1 Perceptions and Use of Web 2.0 of Thai Academic Librarians Wawta Techataweewan, PhD Department of Library and Information Science Faculty of Humanities, Srinakharinwirot University Bangkok, Thailand Abstract. Since the academic libraries serve as a knowledge repository and an agent for dissemination of knowledge, Web 2.0 technology fulfills the library mission to collaborate and use virtual spaces where librarians can connect and converse with their library users. The purpose of this research is to study and compare Web 2.0 use and perception among the academic librarians based on their personality characteristics, computer skill, Internet facilities and usage purposes. Keywords: Web 2.0, Academic librarians Introduction The term Web 2.0 first appeared in Darcy DiNucci s Fragmented Future concerning the future of computers. At that time, Web 2.0 was still in the embryonic stage compared to its present widespread use (DiNucci, 1999). Web 2.0 was first conceptualized and made popular by Tim O Reilly and Dale Dougherty in O Reilly Media 2004 conference to describe the trends and business models that survived the technology sector market crash of the 1990s (O Reilly, 2005). Web 2.0 refers to the second generation development and design of the web that aims to facilitate communication and secure information sharing, inter-operability and usercentered design. Web 2.0 concepts have led to the development and evolution of web-based communities, host services and applications such as blogs, RSS, Wikis, social networking sites and file-sharing sites. The academic libraries primary functions are to deposit published information and disseminate knowledge. They enable and facilitate the exchange and growth of information, knowledge and culture among faculty, staff, students, and the general public (Tripathi & Kumar, 2010). Furthermore, library resources such as books, journals, and monographs are increasingly produced in electronic formats. In response to these challenges, academic libraries are undergoing a fundamental paradigm shift in the way they support users and offer services. The Internet has changed the way people communicate with each other and the way business is conducted. Web 2.0 has the potential to promote participatory networking where librarians and users can communicate, collaborate, and generate content (Chau & Goh, 2010). The capabilities of Web 2.0 enable users to engage the library in two-way communication and knowledge exchanges. Web 2.0 applications include blogs, wikis, social networking sites, social tagging, instant messaging, RSS, file sharing sites, social bookmarking and online virtual games. Many libraries implementing Web 2.0 applications have potential to promote their services and activities. The survey employed in this research revealed that usage of libraries in 2005 fell by 50%. In 2007, library usage fell another 20% as users turned to search engines, and social networking sites (De Rosa et al, 2007). One mission of the university is to provide academic service to the community. Academic libraries are committed to developing learning centers that provide academic services to students, faculty, staff and the public to have access to a library. Web 2.0 is a web technology for creating a network of social support. It allows library users to participate in creating and sharing information. Users can extend their learning outside the information resources available in the library. Academic libraries should become accessible learning resources and a part of the community. Hence, Web 2.0 has become a necessary tool for modern libraries to serve their communities. Literature Review Web 2.0 represents an emerging suite of applications that are interactive, context-rich and easy-to-use. Many libraries that have implemented Web 2.0 applications have potential to promote their services and activities. Many Web 2.0 applications can be used by libraries as described below. Blogs are defined as a hierarchy of text, images and media objects arranged chronologically (Chua & Goh, 2010). Since blogs can be easily created, updated, and maintained without technical expertise, their numbers
2 have exploded globally in recent years. Blogs can be used in libraries as a form of publication, or as tools for marketing the library resources, events, policy manuals and training resources (Maness, 2006; Aharony, 2009). Academic librarians and faculty members can also develop blogs as subject guides. Wikis are defined as a collection of web pages which allows users to add and edit content collectively. Most users publish their articles to share. Some articles allow other users to edit the content. Libraries use wikis to facilitate personal learning and reflection, support group-level knowledge sharing and help users locate knowledge. Meanwhile, libraries can subscribe to other RSS to feed the news to the library websites. RSS (Rich Site Summary), also known as Really Simple Syndication, is