Welcome to Part 1: Differentiated Instruction, Beginning the Journey

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1 Welcome to Part 1: Differentiated Instruction, Beginning the Journey Goals: Definition Community in classroom Strategies Designing lessons Philosophy Grading

2 KUD KNOW: The principles of DI UNDERSTAND: Why and how DI is valuable The effects it has on student achievement BE ABLE TO DO: Design RAFT, TIC-TAC-TOE, and Sternberg DI lessons

3 Differentiating Instruction: The Journey "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." * * Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

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6 Differentiated Instruction Defined Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to get at and express learning. Carol Ann Tomlinson

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8 In a Nutshell DI helps answers the question What do I do when the student hasn t learned the material?

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10 John Hatti and Meta-Analysis

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12 Teacher Effect Zone: typical effect a teacher can accomplish in one year Developmental Effects Zone: what students could achieve if there were no school Reverse Effect Zone: those that decrease achievement

13 RANK Homework Retention Formative Assessment Creativity Programs Teaching Strategies Tactile Stimulation Programs Web Based Learning

14 Formative Assessment.90 (3) Creativity Programs.65 (17) Teaching Strategies.60 (23) Tactile Stimulation.58 (27) Homework.29 (88) Web Based Learning.18 (112) Retention -.16 (136) out of 138

15 Differentiated Instruction What it is and what it s not!

16 Principle # 1 Differentiated Instruction is responsive teaching rather than teaching to a one size fits all.

17 Principal #2 Differentiated Instruction is starting instruction where the students are rather than with a standardized approach to teaching, that assumes all kids of a given age or grade are essentially alike and will start at the exact same place.

18 Principle #3 Differentiated Instruction is shaking up the classroom so students have multiple ways and options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing & communicating what they learn.

19 Principle #4 Differentiated Instruction is a blend of whole group, small group, and individual instruction.

20 Principle # 5 Differentiated Instruction is based on the quality of teaching, not the quantity of work completed by students.

21 Principle # 6 Differentiated Instruction is providing multiple approaches for what is being taught, how it is taught, and how students prove their understanding and apply what they know.

22 Principle # 7 Differentiated Instruction is honoring all students needs and maximizing ALL students learning capacities.

23 Principle # 8 Differentiated Instruction is driven by assessments (pre, ongoing, and post) both formal and informal.

24 Principle # 9 Differentiated student centered. Instruction is (The teacher is not the only one doing the teaching. Student learning is a shared responsibility between teacher and students in the classroom!)

25 Principle #10 Differentiated Instruction is flexible, flexible, flexible! Did I mention flexible? Students should NOT be stuck in the same groups all the time!

26 Principle # 11 Differentiated Instruction should be not only beneficial for students, but also beneficial to teachers as well! Remember to have fun!

27 Differentiated Instruction is NOT individual instruction for all, all the time. (No IEPs for every learner!)

28 Differentiated Instruction is not more work for smart students and less work for lower level students!

29 Differentiated Instruction is not harder, more challenging work assigned to smarter students and easier work for lower level students! (All students should have the same opportunities to be challenged. NO student should have the easy way out! refer to your Bull s Eye Target)

30 Differentiated Instruction is chaotic or studentrun. not (You are still in charge, setting goals and objectives for your students!)

31 Where are you on the continuum of DIFFERENTIATION? What will it take for you to move? What roadblocks are in your way? How can you remove them?

32 Differentiation Is a teacher s response to learner s needs Guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasks Flexible grouping Continual assessment Teachers Can Differentiate Through: Content Process Product Environment According to Students Readiness Interest Learning Profile Through a range of strategies such as: Multiple intelligences Jigsaw 4MAT Graphic Organizers RAFTS Compacting Tiered assignments Leveled texts Complex Instruction Learning Centers

