# CHAPTER FOURTEEN. Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation

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1 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation Concept Questions C14.1 Book values give a good forecast when they are reviewed at their fair value: applying the required return to book value gives a good forecast of earnings from the net assets. So, for a bond measured at market value, one gets a good forecast of the expected name from the bond by applying the expected return on the bond to the book value. But net operating assets are seldom carried at their fair value; indeed many operating assets (lite knowledge assets) are not on the balance sheet. C14.2 Yes, this is correct. The following two valuations are equivalent (using a 10% required return for operations): Value of Operations0 = NOA0 + OI Value of Operations0 = 0.10 ReOI (compare valuations 14.2 and 14.2a in the chapter). If there is no growth in residual operating, abnormal operating income growth must be zero. The valuation here is for the case of abnormal operating income growth of zero (an SF2 valaution). Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 397

2 C14.3 An SF2 forecast projects that new investment will earn at the required rate of return. An SF3 forecast forecasts that new investment will earn at the same rate of return (RNOA) as the investments in the current period. C14.4 If current core operating income is appropriately purged of transitory items the forecast is a good forecast if: (1) Profitability of the net operating assets (RNOA) will be the same, and (2) There is no growth in net operating assets. A forecast should adjust for growth. So a sound forecast based on current operating income (an SF2 forecast) is: Core OI, = Core OI0 + (Required return NOA) C14.5 The growth rate for sales is the same as the growth rate in residual operating income when RNOA is constant, the required return is constant, and asset turnovers are constant. (if RNOA is constant and ATO is constant, profit margins (PM) must also be constant.) C14.6 A firm with high expected growth in sales is probably a firm that can grow residual earnings. But sales have to be profitable: a firm might grow sales, but with declining profit margins and increasing asset turnovers, that is, with rising expenses per dollar of sales and increasing investment to get a dollar of sales. C14.7 This statement is generally correct. But RNOA must be greater than the required return on operations for it to be correct. See the calculation for the unlevered P/B in the chapter. p. 398 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

3 Exercises E.14.1 Simple Forecasting and Valuation (a) Residual operating income (ReOI) is 91.4 = (12% - required return) 4,572 So required return = 10% Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 399

4 ReOI2004 (b) Value of equity = CSE Also, = 3, = \$4,243 million OI2004 Value of equity = NFO = ,243 = \$4,243 million (c) To get the residual earnings forecast, we need the required return for equity. Using the value of the equity calculated in part (b), and the value of the net debt on the balance sheet, we can calculate the required return using the "market leverage," as in the formula 13.8 in Chapter 13. 1,243 Required return for equity = 10.0% + [ (10.0% - 6.0%) 4,243 ] = 11.17% So the comprehensive earnings forecast for 2004 is Operating income (4,572 12%) Net financial expense 74.6 (1,243 6%) Comprehensive The residual earnings forecast is p. 400 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

5 RE = ( ,329) = Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 401

6 E14.2 SF2 and SF3 Valuation: Ben & Jerry s (a) Refer to reformulated statements for Ben & Jerry's in the solution to Exercise 11.8 in Chapter 11. The ReOI for 1996 can be calculated from the operating income (4.1) and NOA at the beginning of the year (74.8): ReOI1986 = ( ) = 3.38 SF2 valuation: The value of the equity is Value of equity = CSE + ReOI = = \$49 million or 6.81 per share An SF3 valuation won't work: growth can't be applied to negative ReOI. More information needed: Generally we want information on future RNOA and growth in NOA: will increase in advertising affect PM, ATO and NOA? Strategy? Expansion plans? New products? Possible takeover target? (b) One reason might be market inefficiency: The stock is overpriced. Ben & Jerry's is priced high for a low profitability firm. p. 402 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

7 Taking as an efficient price, then the market sees much higher RNOA and/or growth in NOA than currently. The price is a premium of 6.62 per share over book value (11.51 per share). This implies a permanent level of ReOI of 4.76: E V O = = or per share. Can one forecast future RNOA and growth in NOA that will justify this level of residual operating profitability? If not, the stock is overpriced. Too excited about ice cream? Cool it! Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 403