designed to enable subscribed users to receive regularly changing web-content of news-like sites, news oriented community sites and even personal weblogs at a central point without requiring users to visit multiple sites to receive updates (Stephens, 2006; Kim & Abbas, 2010). In academic libraries, users can subscribe to a library website that offers RSS feed for library information and activities such as new issues of journals, new books and special occasions. Social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Frapper build online social networks among users who share personal interests and activities (Barsky & Purdon, 2006). With aggregated features found in other Web 2.0 applications such as messaging, blogging, video streaming and social tagging, librarians are able to connect with users, raise awareness about library services and broaden their contact base (Chua, Goh & Lee, 2008). Instant messaging, or online chat, is one of the most popular form of computer communication. Instant messaging is a synchronous communication technology that allows users to send real-time messages. Libraries can use instant messaging to provide chat-reference services so that users can ask questions and receive responses directly from librarians during specified times (Gibbons, 2007). Instant messaging reference has the same advantages as live chat. It provides an instant connection to a librarian and allows users to get personalized or anonymous help, without coming to the library. Most instant messaging reference software allows users to send URLs, push users browsers, and co-browse (Desai, 2003). Tagging is a practice where users assign uncontrolled keywords to information resources. Tags are used to organize information within a personal information space. Tags also work in, shared space, allowing the browsing and searching of tags attached to information resources by other users (Macgregor & McCulloch, 2005). These practices are also known as collaborative tagging, social classification, social indexing and social tagging (Si, Shi & Chen, 2011). The tags added to a folksonomy can be arranged into a tag cloud. A tag cloud is a collection of the most popular tags arranged in a cloud-like manner so that the more popular terms are represented with the large font sizes (Anfinnsen, Ghinea & Sesare, 2010). Library OPAC can allow users to define their own keywords for library resources and to parallel subject headings defined by librarians. Likewise, the library tag cloud can encourage users to browse their matched terms. A podcast (personal on demand broadcasting) is an audio recording which can be played on computers or MP3 devices. A podcast is made by creating an MP3 format audio file, uploading it to a host server and publicizing it through subscribed downloads and RSS feeds. The delivery of audio streams by podcast is managed through pod-catchers such as itunes, Armangil or Juice. Podcasts are frequently used to broadcast speeches and interviews of important personalities. Libraries can offer podcasts to promote recordings about library services, programs and activities (Stephens, 2007). Social bookmarking is the practice of classifying resources by the use of informally assigned, user-definedkeywords or tags. In essence, users can collect their favorite-resources in an online, open environment that other users are free to read (Barsky & Purdon, 2006). Libraries can use social bookmarking services sites such as del.icio.us to enable users to share web resources. Virtual 3D games allow users to create a virtual world. The virtual environment allows players to respond to multiple users simultaneously over the network, including the creation of their own identity through so-called Avatars. The most popular virtual 3D game for libraries is Second Life. Second Life is an immersive 3D environment that can be used for entertainment and educational purposes. Due to increasing interest in digital services, some libraries have established virtual services on Second Life where users can interact with services in practical way such as walking around a virtual library, attending library training and requesting reference services. Web mapping is designed to allow users to obtain information concerning map products available on the World Wide Web. A Web Map Service (WMS) is a standard protocol for serving geo-referenced map images over the