33 Definition: Process Process refers to how students come to understand and own the knowledge, understanding, and skills essential to a topic. In the classroom, the process can be a class activity or a homework assignment. The process begins as the student starts to make personal sense of, or masters, the content. Facts and Details: Process is often used as a synonym for activities. A worthwhile activity has a clear focus on essential learning goals. Effective process requires students to think about ideas, consider problems, and/or use information. (It is NOT just a regurgitation of information, students construct their own meaning.) Lessons can be differentiated by readiness, interest, and learning profiles. Many students do not struggle with the content as much as they struggle with the process. Good activities (process) should snag student interest, so that students keep trying to process the content information even when it is difficult. Strategies for Differentiating the Process: Jigsaw Tiered activities Cooperative groups Interest-based work groups Interest centers Learning contracts Task lists Exit cards

34 Map Diagram Sculpture Discussion Demonstration Poem Profile Chart Play Dance Campaign Cassette Quiz Show Banner Brochure Debate Flow Chart Puppet Show Tour Lecture Editorial Painting Costume Placement Blueprint Catalogue Dialogue Newspaper Scrapbook Lecture Questionnaire Flag Scrapbook Graph Debate Museum Learning Center Advertisement Book List Calendar Coloring Book Game Research Project TV Show Song Dictionary Film Collection Trial Machine Book Mural Award Recipe Test Puzzle Model Timeline Toy Article Diary Poster Magazine Computer Program Photographs Terrarium Petition Drive Teaching Lesson Prototype Speech Club Cartoon Biography Review Invention

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36 Array Interaction Inventory Directions: Rank order the responses in rows below on a scale from 1 to 4 with 1 being least like me to 4 being most like me. After you have ranked each row, add down each column. The column(s) with the highest score(s) shows your primary Personal Objective(s) in your personality. In your normal day-to-day life, you tend to be: Nurturing Sensitive Caring Logical Systematic Organized Spontaneous creative Playful Quiet Insightful reflective In your normal day-to-day life, you tend to value: Harmony Relationships are important Work Time schedules are important Stimulation Having fun is important Reflection Having some time alone is important In most settings, you are usually: Authentic Compassionate Harmonious Traditional Responsible Parental Active Opportunistic Spontaneous Inventive Competent Seeking In most situations, you could be described as: Empathetic Communicative Devoted Practical Competitive Loyal Impetuous Impactful Daring Conceptual Knowledgeable Composed

37 Array Interaction Inventory, cont d You approach most tasks in a(n) manner: Affectionate Inspirational Vivacious Conventional Orderly Concerned Courageous Adventurous Impulsive Rational Philosophical Complex When things start to not go your way and you are tired and worn down, what might your responses be? Say I m sorry Make mistakes Feel badly Over-control Become critical Take charge It s not my fault Manipulate Act out When you ve had a bad day and you become frustrated, how might you respond? Over-please Cry Feel depressed Add score: Be perfectionist Verbally attack Overwork Become physical Be irresponsible Demand attention Withdraw Don t talk Become indecisive Disengage Delay Daydream Harmony Production Connection Status Quo

38 Who are you?

39 Personal Objectives/Personality Components Teacher and student personalities are a critical element in the classroom dynamic. The Array Model (Knaupp, 1995) identifies four personality components; however, one or two components(s) tend to greatly influence the way a person sees the world and responds to it. A person whose primary Personal Objective of Production is organized, logical and thinking-oriented. A person whose primary Personal Objective is Connection is enthusiastic, spontaneous and action-oriented. A person whose primary Personal Objective is Status Quo is insightful, reflective and observant. Figure 3.1 presents the Array model descriptors and offers specific Cooperative and Reluctant behaviors from each personal objective. Personal Objectives/Personality Component HARMONY PRODUCTION CONNECTION STATUS QUO COOPERATIVE (Positive Behavior) Caring Sensitive Nurturing Harmonizing Feeling-oriented Logical Structured Organized Systematic Thinking-oriented Spontaneous Creative Playful Enthusiastic Action-oriented Quiet Imaginative Insightful Reflective Inaction-oriented RELUCTANT (Negative Behavior) Over adaptive Over pleasing Makes mistakes Cries or giggles Self-defeating Overcritical Overworks Perfectionist Verbally attacks Demanding Disruptive Blames Irresponsible Demands attention Defiant Disengaging Withdrawn Delays Despondent Daydreams PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS Friendships Sensory experience Task completion Time schedule Contact with people Fun activities Alone time Stability WAYS TO MEET NEEDS Value their feelings Comfortable work place Pleasing learning environment Work with a friend sharing times Value their ideas Incentives Rewards Leadership positions Schedules To-do lists Value their activity Hands-on activities Group interaction Games Change in routine Value their privacy Alone time Independent activities Specific directions Computer activities Routine tasks

