE. SECTION 014500 QUALITY CONTROL PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 RELATED REQUIREMENTS A. Drawings and General Provisions of Contract, including General and Special Conditions and other Division 1 Specification Sections,

More information

SECTION ASPHALT PAVING

SECTION ASPHALT PAVING SECTION 02720 PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 DESCRIPTION A. Section includes specifications for hot-mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) track underlayment and asphalt concrete (AC) paving. Track underlayment includes all

More information

Final Report. Yunping Xi

Final Report. Yunping Xi Report No. CDOT-2012-11 Final Report APPLICATION OF ROLLER COMPACTED CONCR RETE IN COLORADO S ROADWAYS Nattapong Damrongwiriyanupapp Yu-Chang Liang Yunping Xi October 2012 COLORADOO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

More information

Crack the Code on your Concrete Delivery Ticket CONEXPO CON/AGG 3/6/2014

Crack the Code on your Concrete Delivery Ticket CONEXPO CON/AGG 3/6/2014 Crack the Code On Your Delivery Ticket Description: Every load of concrete comes with a delivery ticket that is full of useful information, if you know how to crack the secret code! Critical information

More information

1.1 SECTION INCLUDES.1 Materials and installation for asphalt concrete pavement for car park areas, driveways to buildings, and walks or play areas.

1.1 SECTION INCLUDES.1 Materials and installation for asphalt concrete pavement for car park areas, driveways to buildings, and walks or play areas. Issued 2005/06/01 Section 02742 Asphalt Concrete Pavement for Building Sites Page 1 of 8 PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 SECTION INCLUDES.1 Materials and installation for asphalt concrete pavement for car park areas,

More information

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 888 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT USING QC/QA.

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 888 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT USING QC/QA. STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 888 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT USING QC/QA October 21, 2011 888.01 General 888.02 Materials 888.03 Concrete Proportioning 888.04

More information

CalMod Design-Build Electrification Services

CalMod Design-Build Electrification Services SECTION 34 32 38 ASPHALT PAVING PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 DESCRIPTION A. Section includes specifications for hot-mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) track underlayment and asphalt concrete (AC) paving. Track underlayment

More information

Advancements in Permeable Pavements

Advancements in Permeable Pavements Advancements in Permeable Pavements Engineers Workshop Saint Vincent College March 14 & 15 2013 Permeable Pavements There are several different words that are used to describe a pavement that water drains

More information

SPECIFICATIONS. INTERLOCKING CONCRETE POROUS PAVING UNITS or Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICP)

SPECIFICATIONS. INTERLOCKING CONCRETE POROUS PAVING UNITS or Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICP) SPECIFICATIONS INTERLOCKING CONCRETE POROUS PAVING UNITS or Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICP) Part 1 General 1.1 CONFORMITY Conforms to the requirements of the general conditions of the contract.

More information

CW 3110 SUB-GRADE, SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSE CONSTRUCTION TABLE OF CONTENTS

CW 3110 SUB-GRADE, SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSE CONSTRUCTION TABLE OF CONTENTS December 2014 CW 3110 SUB-GRADE, SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSE CONSTRUCTION TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. DESCRIPTION... 1 1.1 General... 1 1.2 Definitions... 1 1.3 Referenced Standard Construction Specifications...

More information

CHAPTER 9 - CAST-IN PLACE CONCRETE

CHAPTER 9 - CAST-IN PLACE CONCRETE CHAPTER 9 - CAST-IN PLACE CONCRETE TABLE OF CONTENTS 9.1 GENERAL 9-1 9.1.1 SCOPE 9-1 9.2 MATERIALS 9-1 9.2.1 CEMENT 9-1 9.2.2 AGGREGATES 9-1 9.2.3 WATER 9-1 9.2.4 ADMIXTURES 9-1 9.2.5 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

More information

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENT 1015 COMPACTION TESTING OF UNBOUND MATERIALS. July 18, 2014

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENT 1015 COMPACTION TESTING OF UNBOUND MATERIALS. July 18, 2014 STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENT 1015 COMPACTION TESTING OF UNBOUND MATERIALS July 18, 2014 1015.01 General 1015.02 Definitions 1015.03 Referenced Standards 1015.04 Equipment 1015.05

More information

ITEM 247 FLEXIBLE BASE Description. Construct a foundation course composed of flexible base.