3 Internet that are generated by a map server using data from a GIS database. The received map data is an image taken from satellites and an ML application. Web mapping services include GoogleEarth, NASA Worldwind, Erdas and FourSquare. A library can use web mapping services to notify users of its location and branches. Objectives of the Study The purposes of this research are to study and compare academic librarians perceptions and use of Web 2.0 in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area. The objectives of this study are: To study academic librarians perceptions of Web 2.0 To compare academic librarians perceptions of Web 2.0 relative to their personality, computer skills and availability of Internet facilities To study academic librarians use of Web 2.0 To study academic librarians use of Web 2.0 relative to their personality, computer skills and availability of Internet facilities To study academic librarians aims for using Web 2.0 Research Methodology The study employed a qualitative research methodology. The research was conducted in the summer of 2011 (April-June, 2011). The research instruments were tests and questionnaires that included a personal detail questionnaire, personality characteristics test, computer skills test, Internet facilities questionnaire, Web 2.0 perception questionnaire and Web 2.0 usage questionnaire. The personality characteristics questionnaire was based on the introversion-extraversion model in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) (Wilson, 1977). The perception of Web 2.0 questionnaire consists of 3 stages: exposure, attention and comprehension (Moven & Minor, 1998). The tests and questionnaires were distributed randomly to 433 librarians at 29 university libraries in Bangkok. Data was gathered from 318 librarians who returned completed tests and questionnaires. Statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were employed for data analysis between t-test and F-test. In addition, the Sheffé test was conducted to identify significant differences. Research Results The 318 academic librarians were mostly female (92.50%), between 50 and 60 years old, working in technical services and holding Master Degrees. Examination of their personality characteristics revealed that 51.6% were introverts and 48.4% were extraverts. Overall, the academic librarians reported moderate levels of computer ability skills. The librarians have good level of computer skills in word processing applications, web browser applications, communication applications and library automation applications. They have moderate level of computer skills in operating system applications, spread sheet applications, presentation applications and database management applications. They have low level of computer skills in graphic applications, web authoring applications, and sound and video editor applications as shown in Table 1. Table 1 Computer Ability of Academic Librarians Divided by Group of Applications Group of Computer Applications S.D. Level 1. Operating systems MS Windows, Linux) 2. Word processing MS Word) 3. Spread sheet MS Excel) 4. Presentation MS PowerPoint) 5. Web Browsers Internet Explorer, Fire Fox, Chrome) 6. Database Management Access, CDS/ISIS) 7. Graphics ACD See, Photoshop) 8. Communication , MSN, Web board) 9. Web authoring HTML, Dreamweaver) 10. Library automation INNOPAC, HORIZON, VTLS, ALICE) Sound editor Windows Media Player, Adobe Audition, CoolEditPro) 12. Video editor Windows Live Movie Maker, Ulead Video Studio)
4 Average The academic librarians reported having access to Internet facilities at a moderate level (48.74%), good level (44.34%) and low level (6.92%), respectively. Their perception of Web 2.0 was in the comprehension stage, but their use of Web 2.0 was at low level. Web 2.0 applications were used at the high level is social networking sites, and at the lowest level for virtual 3D game and podcast, as shown in Table 2. Table 2 Academic Librarians Use of Web 2.0 Web 2.0 Applications S.D. Level Blogs Wikis Social networking RSS Social tagging Instant messaging File sharing Social bookmarking Virtual 3D game Podcast Web mapping Total High est est Testing for differences between librarians personality characteristics and their perception of Web 2.0 showed no significant difference as shown in Table 3. Comparing the librarians personality characteristics and their use of Web 2.0 revealed a significant difference at.01. Librarians who were extraverts used Web 2.0 more frequently than librarians who were introverts as shown in Table 4. Table 3 Comparison of Academic Librarians Personality Characteristics with Perceptions of Web 2.0 Personality Amount S.D. t P N=318 Introverted Extraverted Table 4 Comparison of Academic Librarians Personality Characteristics with Use of Web 2.0 Web 2.0 Applications Blogs Wikis Social networking RSS Social tagging Instant messaging File sharing Social bookmarking Virtual 3D games Podcast Web mapping Extraverted SD Introverted SD t P.001** Total **P <.01 The survey examined the difference between librarians computer ability and their perception of Web 2.0. A significant difference at.01 was revealed, showing that librarians who had more computer ability perceived Web 2.0 in a higher stage than those who had lower computer ability. Comparison of librarians computer ability and their use of Web 2.0 also revealed a significant difference at.01. This indicates that librarians who had more computer ability used Web 2.0 more frequently than those who had lower computer ability.