8 E14.3 Simple Forecasting and Sensitivity Analysis: Reebok International (a) Unlevered P/B = Price of Equity Net Debt Value NOA of Minority Interest = 2, ,135 = 2.93 (b) Market price of operations = \$1,135 million 2.93 = \$ 3,331 million. Value of operations = 1,135 + ( ) 1, For a market price of \$3,331 million for the operations, g = 1.078, or a 7.8% annual growth rate in net operating assets If asset turnovers were also constant, thus growth rate would translate into a sales growth rate. (c) RNOA would fall to 3.5% 2.95 = 10.33%. So, value of operations with this RNOA would be: Value of operations = 1,135 + ( ) 1, Unlevered P/B = = \$1,248.5 million \$1, ,135.0 = 1.1 p. 404 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

9 (d) Sales growth would contribute nothing to the valuation with a 3.42% profit margin, RNOA would be 3.42% 2.95 = 10.1%, equal to the required return on operations. Reebok would be worth book value. Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 405

10 E14.4 Idle Capacity and Value 32 (a) ATO = 10 = 2.0 Accounts receivable turnover = 32 = Inventory turnover = 32 = Plant turnover = 32 = RNOA = PM ATO = 5.6% 2.0 = 11.2% (b) Value of operations = ( ) = \$17.92 million (an SF2 valuation) (c) The net operating asset section of the balance sheet will change to reflect the increased investment in accounts receivable and inventory (in millions of dollars): p. 406 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

11 Accounts receivable Inventory 2.0 (turnover unchanged) 8.6 (turnover unchanged) Plant 10.7 (turnover increases to 6.0) NOA 21.3 Total ATO = = 3.0 RNOA = 5.6% 3.0 = 16.8% Value of operations = ( ) = \$35.78 million The value has come by using the idle components (with no additional investment in plant) with just a little additional investment in accounts receivable and inventory. The driver that picks this up is the Plant Turnover: This increases from 3.0 to 6.0. And other drivers, except sales growth, remain the same. Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 407

12 E14.5 Value and Growth in Sales: Wal-Mart Stores (a) With constant margins and turnovers, growth will be determined by growth in sales. RNOA = PM ATO = 3.65% 4.66 = 17.0% Forecast of ReOI for 2000 = ( ) 29.9 = Forecasted growth in ReOI = 8% per year V NOA 1999 = = \$89.7 billion 1.08 V E 1999 = V NOA NFO = = \$81.7 billion (b) Calculate the implied growth rate using reverse engineering. As margins and turnovers are constant, the implied growth in ReOI is the implied growth in sales. P NOA 1999 = = \$208 billion 208 = g g = (9.9% growth rate) [Again, sales growth rate is ReOI growth rate in this case] Sales2000 = ATO NOA p. 408 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

13 = 4.66 \$29.9 billion = billion Expected Sales2004 = = \$ billion Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 409

14 E14.6 Preparing a Valuation Grid: Coca-Cola (a) To prepare the valuation grid, apply alternative scenarios to the following valuation formula, and then divide by the 2,271 million shares outstanding: Value of equity = 7,311 + RNOA 0.10) 11, g Where g is growth in NOA or, with a constant asset turnover, growth in sales. So, for example, if the RNOA in 1996 was indicative of the future RNOA (rather than the 1997 RNOA), the value of the equity would, with a sales growth rate of 7.5%, be Value of equity = 7,311 + ( ) 11, = \$126,777 million (or \$51.31 per share) The \$51.31 per share contrasts with the \$56.20 per share calculated in the text with 1997 RNOA. p. 410 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

15 Here is a valuation grid that gives some range of RNOA and growth in Sales. Values one per share. RNOA Growth in Sales 30% 33% 36% 39% 42% 5% % % % % Growth in sales is used rather than growth in NOA for the case of constant ATO. The grid can be expanded for changing ATO and, indeed, changing forecasts of profit margins. Cotie's per-share price at the end of 1997 was \$70. This corresponds (in the grid) to an expected RNOA of 39% with growth in sales of 8% per year. (b) This question requires a matched pairs analyses. For a given RNOA, the required growth rate in NOA (plus one) is given by ( Premium x 1.10) -[(RNOA ) 11,186] g = Premium Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 411

16 The market value of the firm is 70 x 2,471 million = \$172,970 million. So the premium is \$172,970-7,311 = \$165,659 million So, g = ( 165, ) [(RNOA 0.10) 11,186] 165,659 Thus, for an RNOA of 39%, g = or 8.04%. The matched pairs for the RNOA in the valuation grid are: Matched Pairs Price = \$70 RNOA Growth in NOA 30% 8.65% 33% 8.45% 36% 8.24% 39% 8.04% 42% 7.84% Coke needs considerable growth to justify a \$70 price, even at an expected RNOA of 42%. p. 412 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