ITEM 247 FLEXIBLE BASE Description. Construct a foundation course composed of flexible base. ITEM 247 FLEXIBLE BASE 247.1. Description. Construct a foundation course composed of flexible base. 247.2. Materials. Furnish uncontaminated materials of uniform quality that meet the requirements of the

More information

Surfacing Manual SOIL CEMENT BASE THICKNESS DETERMINATION

Surfacing Manual SOIL CEMENT BASE THICKNESS DETERMINATION SM 1110-02 Surfacing Manual INTRODUCTION Soil cement is a mixture of Portland Cement, a mineral soil (usually a graded sand) and water that is placed and compacted in one lift. It is an alternate to granular

More information

ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVING

ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVING CITY OF BRAMPTON LANDSCAPE SPECIFICATIONS SECTION 02743-1 PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 Related Work.1 All Division 1 Specification Sections.2 Section 01330 Submittals.3 Section 01450 Quality Control & Inspection.4

More information

Cement-Based Pavement Solutions. Full Depth Reclamation with Cement A Useful and Cost Saving Tool

Cement-Based Pavement Solutions. Full Depth Reclamation with Cement A Useful and Cost Saving Tool Cement-Based Pavement Solutions October 30, 2013 Concrete Airport Pavement Workshop Atlanta, Georgia Full Depth Reclamation with Cement A Useful and Cost Saving Tool Stan Bland, PE Pavement Applications

More information

Transportation Demographics

Transportation Demographics Transportation Demographics F Roads Marine Highway Airports E = Emulsion Stabilization F = Foamed Asphalt Stabilization C = Portland Cement Stabilization 9/25/2012 Integrity Excellence Respect 2 Integrity

More information

Example Specification for Concrete using Current Building Code Requirements

Example Specification for Concrete using Current Building Code Requirements Example Specification for Concrete using Current Building Code Requirements DISCLAIMER: This specification is an example that accompanies a seminar titled The P2P Initiative: Performance-based Specs for

More information

1.02 RELATED WORK: Refer to the following sections for related work: Flatwork

1.02 RELATED WORK: Refer to the following sections for related work: Flatwork SECTION 4000 - CONCRETE MATERIALS AND METHODS PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 SCOPE: This Section covers concrete materials and mixtures; flowable fill; materials for reinforcing, formwork, joints, and curing; ready-mix

More information

SECTION 18 - CAST IN PLACE HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (HPC)

SECTION 18 - CAST IN PLACE HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (HPC) SECTION 18 - CAST IN PLACE HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (HPC) 1.0 DESCRIPTION This section details the requirements for materials and methods in the proportioning, mixing, transporting, placing, finishing

More information

SECTION 311 PLACEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF CEMENT TREATED SUBGRADESOIL CEMENT BASE COURSE

SECTION 311 PLACEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF CEMENT TREATED SUBGRADESOIL CEMENT BASE COURSE PLACEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF CEMENT TREATED SUBGRADESOIL CEMENT BASE COURSE 311.1 DESCRIPTION: This item shall consist of a cement treated subgrade base course composed of a mixture of local soil, portland

More information

SECTION 501 CONCRETE

SECTION 501 CONCRETE SECTION 501 CONCRETE 501.1 Description. shall consist of a mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water, combined in the proportions specified for the various classes. Admixtures may be

More information

Quality Assurance Program. June 2005 2005 by Texas Department of Transportation (512) 416-2055 all rights reserved

Quality Assurance Program. June 2005 2005 by Texas Department of Transportation (512) 416-2055 all rights reserved Quality Assurance Program June 2005 2005 by Texas Department of Transportation (512) 416-2055 all rights reserved Quality Assurance Program June 2005 Manual Notices Manual Notice 2005-1To: Users of the

More information

Class C Mixtures as Alternates to Portlandcement-based

Class C Mixtures as Alternates to Portlandcement-based 2011 World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference - May 9-12, 2011 in Denver, CO, USA http://www.flyash.info/ Class C Mixtures as Alternates to Portlandcement-based Foundation Concrete William S. Caires, C.E.T.