5 Examination of the difference between librarians availability of Internet facilities and their perceptions of Web 2.0, revealed a significant difference at.01. Librarians who had more facilities perceived Web 2.0 in a higher stage than those who had fewer facilities. Likewise, librarians who had more facilities used Web 2.0 more than those who had fewer facilities, especially social networking sites, RSS feeds, instant messaging, podcast and web mapping. According to the aims of Web 2.0 use, most librarians use Web 2.0 applications for their duties, mostly follow the information of other libraries and post information concerning their own libraries. They rarely use Web 2.0 for training on library programs or information literacy. For personal purposes, they followed their interests and played very few online games. Discussion Analysis of the librarians personal characteristics showed that introverted and extraverted librarians portrayed no difference in perceptions of Web 2.0. Both groups perceived themselves in the comprehensive stage in which they can understand, use and pursue others to use Web 2.0 applications (Moven & Minor, 1998). Garoufallou and Charitopoulou (2012) studied librarians use of Web 2.0 and reported the same results. Many research works found that personal characteristics do not influence human learning. Conversely, differences in introvert and extravert characteristics have influence on their works and interests. Extraverts can do complicated works effectively. On the other hand, introverts are more successful in finishing works than extraverts because they have higher concentration than extraverts (Nuanla-or, 1991; Thanapan, 2008). According to librarians personal characteristics, introverted and extraverted librarians are different in their use of Web 2.0. Merriam Webster Dictionary (1974) describes extraversion as being predominantly concerned with obtaining gratification from what is outside the self. Conversely, introversion is the tendency toward being predominantly concerned with one s own metal life. An extravert is a person who is energized by being around other people whereas an introvert is energized by being alone. Extraverts tend to enjoy human interactions and to be enthusiastic, talkative, assertive and gregarious. Introverts may have little difficulty talking to people and be more concerned with their inner worlds. They enjoy thinking, exploring their thoughts and feelings. They often avoid social situations because being around people drains their energy. Even though Web 2.0 provides users to hide behind their screen names, avatars or selected biographies, its activities need interaction to the others. Therefore the attributes of Web 2.0 match the characteristics of the extroverts who are the social people. Web 2.0 applications were designed to support the interaction of people. People can create online communities and dynamically edit, distribute and share their files or content (Stephens, 2006; Anderson, 2007). Librarians with different abilities of computer usage exhibited different levels of Web 2.0 perceptions and use. Librarians with high ability of computer usage had a higher level of Web 2.0 and perceptions than those with average or low abilities. Librarians with high computer competency always express a good attitude to Web 2.0 and use it more than less computer competent librarians (Aharony, 2008). Web 2.0 applications help people easily create content and online communities without knowing about web servers and web-authoring programs. Web content also consist of multimedia such as images, video clips and audio files which require computer ability. Librarians who had more Internet facilities perceived Web 2.0 in a higher stage than librarians who had fewer facilities. Likewise, librarians who had more facilities used Web 2.0 more than those who had fewer facilities. The internet facilities including hardware, software, and high-speed network connections allow people to converse with others, either by text, image, voice or video-or a combination of these that are necessary to enable convenient use of Web 2.0 (Corrocher, 2011). Most librarians use of Web 2.0 applications for their job duties such as following news and information from other libraries plus distributing their own library information. Libraries use Web 2.0 as a tool for public relations, publicizing services and sharing interesting news (Chau & Goh, 2010). Thai academic libraries use Web 2.0 applications to distribute information and activities (Rathtee, 2011). Likewise, librarians receive news concerning librarianship which same result of personal purpose to use Web 2.0 of librarians. The least common use of Web 2.0 applications is to teach library programs and information literacy to users. Most academic libraries lack a policy to use Web 2.0, so librarians usually employ applications reactively (Rathtee, 2011).