40 Triarchic Theory of Intelligences Robert Sternberg Mark each sentence T if you like to do the activity and F if you do not like to do the activity. 1. Analyzing characters when I m reading or listening to a story 2. Designing new things 3. Taking things apart and fixing them 4. Comparing and contrasting points of view 5. Coming up with ideas 6. Learning through hands-on activities 7. Criticizing my own and other kids work 8. Using my imagination 9. Putting into practice things I learned 10. Thinking clearly and analytically 11. Thinking of alternative solutions

41 Triarchic Theory of Intelligences Robert Sternberg Mark each sentence T if you like to do the activity and F if you do not like to do the activity. 16. Evaluating my own and other s points of view 17. Thinking in pictures and images 18. Advising friends on their problems 19. Explaining difficult ideas or problems to others 20. Supposing things were different 21. Convincing someone to do something 22. Making inferences and deriving conclusions 23. Drawing 24. Learning by interacting with others 25. Sorting and classifying 26. Inventing new words, games, approaches 27. Applying my knowledge 28. Using graphic organizers or images to organize your thoughts 29. Composing

42 Triarchic Theory of Intelligences Key Robert Sternberg Transfer your answers from the survey to the key. The column with the most True responses is your dominant intelligence. Analytical Creative Practical Total Number of True: Analytical Creative Practical

43 Sternberg s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Robert Sternberg, a Professor of Psychology at Yale University, has developed a theory that people possess three different types of intelligence in varying amounts. His research indicates that people learn best when their dominant intelligence is addressed (Sternberg, 1997).

44 Sternberg s Three Intelligences Creative Analytical Practical We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger in one or two areas than in others. We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in students but also recognize where students strengths lie and teach through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new ideas.

45 ANALYTICAL Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences Linear Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential Show the parts of and how they work. Explain why works the way it does. Diagram how affects. Identify the key parts of. Present a step-by-step approach to. PRACTICAL Street-smart Contextual Focus on Use Demonstrate how someone uses in their life or work. Show how we could apply to solve this real life problem. Based on your own experience, explain how can be used. Here s a problem at school,. Using your knowledge of, develop a plan to address the problem. CREATIVE Innovator Outside the Box What If - Improver Find a new way to show. Use unusual materials to explain. Use humor to show. Explain (show) a new and better way to. Make connections between and to help us understand. Become a and use your new perspectives to help us think about.

46 STERNBERG S INTELLIGENCES ANALYTICAL PRACTICAL CREATIVE Linear Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential Street-smart Contextual Focus on Use Innovator Outside the Box What If An idea for assessing students according to Sternberg s intelligences would be to give the following scenario: Imagine you are driving with your parents and they are listening to the radio. An interesting piece comes on about something you do not know. As you listen, you get more and more interested. What do you want to know? Do you want to know all the little details that go into it? Do you want to know how it is being used? Do you want to know enough to use the information in new ways, for new purposes, to make new connections? Students who choose the first question fall into the analytic intelligence, the second corresponds to practical and those who choose the final question are the creative learners.

47 Analytical Thinkers Likes to break things into parts, likes to know how things work, enjoys facts as well as ideas, likes to argue, attracted to logical thinking and logical ideas, likes to think as opposed to doing, typically does well at school tasks, enjoys solving problems, can focus for long periods of time on a single task, ma balk at creative assignments, likes to find one right answer, may see things as black and white. Needs: assignments that require thought as opposed to rote memorization, extended assignments that allow for focused, long-term study, problems to figure out, time to discuss ideas with others, support with how to present ideas in a non-argumentative way, support with listening to and accepting others ideas, opportunities to struggle with openended questions that have no right/wrong answer.