More information

State of the Art on Fiber Reinforced Concrete

State of the Art on Fiber Reinforced Concrete State of the Art on Fiber Reinforced Concrete Recent Advances on the use of FRC for Pavement Design Presented to: 015 Concrete Pavements Plus Seminar Michael Mahoney, P.Eng. Director of Admixture and Fiber

More information

The First Commandment for floor slabs:

The First Commandment for floor slabs: The First Commandment for floor slabs: P for the Practitioner Thou Shalt Not Curl Nor Crack...(hopefully) by Wayne W. Walker and Jerry A. Holland LL FLOOR SLABS CURL, except Aunder unusual conditions or

More information

DIVISION 300 BASES SECTION 304 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE DESCRIPTION MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

DIVISION 300 BASES SECTION 304 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE DESCRIPTION MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 304.06 DIVISION 300 BASES SECTION 304 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE DESCRIPTION 304.01 This work consists of furnishing and placing one or more courses of aggregate and additives, if required, on a prepared subgrade.

More information

SCG / SELF CONSOLIDATING GROUT

SCG / SELF CONSOLIDATING GROUT SCG SELF CONSOLIDATING GROUT U. S. A. DIVISION MASONRY PRODUCTS 04 Structurally Sound. Highly Fluid. SPEC MIX Self Consolidating Grout (SCG) is a dry preblended grout specifically designed to be highly

More information

Pavement Design for Rural Low Volume Roads Using Cement and Lime Treatment Base

Pavement Design for Rural Low Volume Roads Using Cement and Lime Treatment Base Pavement Design for Rural Low Volume Roads Using Cement and Lime Treatment Base General Manager, Pavement, Material and Geotechnical Division, Intercontinental Consultants and Technocrats Private Limited,

More information

Techniques for Compaction Control

Techniques for Compaction Control Techniques for Compaction Control E ldon J. Y oder Professor of Highway Engineering Purdue University and T. G. W illiamson Assistant Research Engineer Research & Training Center Indiana State Highway

More information

Tremie Concrete CM 420 CM 420 CM 420 CM 420. Temporary Structures. Tremie Concrete

Tremie Concrete CM 420 CM 420 CM 420 CM 420. Temporary Structures. Tremie Concrete Tremie Concrete Underwater concrete plays an important role in the construction of offshore structures. It may be used to tie together various elements in composite action (i.e., to tie piling to the footing).

More information

Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) in Pavements.. the UK Experience. John Donegan - BA BAI CEng MIEI FIHT

Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) in Pavements.. the UK Experience. John Donegan - BA BAI CEng MIEI FIHT Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) in Pavements.. the UK Experience John Donegan - BA BAI CEng MIEI FIHT Roller Compacted Concrete Company Sitebatch Technologies - Mix Design and Mixing Needham & Cullen -

More information

Quality Assurance Concepts. Outline

Quality Assurance Concepts. Outline Quality Assurance Concepts Peter C. Taylor Outline What is quality? Who cares? How do we get it? What is the important stuff? 1 Defining Quality Simple Definition (Philip Crosby) Quality: Conformance to

More information

Designing Concrete Slab-on-Ground

Designing Concrete Slab-on-Ground Designing Concrete Slab-on-Ground Safety First, Always!!! Keep cement products away from skin gloves, waterproof boots, knee pads, etc. Cement is very abrasive & alkaline wash skin promptly protect w/

More information

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 847

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 847 STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 847 BRIDGE DECK REPAIR AND OVERLAY WITH CONCRETE USING SCARIFICATION AND CHIPPING APRIL 15, 2005 847.01 Description 847.02 Bridge Decks