17 E14.7. A Simple Valuation Based on Abnormal Operating Income Growth: Coca Cola Box 14.3 applies an SF3 valuation to Coke using the residual operating income method. With constant RNOA and constant ATO, residual operating income is forecasted to grow at the sales growth rate of 7.5%. As the growth rate in residual operating income is always to the abnormal operating income growth rate, we can apply the SF3 AOIG valuation with this growth rate. The formula is in equation 14.4 of the chapter: V 1 OI1 F 1 NOA 0 1 AOIG2 OI g F 1 The inputs: Year 0 is 1997; Year 1 is 1998; Year 2 in 1999 OI1 = NOA0 RNOA1 (RNOA is expected to stay at the same level as in 1997) = 11, = 4,407 AOIG2 = OI2 + (FCF1 0.10) (1.10 4,407 NOA1 = NOA = 12,025 (NOA growing at the sales growth rate) OI2 = 12, = 4,738 FCF1 = OI1 - NOA1 = 4, = 3,568 AOIG2 = 4,738 + (3, ) (1.10 4,407) = Value of operations = \$ 4, = \$4, , Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 413

18 = \$142,910 million This is close to the valuation of operations in Box 14.3, allowing for rounding error. Note: a simpler way to get AOIG2 AOIG2 = ReOI = 3, = This works because AOIG is always just the growth in residual operating income. The exercise can also be worked using growth rates and model 14.4a: V 1 G2 F OI1 F 1 F g NOA 0 1 As G2 (cum-fcf OI growth rate in Year 2) = 15.61, then NOA V 0 4, = 142,910 million E14.8. A simple Valuation with Short-term and Long-term Growth Rates: Cisco Systems p. 414 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

19 Pro forma Cisco as follows: Eps Dps 0.00 Reinvested dividends 0.00 Cum-dividend earnings 0.61 Cum-div growth rate (G2) 12.96% Long-term growth (Glong) 4.0% Applying the two-stage growth formula: V NOA 2002 OI 1 1 G2 G F 1 F G long long = = = \$10.75 per share (The forward P/E is 19.9). This valuation is less than the market price of \$15. The market is pricing Cisco at a forward P/E of 15/0.54 = So the market implicitly is seeing long-term growth in excess of 4% (if the required return is 9%) if one takes analysts forecasts for 2003 and 2004 as sound estimates. E14.9. Using Short-term and Long-term Growth Rates to Value Reebok Pro forma Reebok as follows: Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 415

20 Operating income (\$million) Net operating assets (NOA) 1,135 1,214 1,299 (growing at 7%) Free cash flow (OI - NOA) Reinvested free cash flow (at 10.1%) 10.9 Cum-FCF operating income Cum-FCF OI growth rate (G2) 210.9/ % The formula for a two-stage growth valuation is: V NOA 1996 OI 1 1 G2 G F 1 F G long long A valuation grid is prepared by setting G2 = and calculating V NOA for different long-term growth rates, Glong. The forward enterprise P/E (which multiplies OI1 of \$187 million in the formula) is included below. Per-share value is based on the million shares outstanding (Box 13.5 in Chapter 13). Glong Forward P/E V NOA NFO V E Value per share 1% \$2, , % , , % , , % , , % , , % , , Reebok was trading at about \$42 at the time. So, Given analysts forecasts for 1997 and 1998, the market was implicitly forecasting ling-run growth at 6% and so gave Reebok a forward enterprise P/E of This is a bit high for a perpetual growth rate. p. 416 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

21 Minicases M14.1 Simple Forecasting, Valuation, and Sensitivity Analysis: Home Depot Introduction This case applies simple forecasting to the valuation of Home Depot, Inc. at the end of At the time this firm traded at very high multiples that conjecture overvaluation. Simple valuation methods give us perspective on this conjecture. Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 417