48 For ANALYTICAL Thinkers Analytical = Linear Schoolhouse Smart -- Sequential Show the parts of and how they work. Explain why works the way it does. Diagram how affects. Identify the key parts of. Present a step-by-step approach to.

49 Analytical thinkers: I Like Analyzing characters when I m reading or listening to a story Comparing and contrasting points of view Criticizing my own and others work Thinking clearly and analytically Evaluating my and others points of view Appealing to logic Judging my others behavior Explaining difficult problems to others Solving Logical problems Making inferences and deriving conclusions Sorting and classifying Thinking about things Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000

50 Practical Thinkers Likes to see the real world application of things, excellent at implementing plans, a doer, highly effective in making things happen, organized, less interested in ideas than in action likes to move and do when learning, can be an excellent leader, may struggle with creativity-for-creativity ssake assignments, may resist completing assignments for which they see no real-world purpose, can work very well in group situation, may not be traditionally book smart. Needs: Hands-on activities, assignments that are connected to the real world, opportunities to share ideas with practitioners and experts, experiences with more creative, open-ended activities, support with being patient with activities for which they see no immediate application, opportunities to lead (even when they are not the highest achievers, these students can be highly effective at leading groups and delegating responsibilities).

51 For PRACTICAL Thinkers Practical = Street Smart Contextual Focus on Use Demonstrate how someone uses in their life or work. Show how we could apply to solve this real life problem:. Based on your own experience, explain how can be used. Here s a problem at school,. Using your knowledge of, develop a plan to address the problem

52 Practical thinkers: I Like Taking things apart and fixing them Learning through hands on activities Making and maintaining friends Understanding and respecting others Putting into practice things I learned Resolving conflicts Advising m friends on their problems Convncing someone to do something Learning by interacting with others Applying my knowledge Working and being with others Adapting to new situations Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000

53 Creative Thinkers Attracted to novelty, likes to produce knowledge or ideas instead of consuming them, sees the world from a unique perspective, often prefers working alone, doesn t like to be rushed toward completion of tasks, often works in bursts, with long periods of incubation (which can look like unproductiveness) followed by quick, highly productive working periods, often has unique sense of humor. Needs: support with setting deadlines and timelines, open-ended assignments with structure, assignments that allow for creative thinking and novel products, support working with other students, frequent outlets for creative thought, support with turning ideas into reality.

54 For CREATIVE Thinkers Creative = Innovator Outside the Box What if? Improver Find a new way to show. Use unusual materials to explain. Use humor to show. Explain (show) a new and better way to. Make connections between and to help us understand. Become a and use your new perspective to help us think about.

55 Creative thinkers: I Like Designing new things Coming up with ideas Using my imagination Playing make-believe and pretend games Thinking of alternative solutions Noticing things people usually tend to ignore Thinking in pictures and images Inventing (new recipes, words, games) Supposing that things were different Thinking about what would have happened if certain aspects of the world were different Composing (new songs, melodies) Acting and role playing Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000

56 Evaluating Plot Standard: Students will evaluate the quality of plot based on clear criteria Analytical Task Experts suggest that an effective plot is: believable, has events that follow a logical and energizing sequence, has compelling characters and has a convincing resolution. Select a story that you believe does have an effective plot based on these three criteria as well as others you state. Provide specific support from the story for your positions. OR Select a story you believe has an effective plot in spite of the fact that it does not meet these criteria. Establish the criteria you believe made the story s plot effective. Make a case, using specific illustrations from the story, that your criteria describes an effective plot

57 Evaluating Evaluating Plot cont d (cont d) Practical Task A local TV station wants to air teen-produced digital videos based on well known works. Select and storyboard you choice for a video. Be sure your storyboards at least have a clear and believable plot structure, a logical sequence of events, compelling characters and a convincing resolution. Note other criteria on which you feel the plot s effectiveness should also be judged. Make a case that your choice is a winner based on these and other criteria you state. Creative Task Propose an original story you fell has a clear and believable plot structure, a logical sequence of events, compelling characters, and a convincing resolution. You may write it, storyboard it, or make a flow chart of it. Find a way to demonstrate that your story achieves these criteria as well as any others you note as important.