More information

NorthEast Transportation Training and Certification Program (NETTCP) Course Registration Form

NorthEast Transportation Training and Certification Program (NETTCP) Course Registration Form (NETTCP) Course Registration Form Interim Certification (Cost $300 members / $425 non-members) HMA Plant Technician* HMA Paving Inspector* Soils & Aggregate Inspector* Soils & Aggregate Lab Technician*

More information

VOLUMETRIC MIXER STANDARDS OF THE VOLUMETRIC MIXER MANUFACTURERS BUREAU VMMB

VOLUMETRIC MIXER STANDARDS OF THE VOLUMETRIC MIXER MANUFACTURERS BUREAU VMMB VOLUMETRIC MIXER STANDARDS OF THE VOLUMETRIC MIXER MANUFACTURERS BUREAU VMMB 100-01 First Edition February 28, 2001 Your Assurance of Quality! NEED HELP??? It is the policy of the Bureau to make its services

More information

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF NANO CONCRETE

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF NANO CONCRETE International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 315 320, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_027 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

SECTION 32 14 13.19 PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT

SECTION 32 14 13.19 PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT PART 1 GENERAL 1.1 SECTION INCLUDES SECTION 32 14 13.19 PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT A. The requirements for construction of permeable interlocking concrete pavement: 1. Install the interlocking

More information

Key Words Student Paper, Technology, Construction Management and Engineering Technology

Key Words Student Paper, Technology, Construction Management and Engineering Technology Comparative Study of the Abrasion Resistance Radu Apostoaia, Purdue University Calumet Jose Pena, Purdue University Calumet Faculty Advisor: Jose A. Pena, Purdue University Calumet Student Paper Abstract

More information

Manufacturing Quality Concrete Products

Manufacturing Quality Concrete Products CEMEX USA - Technical Bulletin 8.0 Manufacturing Quality Concrete Products Establishing or Upgrading a Quality Program Overview The following guidelines were developed for MCP (manufactured concrete products)

More information

LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE USE FOR BRIDGE DECKS IN KANSAS

LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE USE FOR BRIDGE DECKS IN KANSAS LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE USE FOR BRIDGE DECKS IN KANSAS Kansas State 2015 Bridge Conference Dave Meggers, P.E. Kansas Department of Transportation Bureau of Research EARLY WORK Availability And Suggested Usage

More information

INDEX 03010-1 DESCRIPTION 2 03010-2 MATERIALS 2 03010-3 APPROVAL OF SUBBASE COURSE 3 03010-4 CONSTRUCTION 4 03010-5 MEASUREMENT 6 03010-6 PAYMENT 6

INDEX 03010-1 DESCRIPTION 2 03010-2 MATERIALS 2 03010-3 APPROVAL OF SUBBASE COURSE 3 03010-4 CONSTRUCTION 4 03010-5 MEASUREMENT 6 03010-6 PAYMENT 6 03010_Dec22_2009.pdf Page 1 of 5 INDEX Page 03010-1 DESCRIPTION 2 03010-2 MATERIALS 2 03010-3 APPROVAL OF SUBBASE COURSE 3 03010-4 CONSTRUCTION 4 03010-5 MEASUREMENT 6 03010-6 PAYMENT 6 03010_Dec22_2009.pdf

More information

MASONRY INFORMATION. Selecting and Specifying Mortar and Grout for Unit Masonry. Introduction. Desirable Mortar Properties. Selection of Mortar

MASONRY INFORMATION. Selecting and Specifying Mortar and Grout for Unit Masonry. Introduction. Desirable Mortar Properties. Selection of Mortar Portland Cement Association MASONRY INFORMATION Selecting and Specifying Mortar and Grout for Unit Masonry Introduction Masonry mortar and masonry grout are key materials in unit masonry construction.