6 Conclusion and Recommendation Due to expansion in the use of the Internet, people can communicate quickly and easily without limitation as to time and place. Today s Internet is called the second Internet era. Web 2.0 is synonymous with websites to facilitate communication, conversation, information sharing and collaboration within the online community. Since academic libraries act as knowledge repositories and agents for dissemination of knowledge, Web 2.0 technology fulfills the library mission to collaborate and engage spaces where librarians can connect and converse with users. This research has studied and compared the perceptions and use of Web 2.0 among academic librarians in Bangkok, classified by personality characteristics, computer skill and availability of Internet facilities. Most librarians were introverted and moderately competent in computer use. Most of them reported a medium level of availability to Internet facilities. They perceived Web 2.0 at a comprehensive stage, but used Web 2.0 at a low level. Introversion and extraversion showed no effect on librarians perceptions and use of Web 2.0. Computer skills and availability of Internet facilities influenced their perception and use of Web 2.0. Web 2.0 is a powerful tool that is easy to use, consume less money and more adaptable. It has the potential to promote participatory networking where librarians and users can communicate, collaborate, and co-create content. This research is beneficial not only for library administrators planning to develop their personal needs but also for librarians to keep up-to-date with fast-growing technology. Library administrators should plan for staff to gain computer skills, especially graphics, audio and video applications. These applications are important in the use of Web 2.0. Libraries should provide facilities for Web 2.0 usage including a computer staff to assist librarians. Librarians can proactively apply Web 2.0 tools and services to gain quicker and broader access to library users. References Aharony, Noa. (2009). Librarians and information scientists in the blogosphere: An exploratory analysis. Library & Information Science Research. 31: Anfinnsen, Svein, Ghinea, Gheorghita & Cesare, Sergio de. (2011, February). Web 2.0 and folksonomies in a library context. International Journal of Information Management. 31(1): Barsky, E., & Purdon, M. (2006). Introduction Web 2.0: Social networking and social bookmarking for health librarians. Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association. 27: Chua, Alton Yeow Kuan, & Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian. (2010, July). A study of Web 2.0 applications in library websites. Library & Information Science Research. 32(3): Chua, Alton Yeow Kuan, Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian, & Lee, Chei Sian. (2008). The prevalence and use of Web 2.0 in libraries. In The Proceedings of the International Conference on Asia-Pacific Digital Libraries (ICADL), Bali, Indonesia, 2-5 December pp Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Desai, Christina. (2003). Instant messaging reference: How does it compare?. The Electronic Library. 21(1): De Rosa, Cathy, Cantrell, Joanne, Havens, Andy, Hawk, Janet, & Jenkins, Lillie, contributors. (2007) Sharing privacy and trust in our networked world: A report to the OCLC membership. Dublin, Ohio: Online Computer Library Center. Retrieved from DiNucci, Darcy. (1990). Fragmented future. Print. 53(4): 32, Retrieved from Eysenck, Hans, & Wilson, Glenn. (1976). You own personality. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. Garoufallou, Emmanouel, & Charitopoulou, Vassiliki. (2012). Web 2.0 in Library and Information Science education: The Greek case. New Library World. 113(3/4): Retrieved from
7 Gibbons, Susan. (2007). Academic library and the net gen student: Making the connections. Chicago: American Library Association. Kim, Yong-Mi, & Abbas, June. (2010, May). Adoption of Library 2.0 functionalities by academic libraries and users: A knowledge management perspective. The Journal of Academic Librarianship. 36(3): Macgregor, George, & McCulloch, Emma. (2005). Collaborative tagging as a knowledge organization and resource discovery tool. Library Review. 55(5): Maness, Jack M. (2006, June). Library 2.0 theory: Web 2.0 and its implications for libraries. Webology. 3(2). Retrieved from Moven, John C., & Minor, Michael. (1998). Consumer behavior. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Nuanla-or Supapol. (1991). Attitude towards the Police-Cadet-Training-for-Service Program in rural areas and expectation for future policeman s authoritarian personality. Bangkok: Faculty of Humanities, Srinakharinwirot University. O'Reilly, Tim. (2005, September 30). What is Web 2.0. Retrieved from web2/ archive/what-is-web-20.html Rathtee Paphatsurichote. (2011). Web 2.0 technology uses and needs of state university libraries. Thesis M.A. (Library and Information Science). Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University. Si, Li, Shi, Ruoyao & Chen, Bijuan. (2011). An investigation and analysis of the application of Web 2.0 in Chinese university libraries. The Electronic Library. 29(5): Stephens, Michael. (2006). Web 2.0 & libraries: Best practices for social software. Chicago: American Library Association. Thanapan Klunkesorn. (2008). Introvert-extravert personality and attitude towards love and sex in old age. Thesis M.Ed. (Development Psychology). Bangkok: Srinakharinwirot University. Tripathi, Manorama, & Kumar, Sunil. (2010, September). Use of Web 2.0 tools in academic libraries: A reconnaissance of the international landscape. The International Information & Library Review. 42(3): Wilson, Glenn. (1977). Introversion/extraversiion. In Personality variables in social behavior. Edited by Thomas Blass. pp New Jersey: Lawrence Eribaum Association. About the Author Wawta Techataweewan earned her B.A. in Library Science from Thammasat University, Thailand; M.A. in Library Science from Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; M.S. in Information Technology Management from King Mongkut s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Thailand; and Ph.D. in Computer Education at King Mongkut s University of Technology, North Bangkok. She is currently Assistant Professor at Srinakharinwirot University in Bangkok, teaching Information Literacy Skills, Organization of Library and Information Center, Data Communication Technology, Database Management, and Multimedia Design and Development.