58 Create Design a lesson using Sternberg s Intelligences Select a topic, content expectation, focus skill Decide what it is you want your students to know, understand and be able to do Create three tasks: analytical, practical, and creative

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70 Should be purposeful: may be based on student interest, learning profile and/or readiness may be based on needs observed during learning times geared to accomplish curricular goals (K-U-D) Implementation: purposefully plan using information collected interest surveys, learning profile inventories, exit cards, quick writes, observations, etc. list groups on an overhead; place in folders or mailboxes on the fly as invitational groups Cautions: avoid turning groups into tracking situations provide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groups practice moving into group situations and asuming roles within the group

71 -CHOICE- The Great Motivator! Requires children to be aware of their own readiness, interests, and learning profiles. Students have choices provided by the teacher. (YOU are still in charge of crafting challenging opportunities for all kiddos NO taking the easy way out!) Use choice across the curriculum: writing topics, content writing prompts, self-selected reading, contract menus, math problems, spelling words, product and assessment options, seating, group arrangement, ETC... GUARANTEES BUY-IN AND ENTHUSIASM FOR LEARNING!

72 OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION To Differentiate Instruction By Readiness To Differentiate Instruction By Interest To Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profile (complexity, equalizer adjustments open-endedness, etc. add or remove scaffolding & text vary difficulty level of supplementary materials adjust task familiarity vary direct instruction by small group adjust proximity of ideas to student experience encourage application of broad concepts & principles to student interest areas give choice of mode of expressing learning use interest-based mentoring of adults or more expert-like peers give choice of tasks and products (including student designed options) give broad access to varied materials & technologies create an environment with flexible learning spaces and options allow working alone or working with peers use part-to-whole and whole-to-part approaches Vary teacher mode of presentation (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, concrete, abstract) adjust for gender, culture, language differences. useful instructional strategies: - tiered activities - Tiered products - compacting - learning contracts - tiered tasks/alternative forms of assessment useful instructional strategies: - interest centers - interest groups - enrichment clusters - group investigation - choice boards - MI options - internet mentors useful instructional strategies: - multi-ability cooperative tasks - MI options - Triarchic options - 4-MAT

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75 A RAFT is an engaging, high level strategy that encourages writing across the curriculum a way to encourage students to assume a role consider their audience, examine a topic from a relevant perspective, write in a particular format All of the above can serve as motivators by giving students choice, appealing to their interests and learning profiles, and adapting to student readiness levels.

76 RAFTs can Be differentiated in a variety of ways: readiness level, learning profile, and/or student interest Be created by the students or Incorporate a blank row for that option Be used as introductory hooks into a unit of study Keep one column consistent while varying the other columns in the RAFT grid

77 Sample RAFT Strips Role Audience Format Topic Squanto Band Member Other Native Americans Other Band Members Pictographs Demo Tape I can help the inept settlers Here s how it goes Positive Numbers Negative Numbers Dating Ad Opposites Attract Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Song Must you go on forever? Decimals Fractions Poem Don t you get my point? Perimeter Area Diary Entry How your shape affects me Monet Van Gogh Letter I wish you d shed more light on the subject! Joan of Arc Self Soliloquy To recant, or not to recant; that is the question Tree Urban Sprawl Editorial My life is worth saving Thoreau Public of his day Letter to the Editor Young Chromosome Experienced Chromosome Children s Book Why I moved to the pond What becomes of us in mitosis?

78 Tall Tales Grade 3 Differentiation According to Sternberg s Intelligences Know: What makes a Tall Tale Understand: Do: Analytical Task Definition of fact and exaggeration An exaggeration starts with a fact and stretches it. People sometimes exaggerate to make their stories or deeds seem more wonderful or scarier. Distinguish fact and exaggeration Listen to or read Johnny Appleseed and complete the organizer as you do. Johnny Appleseed s Facts Exaggerations Practical Task Think of a time when you or someone you know was sort of like the Johnny Appleseed story and told a tall tale about something that happened. Write or draw both the factual or true version of the story and the tall tale version. Creative Task --- RAFT Assignment Role Audience Format Topic Someone Our Diary entry Let me tell you in our class class what happened while Johnny A. and I were on the way to school today.