22 They allow the analyst to test forecasting scenarios --through sensitivity analysis-- and to examine the implied forecasts in the market price. Students will see simple forecasting in action in this case. And they will see the limitations of simple forecasting-- and the need to search for further information to develop the full-information forecasting of the next chapter. Simple forecasting and valuation is based on the information in the current and past financial statements. So, before forecasting, summarize the statements in a form that elicits the information in the statements that will help with forecasting: Reformulate financial statements to separate the operating activities from the financial activities. Identify core (sustainable) income in the reformulated income statements Examine the regularity of the profitability by preparing comparative common size income statements over the years. Common size statements yield an analysis of profit margins. Analyze asset turnovers to complement the analysis of margins. Prepare a trend analysis to observe any trends that might be extrapolated to the future The Set-up for Forecasting: Reformulated Financial Statements Reformulated Income Statements Sales 30,219 24,156 19,535 15,470 Cost of Merchandise 21,614 17,375 14,101 11,184 Gross Profit 8,605 6,781 5,434 4,286 Core operating expenses 5,429 4,368 3,584 2,836 p. 418 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

23 General and administrative Core operating income from sales ,661 2,000 1,526 1,180 Tax reported 1, Tax on financing 3 (1) (4) (6) Tax on unusual items --- 1, Core operating 1,618 1, income from sales (after tax) Non- recurring --- (104) --- charge Currency translations (33) (30) 8 5 Tax for nonrecurring charge Operating income after tax 1,585 1, Interest expense (37) (42) (16) (4) Interest Income (7) Tax (39%) 3 (4) (1) 1 (4) COMPREHENSIVE INCOME 1,581 1, (The 1996 income statement was not given in the case. This has been added for further comparisons.) Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 419

24 Reformulated Balance Sheets Operating assets 13,384 11,037 8,762 7,199 Operating liabilities (3,136) (2,704) (2,040) (1,567) NOA 10,248 8,333 6,722 5,632 Financial assets (81) (192) (580) (155) Financial liabilities 1,580 1,311 1, NFO 1,499 1, Minority interest CSE 8,740 7,098 5,955 4,988 Average NOA 9,291 7,528 6,177 4,951 Average NFO Average equity before minority interest 1, ,982 6,634 5,559 4,421 As a balance sheet is not available for 1995, average amounts are approximated. Financial assets are the sum of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, long-term investments (debt) and long-term notes receivable, minus part of cash for operating cash. p. 420 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

25 The Set-up: Analyzing the Reformulated Financial Statements Common Size Income Statements (Operating Profit Margin Analysis) Sales \$30,219 \$24,156 \$19,535 \$15,470 Gross profit 28.5% 28.1% 27.8% 27.7% Selling and operating expenses General and administrative Core operating income from sales Taxes on core operating income Core operating income after tax Operating income after unusual items Comprehensive income These percentages gave expense ratios (for expense items) and profit margins (for income items). Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 421

26 Commentary: Gross margins, core operating profit margins from sales, and expense ratios are fairly constant, and look like a good basis for forecasting. A note on Price-to-Sales ratios: The case refers to HD s price-to-sales (P/S) ratio. In recent years analysts have given considerable attention to P/S ratio (particularly in cases of negative earnings). Home Depot had a P/S ratio of 3.3 in This is considerably above the historical median for all firms (about 1.0) and above that for retailers (0.8). How should an analyst interpret a P/S ratio? Just as the P/E ratio is interpreted as an indication of earnings growth, so the P/S ratio is often interpreted as an indication of sales growth. So, a P/S ratio of 3.3 builds in an expectation of considerable sales growth. But we have to be careful. Sales are important to valuation and growth in sales adds value, all else constant. But there is also the question of the profitability of sales, the expected profit margins from sales. So, as P/S = P/E x E/S = P/E x PM one should modify the P/S ratio for the PM. But then, of course, one is really looking at the P/E ratio: the ability to grow earnings through growth in sales and increasing profit margins. Note, also that P/S ratios should be unlevered because sales come from assets, not equity. See chapter 2. p. 422 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

27 Turnover Analysis Major Balance Sheet Items As a Percentage of Sales Receivables 1.7% 2.0% 1.8% 1.9% Inventories Property, plant and equipment Operating assets Operating liabilities Total asset turnover 1 inverse : ATO (Calculations are based on average balance sheet amounts) Leverage Ratios Financial Leverage (FLEV) Operating liability leverage (OLLEV) (Leverage ratios are calculated from average balance sheet amounts.) Commentary: Turnovers are also reasonably constant. Typically Home Depot requires investment of 31 cents of net operating assets to generate a dollar of sales and maintains an operating liability level of about 0.3. Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 423

28 Trend Analysis Income statement: Sales growth rate 25.1% 23.7% 26.3% Cost of sales growth rate Gross profit growth rate Operating expense growth General and administrative Growth Tax expense growth Core operating income growth Comprehensive income growth Commentary: Growth rates in most items are fairly constant and consistent with the growth in sales. But these growth rates are high! Will they persist? p. 424 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