More information

THE FULL-DEPTH RECLAMATION COMMITTEE OF THE ASPHALT RECYCLING & RECLAIMING ASSOCIATION (ARRA) PRESENTS SOIL STABILIZATION

THE FULL-DEPTH RECLAMATION COMMITTEE OF THE ASPHALT RECYCLING & RECLAIMING ASSOCIATION (ARRA) PRESENTS SOIL STABILIZATION THE FULL-DEPTH RECLAMATION COMMITTEE OF THE ASPHALT RECYCLING & RECLAIMING ASSOCIATION (ARRA) PRESENTS SOIL STABILIZATION Driving on a Solid Foundation A S P H A LT R E C Y C L I N G & R E C L A I M I

More information

Structural Testing of GeoPolymer Pipe/Culvert Lining

Structural Testing of GeoPolymer Pipe/Culvert Lining Structural Testing of GeoPolymer Pipe/Culvert Lining Joseph Royer, Ph.D. October 27 th, 2015 What is a GeoPolymer? Not a Plastic Not HDPE/PVC/Epoxy Looks and feels like cement Workability Material Properties

More information

Quality control: Annex-A.

Quality control: Annex-A. Quality control: Quality of the constructed work has been checked by our staff as per frequency and provision mentioned section 900 in MoRT&H and as per provision mentioned in Concession Agreement. The

More information

SECTION 308 PORTLAND CEMENT-TREATED BASES

SECTION 308 PORTLAND CEMENT-TREATED BASES SECTION 308 PORTLAND CEMENT-TREATED BASES SECTION 308.10 PORTLAND CEMENT-TREATED BASE, CENTRAL PLANT METHOD 308.11 Description. This work shall consist of constructing one or more courses of a mixture

More information

REFERENCE TO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS CONCRETE AGGREGATE TESTS ON CONCRETE AGGREGATE CEMENT 4

REFERENCE TO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS CONCRETE AGGREGATE TESTS ON CONCRETE AGGREGATE CEMENT 4 06005_Jan06_2014.pdf Page 1 of 14 INDEX Page 06005-1 REFERENCE TO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS 2 06005-2 CONCRETE AGGREGATE 2 06005-3 TESTS ON CONCRETE AGGREGATE 3 06005-4 CEMENT 4 06005-5 PROVIDING CHEMICAL

More information

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 848 BRIDGE DECK REPAIR AND OVERLAY WITH CONCRETE USING HYDRO-DEMOLITION

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 848 BRIDGE DECK REPAIR AND OVERLAY WITH CONCRETE USING HYDRO-DEMOLITION STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATION 848 BRIDGE DECK REPAIR AND OVERLAY WITH CONCRETE USING HYDRO-DEMOLITION APRIL 15, 2005 848.01 Description 848.02 Bridge Decks with

More information

Compaction Principles and Techniques

Compaction Principles and Techniques Compaction Principles and Techniques What is Compaction? Mechanically increasing the density of a lift of material Increase density by removing air voids Dense mat resists rutting and movement Each layer

More information

Concrete Engineering and Technology Prof. Sudhir Misra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Concrete Engineering and Technology Prof. Sudhir Misra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Concrete Engineering and Technology Prof. Sudhir Misra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture - 6 Basic properties of concrete (Refer Slide Time: 00:21) And welcome

More information

Standard Test Procedures Manual

Standard Test Procedures Manual STP 208-7 Standard Test Procedures Manual Section: MIX DESIGN BY SHORT- CUT METHOD 1. SCOPE 1.1. Description of Test This method describes the Portland Cement Association short-cut procedure for determining

More information

Chapter 7: Pavement Rehabilitation 7-1 Asphalt Pavement Overlays 7-1 Surface Preparation Methods 7-2 Concrete Pavement Preparation 7-3 Recycling

Chapter 7: Pavement Rehabilitation 7-1 Asphalt Pavement Overlays 7-1 Surface Preparation Methods 7-2 Concrete Pavement Preparation 7-3 Recycling 7-1 Asphalt Pavement Overlays 7-1 Surface Preparation Methods 7-2 Concrete Pavement Preparation 7-3 Recycling Asphalt Pavements 7-7 Chapter 7 Pavement Rehabilitation Pavement rehabilitation can be accomplished