79 Parts of Speech ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC SUBJECT ATHLETICS AWARD DINNER ACCEPTANCE SPEECH It s all about me! PREDICATE TOP 40 MUSIC RADIO LISTENERS SONG All things revolve around me DIRECT OBJECT MIDDLE SCHOOLERS POEM To be acted upon INDIRECT OBJECT WRITERS ONE PAGE WRITTEN ARGUMENT No one understands me!

80 Raft Rubric Accuracy Perspective Information, details in RAFT always accurate and properly reflects information, ideas and themes related to the subject RAFT maintains clear, consistent point of view, tone and ideas relevant to role played; ideas and information always tied to role and audience The information you provide in RAFT is accurate but could use more support You explain how your character would feel about the event(s) The information you provide in your RAFT has some inaccuracies or omissions You show little insight into how your character would feel or act during the event(s) The information you provide in your RAFT is incomplete and/or inaccurate You do not accurately develop your characters thoughts or reactions to the event(s)

81 Focus RAFT stays on topic, never drifts from required form or type; details and information are included that are pertinent only to developed purpose. You spend most of the RAFT discussing issues on topic, but occasionally stray from the focus. You spend some time discussing issues off topic Most of your RAFT is spent on issues that do not directly deal with the RAFT you choose Class Time You use class time appropriately to research the era and create well-written stories You seldom need to be reminded to get back on task You use library and computer time to do work for other classes and or chat with friends or lounge on couches You treat research time as an open period you can be seen chatting with friends and hanging out on the couches Mechanics Essay contains few to no fragments, run-on sentences; rare errors or mechanical mistakes; writing is fluent Essay contains some fragments, run-ons or other errors; occasional mechanical mistakes; writing generally clear Essay contains several sentence errors, mechanical mistakes that may interfere with ideas, clarity of ideas in writing Essay is marred by numerous errors, mechanical mistakes A+ 20 A19 A-18 B+17 B16 B-15 C+14 C13 D 12 F 11 and below MLA Format Incorrect Format -1

82 Novel Think Tac-Toe Directions: Select & complete one activity from each horizontal row to help you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work:» Thoughtful» Original» Rich with detail» accurate

83 Novel Think-Tac-Toe basic version Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work thoughtful, original, rich with detail, and accurate Character Create a pair of collages that compares you and a character from the book. Compare and contrast physical and personality traits. Label your collages so viewers understand your thinking Write a bio-poem about yourself and another about a main character in the book so your readers see how you and the characters are alike and different. Be sure to included the most important traits in each poem. Write a recipe or set of directions for how you would solve a problem and another for how a main character in the book would solve a problem. Your list should help us know you and the character. Setting Draw/paint and write a greeting card that invites us into the scenery and mood of an important part of the book. Be sure the verse helps us understand what is important in the scene and why. Make a model or map of a key place in your life, and an important one in the novel. Find a way to help viewers understand both what the places are like and why they are important in your life and the characters. Make 2 timelines. The first should illustrate and describe at least 6-8 shifts in settings in the book. The second should explain and illustrate how the mood changes with the change in setting. Theme Using books of proverbs and/on quotations, find at least 6-8 that you feel reflect what s important about the novel s theme. Find at least 6-8 that do the same for your life. Display them and explain your choices. Interview a key character from the book to find out what lessons he/she thinks we should learn from events in the book. Use a Parade magazine for material. Be sure the interview is thorough. Find several songs you think reflect an important message from the book. Prepare an audio collage. Write an exhibit card that helps your listener understand how you think these songs express the book s meaning.