29 Balance Sheet: Operating asset growth 21.3% 26.0% 21.7% Operating liability growth 16.0% 32.5% 30.2% NOA growth 23.0% 24.0% 19.4% CSE growth 23.1% 19.2% 19.4% Commentary: Again, HD has regular growth, corresponding to the growth in sales. With constant ATO, the NOA growth rate must equal the sales growth rate; the two rates are similar. Free Cash Flow Analysis Operating income (OI) 1,585 1, Change in NOA (NOA) 1,915 1,611 1,090 Free cash flow (OI - NOA) (330) (482) (149) HD is generating negative free cash flow. Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 425

30 Analysis of Residual Operating Income and its Drivers RNOA 17.06% 15.0% 15.2% 14.8% Core RNOA 17.4% 16.2% 15.1% 14.6% Core profit margin 5.4% 5.1% 4.8% 4.6% Asset turnover Growth in NOA 23.0% 24.0% 19.4% -- ReOI(10%) (millions) \$656 \$376 \$323 \$232 Core ReOI (millions) \$689 \$469 \$315 \$227 Growth in core ReOI 46.9% 48.9% 38.8% --- ReOI is based on average NOA Price per share, 1999 \$83 Shares outstanding 1,475million Market value of equity \$122,200 million Levered P/B ratio 14.0 (based on January, 1999 book values) Unlevered P/B ratio 12.1 (based on January, 1999 book values) p. 426 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

31 Question A: Simple Forecasts We are restricting ourselves to information in the financial statements. So work with SF1, SF2, and SF3 forecasts. An SF1 forecast won't work; with a P/B ratio of 14.0 (and an unlevered P/B of 12.1), the balance sheet is certainly imperfect. So move on to SF2 and SF3 forecasts. The SF2 forecast of operating income: OI2000 = Core OI (0.10 x NOA1999) = 1,618 + (0.10 x 957) = \$1,714 million [The in NOA is the ending NOA in 1999 over the average NOA. Core OI is used as a base for forecasting, rather than full OI, as unusual items (in full OI) do not forecast the future] The SF3 forecast of operating income: OI2000 = Core RNOA1999 NOA (beginning of 2000) = ,248 = \$1,783 million The SF2 eps forecast: OI2000 = 1,714 NFE2000 = 45 Earnings2000 = 1,669 EPS \$1.13 (on 1,475 million shares) Note: Net financial expenses are forecasted as follows NFF2000 = NFO1999 After-tax Borrowing Cost = 1, % = 45 Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 427

32 The after-tax borrowing cost is estimated from past reformulated statements. Some of the interest expense is capitalized in construction of stores, and analysts are (probably) anticipating this. The SF3 eps forecast OI2000 = 1,783 NFE2000 = 45 1,738 EPS \$1.18 These forecasts are under analysts' consensus forecast of \$1.38 per share in October By October, analysts were using more information than that in the 1999 financial statements. Note, however, that analysts were forecasting 1.24 per share in March 1999, just after the 1999 financial statements were published. So at that time they did not see much a lot than was indicated in the statements. Revisions (afterwards) came later as they obtained more information. Question B: Simple Valuations SF2 Valuation: E V 1999 = CSE ReOI = 8, = 15,630 (or \$10.60 per share) [Forecasted ReOI2000 is 1,714 (0.10 x 10,248) = 689] p. 428 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

33 SF3 Valuation: E V 1999 = CSE ReOI g = 8, g [Forecasted ReOI2000 is 1,783 - ( ,248) = 758] Then we have a problem: what should the growth rate, g, be? Use the past growth in NOA?: 23% Use past sales growth rate and assume a constant ATO?: 25% These rates are too high to be maintained perpetually. Question C Clearly, the main focus for the analysis must be on the growth rate. Growth rates in the order of 23% must come down, but to what level? Home Depot has fairly consistent margins, profitability and growth. These are features that make a firm suitable for simple valuation. But growth is not on its longrun path. The analyst needs information as to the long run growth prospects. In addition, he needs to be concerned about how the profitability is likely to fade in the future. Question D The implicit growth forecast from the market is obtained by solving for g in the SF3 valuation. For a market valuation of \$122,200 million (\$83 per share), 122,200 = 8, g So, g = (a growth rate of 9.3% per year) Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 429