More information

CGA Standard Practices Series. Article 600 Standard for Pozzolan Enhanced Grouts Used in Annular Seals & Well Destruction

CGA Standard Practices Series. Article 600 Standard for Pozzolan Enhanced Grouts Used in Annular Seals & Well Destruction California Groundwater Association An NGWA Affiliate State PO Box 14369 Santa Rosa CA 95402 707-578-4408 fax: 707-546-4906 email: cga@groundh2o.org website: www.groundh2o.org CGA Standard Practices Series

More information

Guideline for Application and Use of High Performance Concrete. in Projects of Ministry of Transportation Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Guideline for Application and Use of High Performance Concrete. in Projects of Ministry of Transportation Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Guideline for Application and Use of High Performance Concrete in Projects of Ministry of Transportation Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Rajab 1431 H July 2010 Preface By H.E.Dr.Jobarah bin Eid Al-Suraisry

More information

Chapter 5 Soil Stabilization and Compaction

Chapter 5 Soil Stabilization and Compaction Chapter 5 Soil Stabilization and Compaction 5. Soil Stabilization and Compaction 5.1. Introduction: Soils are used to support structures, to support pavement for highways, airport and dams. Some types

More information

Fly Ash Slurry Injection (FASI) of Bituminous Thermal Cracks

Fly Ash Slurry Injection (FASI) of Bituminous Thermal Cracks Fly Ash Slurry Injection (FASI) of Bituminous Thermal Cracks Schedule What is Fly Ash Slurry Injection (FASI) Thermal Cracks and Why They Depress Pavement Rehab Strategies Special Provisions Upcoming Projects

More information

Roller-Compacted Concrete: A Value-Added Pavement Solution Course Number: C Jan R. Prusinski, P.E., LEED-AP Date: September 27, 2013

Roller-Compacted Concrete: A Value-Added Pavement Solution Course Number: C Jan R. Prusinski, P.E., LEED-AP Date: September 27, 2013 Provider Number: A090 Roller-Compacted Concrete: A Value-Added Pavement Solution Course Number: C21-03 Jan R. Prusinski, P.E., LEED-AP Date: September 27, 2013 Credit(s) earned on completion of this course

More information

SILICA FUME IN SHOTCRETE. Authors: D.R. Morgan and J.T. Wolsiefer

SILICA FUME IN SHOTCRETE. Authors: D.R. Morgan and J.T. Wolsiefer SILICA FUME IN SHOTCRETE Authors: D.R. Morgan and J.T. Wolsiefer This paper was originally published in the proceedings of the CANMET/ACI International Workshop on the use of Silica in Concrete in Washington,

More information

Municipal Pavement Design with StreetPave Software

Municipal Pavement Design with StreetPave Software Municipal Pavement Design with StreetPave Software March 5, 2009 Scott Haislip Senior VP Pavement Engineering Presentation Overview Background / history of the design procedure Concrete pavement design

More information

L. Huang, A.M. Sha*, F. Ma, Z.Z. Liu and X.L. Zou. Chang an University, China. August 3, 2015

L. Huang, A.M. Sha*, F. Ma, Z.Z. Liu and X.L. Zou. Chang an University, China. August 3, 2015 L. Huang, A.M. Sha*, F. Ma, Z.Z. Liu and X.L. Zou Chang an University, China August 3, 2015 ISSAEST, Fairbanks, AK, USA, August 2-5, 2015 The national or local standards of the asphalt stabilized aggregates

More information

PCI BIG BEAM COMPETITION

PCI BIG BEAM COMPETITION PCI BIG BEAM COMPETITION Official Rules for the PCI Engineering Design Competition Academic Year 2015-16 PROGRAM The PCI Student Education Committee is inviting entries from students to participate in

More information

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation October 2013 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION. Method of Test for

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation October 2013 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION. Method of Test for Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION Method of Test for TIME OF SETTING OF CONCRETE MIXTURES BY PENETRATION RESISTANCE 1.