84 Novel Think-Tac-Toe advanced version Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work thoughtful, original, insightful, and elegant in expression. Character Write a bio-poem about yourself and another about a main character in the book so your readers see how you and the character are alike and different. Be sure to include the most important traits in each poem. A character in the book is being written up in the paper 20 years after the novel ends. Write the piece. Where has life taken him/her? Why? Now, do the same for yourself 20 years from now. Make sure both pieces are interesting feature articles. You re a profiler. Write and illustrate a full and useful profile of an interesting character from the book with emphasis on personality traits and mode of operating. While you re at it, profile yourself too. Setting Research a town/place you feel is equivalent to the one in which the novel is set. Use maps, sketches, population and other demographic data to help you make comparisons and contrasts. Make a model or a map of a key place in your life, and in important one in the novel. Find a way to help viewers understand both what the places are like and why they are important in your life and the characters. The time and place in which people find themselves and when events happen shape those people and events in important ways. Find a way to convincingly prove that idea using this book. Theme Find out about famous people in history or current events whose experiences and lives reflect the essential themes of this novel. Show us what you ve learned. Create a multi-media presentation that fully explores a key theme from the novel. Use at least 3 media (for example painting, music, poetry, photography, drama, sculpture, calligraphy, etc.) in your exploration. Find several songs you think reflect an important message from the book. Prepare an audio collage. Write an exhibit card that helps your listener understand how you think these songs express the book s meaning.

85 Learning Preference The Maturation of Tom Sawyer The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain Level 1: On or Below Grade Level Level 2: On or Above Grade Level Artist Announcer: Writer: Actor: The Writing s On the Wall You ARE Tom Sawyer. You will create a Growth Mural of yourself to give to Becky in order to show her how much you ve matured. Hannibal on a Wire Create an audio recording of the scene that you feel was the most important to Tom s growth. Growth Report Card You are a psychologist hired by Aunt Polly to examine Tom s behavior and assess his growth. Lights, Camera, Action! Choose an important scene that demonstrates Tom s growth of character, and act it out using props, costumes, etc. Life is Like a Box of Chocolate Illustrate Tom s growth or maturation through the use of an extended metaphor or simile that compares Tom s growth process to Tommy Goes to Hollywood Create and produce an NPR segment in which the hosts of the show interview Steven Spielberg about his upcoming film adaptation of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Investigative Report Develop a Private investigator s Report about Tom s emotional and mental growth and well-being. Live with Dr. Phil! Act out an episode of the Dr. Phil show in which characters from the book will discuss whether or not they believe that Tom has grown or changed and how.

86 Grading

87 Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.) Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends. (Pre-assessment, formative and summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning cycle.) Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile. Assessments are part of teaching for success. Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth. Assessment MAY be differentiated. Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades. Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition. Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom

88 Not everything that can be measured counts and not everything that counts can be measured

89 Principles of Effective Grading & Reporting Principle #1 It is unwise to over-grade student work

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91 Principle #2 Grades should be based on clearly specified learning goals

92 Principle #3 Grades should be criterion based and not norm based

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94 Principle #4 Data used for grade must be valid (measure what we want it to measure). Must be free of grade-fog.

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96 The one thing that matters is the effort. It continues, whereas the end to be attained is but an illusion of the climber, As he fares on and on from crest to crest; And once the goal is reached it has no meaning. -The Wisdom of the Sands

97 Begin Slowly Just Begin! Low-Prep Differentiation Choices of books Homework options Use of reading buddies Varied journal Prompts Orbitals Varied pacing with anchor options Student-teaching goal setting Work alone / together Whole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations Flexible seating Varied computer programs Design-A-Day Varied Supplementary materials Options for varied modes of expression Varying scaffolding on same organizer Let s Make a Deal projects Computer mentors Think-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation Open-ended activities Mini-workshops to reteach or extend skills Jigsaw Negotiated Criteria Explorations by interests Games to practice mastery of information Multiple levels of questions High-Prep Differentiation Tiered activities and labs Tiered products Independent studies Multiple texts Alternative assessments Learning contracts 4-MAT Multiple-intelligence options Compacting Spelling by readiness Entry Points Varying organizers Lectures coupled with graphic organizers Community mentorships Interest groups Tiered centers Interest centers Personal agendas Literature Circles Stations Complex Instruction Group Investigation Tape-recorded materials Teams, Games, and Tournaments Choice Boards Think-Tac-Toe Simulations Problem-Based Learning Graduated Rubrics Flexible reading formats Student-centered writing formats

Planning your questions using Bloom s Taxonomy

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