34 [One could test sensitivity of this calculation to different estimates of the required return] Is this growth rate justified? The key is forecasting the sales growth rate because ATO is reasonably constant. To forecast retail sales growth, analysts distinguish (1) growth in same-store sales (2) growth from store openings HD was achieving 10% increase in same-store sales during Question E The valuation grid gives the value per share that different forecasts of RNOA and growth in NOA imply. RNOA Growth in Sales 15% 16% 17% 18% 19% 20% 21% 2% % % % % Value = 8,740 + (RNOA 0.10) 10, (1 growth rate) Value Value per share = 1,475 p. 430 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

35 This grid gives a sense of what is required to justify the market price of \$83. If Home Depot increases its RNOA to 21%, it would still have to generate a growth in NOA (driven by sales growth) of 9% a year. Lower profitability or growth yields a lower value than the current \$83 price. This valuation grid can be supplemented with a matched forecast pairs analysis (see text). HD is currently generating very high growth. The question is, for how long can it keep such growth up. Forecasting declining growth rates follows in the next chapter. Short-term and Long-term Growth Rates One can also get a sense of the appropriate valuation and develop a valuation grid using the two-stage growth model in the chapter. This forecasts operating income for two years, based on current operating income with a growth rate, and then adds a long-term growth rate: V NOA 2002 OI 1 1 G2 G F 1 F G long long The following pro forma uses the SF3 forecast for OI1 and then forecasts cum-fcf operating income for year 2 by maintaining the SF3 forecast of growth in NOA of 23% with RNOA at the same level as currently: Net operating assets (NOA) 10,248 12,605 Operating income 1,783 2,193 (12, ) Free cash flow (OI ΔNOA) (574) Reinvested FCF (at 10%) (57) Cum-FCF OI 2,136 Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 431

36 Cum-FCF growth rate (G2) 2,136/1, % With this two-year ahead growth rate, G2, one can now develop a valuation grid for different long-term growth rates, Glong, using the formula. For example, if the long-term growth rate is 5%, then V NOA = \$52,776.8 million. If the long-term growth rate is 8.3%, V NOA is approximately equal to the current market price of the operations. So, given that the forecast for 2000 and 2001 are reasonable, the market is expecting very large long-term growth to be sustained. Near-term and Long-term Growth Rates (The following was supplied by Professor Kenton Yee) Home Depot has been delivering growth in residual operating income of over 40% in the years up to One can imagine their keeping up this growth rate for some years, but the growth rate tapering off in the long term. A model forecasts different growth rates for the near term and long term follows: 1 g 5 g near far P 1999 CSE 1999 g near g far 5 gnear g far 4 corere OI2000 where g near is annual RE growth during next 5 years; g far is annual RE perpetuity growth after 5 years; ``g'' always refers to 1 PLUS the growth rate; and mean reversion suggests g far g near if the latter is large. A valuation grid can be developed using this model: p. 432 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

37 rho= 1.1 cse= 8740 REcoreOI(99)= 689 REcoreOI(00)=g_near*REcoreOI(99) shares= 1475 g_near \ g_f ar \$23.43 \$27.01 \$32.97 \$44.89 \$56.81 \$ \$26.62 \$30.91 \$38.06 \$52.36 \$66.66 \$ \$30.28 \$35.40 \$43.92 \$60.96 \$78.00 \$ \$34.46 \$40.52 \$50.61 \$70.80 \$90.99 \$ This valuation grid indicates that the current (1999) price of \$83 per share makes sense if one can forecast short-term growth of 45-50% and long-term growth of about 6 7 %. The bottom line on this case Home Depot can't be valued using simple valuations. But the analysis with simple forecasts and simple valuations gives us considerable understanding of the critical valuation issues. HD has regular profitability--margins and turnovers-- and this helps us in forecasting. The simple analysis instructs the analyst to focus on sales growth. How will this be different in the future? Given that profitability is fairly regular, this is where the analyst should focus her efforts. Of course, she must also be sensitive to declining margins that may ensue from pursuit of sales growth. But, if the sensitivity analysis in the valuation grid indicates that the combination of growth in sales and RNOA implied by a price of \$83 is very unlikely, the analyst may reach the conclusion that the stock is overpriced, and issue a SELL, without going into further forecasting analysis. Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 433

38 p. 434 Solutions Manual to accompany Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

39 Simple Forecasting and Simple Valuation 435

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