# Predicting Indian GDP. And its relation with FMCG Sales

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1 Predicting Indian GDP And its relation with FMCG Sales

2 GDP A Broad Measure of Economic Activity Definition The monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period, though GDP is usually calculated on an annual basis. It includes all of private and public consumption, government outlays, investments and exports less imports that occur within a defined territory. Why is it Essential? It tells us all that is going on within the country regardless of who owns the source of the economic activity Why does it matter? Broader economic growth affects all aspects of business (and life in general, really) From stock markets to demand for goods and potential labor market dynamics are all affected Why is GDP predictable It is a backward looking measure Measured after the economic activity has happened

3 Indian GDP growth rates are slowing, but still one of the fastest growing large economies GDP Growth Rates Quarterly Growth Year over Year Growth 20 GDP Factor cost q1 2000q1 2005q1 2010q1 2015q1 Time Fiscal Quarter q1 2000q1 2005q1 2010q1 Time Fiscal Quarter 2015q1

4 Models used to Predict GDP Time Series Trend Models Linear Quadratic ARIMA Simultaneous Equation Models Two Stage Least Squares Three Stage Least Squares Cross Country Panel Data Random Effects Fixed Effects

5 Time Series Analysis The math is complex The idea is simple and intuitive Past observations affect the future If something (GDP, in our case) was growing at 5% last year, it is very likely that it will grow at levels close to 5% this year Predict growth rates, not actuals Actual GDP, or indexes, tend to move in a trend Thus relationships do not mean much Two variables may move in the same direction, but it is the rate at which they are moving that we are interested in

6 Time Series Quadratic Trend Model Model basic: Real GDP growth depends only on time We use quarterly real GDP data from 1995 We use the year-over-year growth to take care of seasonal effects Thus real GDP growth means change in real GDP from same quarter of last year (Growth 2013Q4 = GDP 2013Q4/GDP 2012Q4 1) Time is a variable in the regression model Thus, expecting a relationship between GDP to depend on the year Commonly used for variables which move in one direction Year over Year, real GDP has not dropped in India Our model GDP Growth = β 1 *time + β 2 *time 2

7 Trend Model Forecast shows Downward Trend Model shows a slight downward trend in growth rates in 2014 Trend models are simple but naïve models of growth y Fitted values q1 2000q1 2005q1 2010q1 2015q1 Time Fiscal Quarter 2

8 Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average What is ARIMA? ARIMA models are, in theory, the most general class of models for forecasting a time series which can be stationarized by transformations such as differencing or logs The equation for ARIMA (1,1,1) Our model Since our data is already transformed (12-month differenced growth data), we know we will not need the integration model We use the ACF graph to look for AR terms

9 We choose a AR(2) MA (1) model The ACF graph showed autocorrelation of two lags The AR(2) MA(1) model provided the best fit for the GDP growth data Lag Bartlett's formula for MA(q) 95% confidence bands This implies that best estimates are provide by Moving Average of GDP with its 1 st lag, and GDP growth data with its 2 nd lag (AR2) provides best estimates AR(1) does not provide any insights as we are using MA(1)

10 The ARIMA Model shows a bounce in GDP growth rates in the next 4 quarters Actual Predicted 10 Percent Real GDP Growth q1 Fiscal Quarter q4

11 Time Series Models do not Predict Sharp Changes but are very Robust Very important now due to regime change Simultaneous Equation Models of the Economy can predict sharp changes if the correct leading indicators are chosen However, they are not usually as robust as ARIMA Effect of political regime change will only be felt after 2 quarters of change See effects of policy change on GDP in Q at the earliest We will keep updating our models to reflect these changes

12 The SEM Model GDP in four parts Manufacturing GDP Agricultural GDP Construction GDP Service Sector GDP Forecasted separately Different variables are relevant Different time frames are important May be useful for further analysis The model can explain between 50% to 85% of sectoral GDP growth ARIMA performs better but use SEM in future to reflect policy changes

13 Unique Relevant Variables Manufacturing GDP Manufacturing PMI Survey by HSBC and Markit Index of Industrial Production (IIP) from the Government of India Agricultural GDP IIP Agriculture with a 1 quarter lag IIP Fertilizer Production with a more significant lag Service Sector GDP Services PMI Construction GDP Credit to Commercial Real Estate with significant lags Credit to Residential Real Estate with significant lag

14 Simultaneous Equations and its Success Multiple GDP sectors are estimated concurrently in a SEM Note the R-sq: the percentage of that sector GDP explained by the model. Around 50% or higher in such complex variables is considered high While GDP in the services sector depends on previous quarter s industrial production (among other indicators) manufacturing GDP can be predicted using the previous value of the services sector GDP and construction GDP and, agricultural GDP can be predicted by the fertilizer production from two quarters ago (among other indicators) Two-stage least-squares regression Equation RMSE R-sq P Agriculture Manufacturing Construction Service

15 We have a robust one quarter GDP forecast We await policy decisions to refine the model

16 Previous quarter s GDP growth and previous quarter s change in FMCG sales explain 72% of change in FMCG sales in the current quarter

17 FMCG Demand and Lag1 GDP Growth A single chart can show the relationship clearly

18 FMCG sales are expected to grow 3.81% (from same quarter last year) during Q1 And anywhere between 4.14% and 4.44% in Q2 Forecast two quarters of FMCG sales growth using Q4 GDP data and robust ARIMA estimates % and 4.14% respectively Forecast two quarters of FMCG sales growth using Q4 GDP data and SEM estimates % and 4.44% respectively

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