More information

EFFECT OF NANO-SILICA ON CONCRETE CONTAINING METAKAOLIN

EFFECT OF NANO-SILICA ON CONCRETE CONTAINING METAKAOLIN International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 104-112, Article ID: IJCIET_07_01_009 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=1

More information

Recycled Concrete Pavement and Other Recycled Materials in Concrete Pavements

Recycled Concrete Pavement and Other Recycled Materials in Concrete Pavements Recycled Concrete Pavement and Other Recycled Materials in Concrete Pavements Infrastructure Applications Utilizing Recycled Materials in South Carolina What/Who is NRMCA? National Ready-Mixed Concrete

More information

DEPARTMENT of INFRASTRUCTURE, ENERGY and RESOURCES, TASMANIA ROADWORKS SPECIFICATION R36 - KERB AND GUTTER June 2004

DEPARTMENT of INFRASTRUCTURE, ENERGY and RESOURCES, TASMANIA ROADWORKS SPECIFICATION R36 - KERB AND GUTTER June 2004 DEPARTMENT of INFRASTRUCTURE, ENERGY and RESOURCES, TASMANIA ROADWORKS SPECIFICATION R36 - KERB AND GUTTER June 2004 Contents Page R36.1 SCOPE...2 R36.2 MATERIALS...2 R36.2.1 Concrete...2 R36.2.2 Pavement

More information

SECTION 02795 UNI PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT

SECTION 02795 UNI PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT SECTION 02795 UNI PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT Note: This guide specification is intended for use in the U.S. It describes construction of permeable interlocking concrete pavers on a permeable,

More information

Cementitious Stabilization

Cementitious Stabilization A2J01: Committee on Cementitious Stabilization Chairman: Roger K. Seals, Louisiana State University Cementitious Stabilization DALLAS N. LITTLE, Texas A&M University ERIC H. MALES, National Lime Association

More information

DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT), YIELD, AND AIR CONTENT (GRAVIMETRIC) OF CONCRETE FOP FOR AASHTO T 121 (11)

DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT), YIELD, AND AIR CONTENT (GRAVIMETRIC) OF CONCRETE FOP FOR AASHTO T 121 (11) DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT), YIELD, AND AIR CONTENT (GRAVIMETRIC) OF CONCRETE FOP FOR AASHTO T 121 (11) Scope This procedure covers the determination of density, or unit weight, of freshly mixed concrete in

More information

APPENDIX E COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS AND EQUIPMENT

APPENDIX E COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS AND EQUIPMENT APPENDIX E COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS AND EQUIPMENT When the Materials Division designs a pavement structure, there are a number of factors that influence it s outcome. Projected traffic counts, percentage

More information

Division 2 Section 32 14 13.19 Section 02795

Division 2 Section 32 14 13.19 Section 02795 Note: The text must be edited to suit specific project requirements. It should be reviewed by a qualified civil or geotechnical engineer, or landscape architect familiar with the site conditions. Edit

More information

SECTION 32 14 13.19 PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT (1995 MasterFormat Section 02795)

SECTION 32 14 13.19 PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT (1995 MasterFormat Section 02795) SECTION 32 14 13.19 PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVEMENT (1995 MasterFormat Section 02795) Note: This guide specification for U.S. applications describes construction of permeable interlocking concrete

More information

INTRODUCTION TO CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

INTRODUCTION TO CONCRETE PAVEMENTS INTRODUCTION TO CONCRETE PAVEMENTS Abstract Arvo Tinni Tinni Management Consulting February 2013 This paper describes the experiences and design methodologies for concrete pavements in Australia. It is

More information

Use of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement in Stafford, Virginia

Use of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement in Stafford, Virginia Use of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement in Stafford, Virginia http://www.virginiadot.org/vtrc/main/online_reports/pdf/15-r19.pdf M. SHABBIR HOSSAIN, Ph.D., P.E. Senior Research Scientist CELIK OZYILDIRIM,