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pagina 1 van 8 How companies are marketing online: A McKinsey Global Survey A survey of marketers from around the world shows where online tools are most important, how they re being used, and on which
ILEAD USA DELAWARE Innovative Librarians Explore, Apply, and Discover A 21 st Century Technology and Leadership Skills Institute Mentor Application Are you interested in facilitating a new initiative to
Frequently Asked Questions General What does FocusVision do? FocusVision transmits live video and audio of focus groups that are taking place all over the world, eliminating the need to travel. These focus
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Integration of Learning Management Systems with Social Networking Platforms E-learning in a Facebook supported environment Jernej Rožac 1, Matevž Pogačnik 2, Andrej Kos 3 Faculty of Electrical engineering
RSS Feeds and Aggregators oh my! This session will demonstrate how to set up RSS feeds via Google Reader and NetVibes. You can share your collections of feeds with your students too! We will also examine
Upload Your Culminating Project to The Repository at St. Cloud State University There are two parts to uploading your culminating project (starred paper, thesis, or dissertation) to The Repository at St.
Social Media Glossary of Terms For Small Business Owners Introduction As a small business, reaching your audience efficiently and cost-effectively way is critical to your success. Social media platforms
The World Wide Web Revisited Ron Owston, PhD Institute for Research on Learning Technologies York University Toronto, Canada IRLT Ten Years Ago March 1997 Educational Researcher Questions I asked in the
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Open Source Content Management System for content development: a comparative study D. P. Tripathi Assistant Librarian Biju Patnaik Central Library NIT Rourkela email@example.com Designing dynamic and
Search Engine Optimization Glossary A ALT Text/Tag or Attribute: A description of an image in your site's HTML. Unlike humans, search engines read only the ALT text of images, not the images themselves.
Blogging- A Powerful Public Relation Marketing tool, A study of public awareness with reference to Nagpur City. Ms. Minal Kashyap firstname.lastname@example.org Ms. Kamal Satija email@example.com Abstract-
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Submitted on: 13/06/2015 Educating the Health Librarians in Africa today: Competencies, Skills and Attitudes required in a Changing Health Environment Judy S. Kasalu Margaret Thatcher Library, Moi University,
Using Social Networking Sites as a Platform for E-Learning Mohammed Al-Zoube and Samir Abou El-Seoud Princess Sumaya University for Technology Key words: Social networks, Web-based learning, OpenSocial,
The Management of the International Online Distance Learning Program in Thailand Krisda Tanchaisak Assumption University firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Online learning is popular throughout the world however
Study On Recruitment through Social Media Networking Sites Prof,Brijmohan Vyas Assistant Professor Department of Management Studies email@example.com Miss, Rohini Mirji Final year Student Department
Social Media and College Admissions: The First Longitudinal Study Conducted by: Nora Ganim Barn es, Ph.D. (firstname.lastname@example.org) Eric Mattson (email@example.com) It s no surprise that social media has
Being digital Digital literacy skills checklist 1: Introduction How are you that you can work effectively, and safely, online? When you search for information, are you that you will be able to find the
FEATURES OR CRITERIA Tool Feature function Specified performance criteria Admin Tools Admin Tools Admin Tools Admin Tools copy a course into multiple sections Enroll in multiple courses at once Apply templates
Journal of Information Literacy ISSN 1750-5968 Volume 8 Issue 1 June 2014 Article Lefebvre, L. and Yancey, M. 2014. Graduate information literacy in online education using the embedded librarian model.
ASSESSING CUSTOMER ORIENTATION IN PUBLIC, NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS: A PROFILE OF OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Angel A. Berrio, Graduate Student Janet L. Henderson, Associate Professor The Ohio State
An appropriate balance of people, process & technology is the key to success in KM Enterprise & Personal Knowledge Management: Local Case Studies & the roles of the information professionals Department
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Web Conferencing Glossary Ad-Hoc Meeting a meeting that can be held immediately, on-the-fly Adobe Connect Adobe Connect is a Web Conferencing solution that provides rich, interactive, multimedia experiences