More information

NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS 17 TH ANNUAL PUBLIC WORKS ROUNDUP JUNE 8, 2016. Concrete Street Insanity

NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS 17 TH ANNUAL PUBLIC WORKS ROUNDUP JUNE 8, 2016. Concrete Street Insanity NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS 17 TH ANNUAL PUBLIC WORKS ROUNDUP JUNE 8, 2016 Concrete Street Insanity Jerry Murawski, P.E. With Special Thanks to Jan Prusinski, P.E. Cement Council of Texas

More information

Fire-Damage or Freeze-Thaw of Strengthening Concrete Using Ultra High Performance Concrete

Fire-Damage or Freeze-Thaw of Strengthening Concrete Using Ultra High Performance Concrete Fire-Damage or Freeze-Thaw of Strengthening Concrete Using Ultra High Performance Concrete Ming-Gin Lee 1,a, Yi-Shuo Huang 1,b 1 Department of Construction Engineering, Chaoyang University of Technology,Taichung

More information

Lightweight High- Performance Concrete Bulb-T Beams With Self- Consolidating Concrete in a Bridge Structure

Lightweight High- Performance Concrete Bulb-T Beams With Self- Consolidating Concrete in a Bridge Structure Lightweight High- Performance Concrete Bulb-T Beams With Self- Consolidating Concrete in a Bridge Structure http://www.virginiadot.org/vtrc/main/online_reports/pdf/14-r15.pdf CELIK OZYILDIRIM, Ph.D., P.E.

More information

Performance Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Beam

Performance Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Beam Compressive (MPa) Setting Time Fineness International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 04 113 Performance Evaluation of Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Beam M. M. Rahman, M. H. Rashid,

More information

HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE IN A BRIDGE IN RICHLANDS, VIRGINIA. Celik Ozyildirim, Ph.D. Principal Research Scientist

HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE IN A BRIDGE IN RICHLANDS, VIRGINIA. Celik Ozyildirim, Ph.D. Principal Research Scientist HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE IN A BRIDGE IN RICHLANDS, VIRGINIA Celik Ozyildirim, Ph.D. Principal Research Scientist José P. Gomez, Ph.D., P.E. Senior Research Scientist (The opinions, findings, and conclusions

More information

Ultra-High Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials

Ultra-High Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials UltraHigh Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials Srinivas Allena 1 and Craig M. Newtson 2 1 New Mexico State University, Civil Engineering Department, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 3CE, Las Cruces, NM

More information

1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures (3-0-9) Outline 1 Introduction / Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Structures

1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures (3-0-9) Outline 1 Introduction / Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Structures Prof. Oral Buyukozturk Massachusetts Institute of Technology Outline 1 1.054/1.541 Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures (3-0-9) Outline 1 Introduction / Design Criteria for Reinforced Concrete Structures

More information

Installation PowerPoint for Grasscrete Formers

Installation PowerPoint for Grasscrete Formers Installation PowerPoint for Grasscrete Formers 1 This document describes the two single-use tools utilized to create the Grasscrete product. The original Former is a vacuum formed light gauge plastic mold

More information

SECTION 331 TYPE S ASPHALT CONCRETE

SECTION 331 TYPE S ASPHALT CONCRETE SECTION 331 TYPE S ASPHALT CONCRETE 331-1 Description. Construct a Type S-I, Type S-II or Type S-III Asphalt Concrete as specified by the Contract. When offered as alternates, either Type may be constructed.

More information

Evaluation of In-Place Strength of Concrete By The Break-Off Method. Tarun Naik Ziad Salameh Amr Hassaballah

Evaluation of In-Place Strength of Concrete By The Break-Off Method. Tarun Naik Ziad Salameh Amr Hassaballah Evaluation of In-Place Strength of Concrete By The Break-Off Method By Tarun Naik Ziad Salameh Amr Hassaballah Evaluation of In-Place Strength of Concrete By The Break-Off Method By Tarun R. Naik Associate

More information