1 City of St. Louis Hazard Mitigation Plan i Table of Contents Section Community Profiles... 1 City of St. Louis Profile... 1 Development/History 1 Geography, Geology and Climate... 2 Form of Government 6 Community Partnerships... 6 Significant Cultural/Social Issues... 6 Public Awareness... 6 Media Relations... 9 Demographic Information...10 Diversity...10 Age...11 Per Capita Income and Persons Below the Federal Poverty Level...11 Education Levels...11 Economy, Employment and Industry...12 Labor Force...13 Average Wage Rate...13 Unemployment Rate...13 Primary Employers and Industries...13 Access to Employment; Incommuting and Outcommuting...15 Codes/Regulations for Building, Stormwater, Zoning, Fire...16 Existing Community Plans...17 Land Use Information 17 Development Trends and Annexation...18 Floodplain Management...20 Wetlands Issues...20 NFIP Participation...21 Environmental Concerns...21 Endangered Species, Historic Properties/Districts, Archaeological Sites...21 Identified Assets...27 Inventory of Critical/Key/Essential Facilities...27 Medical Facilities...27 Long Term Care Facilities...28 Day Care Centers...29 Schools...37 Government Facilities...43 Recreation Facilities...49 Inventory of Infrastructure...53 Roadways...53 Railroads...54 Airports...55
2 City of St. Louis Hazard Mitigation Plan ii Water Ports 56 Public Transportation...57 Communications...58 Water and Sewer Facilities...60 Electricity and Natural Gas...61 Solid Waste Disposal...62 Law Enforcement...63 Emergency Services...63 Fire Protection...64 Underground Infrastructure...66 Inventory of Key Industrial/Commercial Employment Facilities...67 Inventory of Housing Structures...68 Number of Dwelling Units...69 Average Unit Cost...69 Total Inventory of Structures...69 Section Risk Assessment... 1 Natural Hazard Identification and Elimination Process... 1 Community Wide Hazard Profile and List of Hazards Identified... 1 Flood... 2 Earthquake...22 Tornado/Severe Thunderstorm...38 Severe Winter Weather...54 Drought...62 Heat Wave...73 Dam Failure...87 Wildfire...98 Jurisdictional Risk Assessment Worksheets 105 Section City of St. Louis Capability Assessment... 1 Mitigation Management Policies... 1 Existing Plans... 1 Mitigation Programs... 1 City of St. Louis Capabilities (Organization, Staffing, Training)... 3 Responsibilities and Authorities... 3 Intergovernmental and Interagency Coordination... 4 Vulnerability Assessment of County Policies and Development Trends... 4 Commitments to a Comprehensive Mitigation Program... 4 Laws, Regulations, and Policies Related to Development in Hazard-Prone Areas... 4 County Laws, Regulations and Policies Related to Hazard Mitigation in General... 4 How Local Risk Assessments are Incorporated and Prioritized into Local Planning... 5 Current Criteria Used to Prioritize Mitigation Funding... 5 Integration of Hazard Mitigation with the County Department s Plans..5 How the City Determines Cost-Effectiveness of Mitigation Programs....5
3 City of St. Louis Hazard Mitigation Plan iii Mitigation Funding Options, Including Current and Potential Sources of Federal, State, Local and Private Funds... 5 How Governments Meet Requirements for Hazard Mitigation Funding Programs... 6 Recommendations for Improvement... 6 City Policies and Development Trends... 7 Funding Sources... 7 Worksheet 13 Section Introduction to Mitigation... 1 Definition of Mitigation... 1 Categories of Mitigation... 1 Mitigation Versus Preparedness... 2 Mitigation Versus Response and Recovery... 3 Mitigation Plan Benefits... 3 Hazard Mitigation Goals, Objectives, Strategy and Coordination... 3 Evaluation... 4 Strategic Implementation...10 Analysis and Prioritization of Mitigation Actions...10 Monitoring, Evaluating and Updating the Plan...11 Worksheet.13
4 A Regional Overview All-Hazard Mitigation Plan 1 SECTION 1 Community Profiles Natural hazards impact not only the citizens of the EWG planning region, but also their property, the environment and the economy. Natural hazards here are defined as flooding, windstorms, severe winter storms, earthquakes, heat waves, drought, dam failure and wildfires. These hazards have exposed the region s residents and businesses to the financial and emotional costs of recovering after natural disasters. The risk associated with hazards increases as more people move to areas affect by hazards. The inevitability of hazards and growing population and activity within the planning region create an urgent need to develop strategies, coordinate resources and increase public awareness to reduce risk and prevent loss from future hazard events. Identifying risks posed by hazards, developing strategies to reduce the impact of a hazard event can assist in protecting life and property of citizens and communities. Local residents and businesses can work together with the regional planning center to create a Hazard Mitigation Plan that addresses the potential impact of hazard events. Below is a description and profile of the City of St. Louis. City Profile: City of St. Louis Development/History The City of St. Louis is an urban and industrial area covering a geographical land mass of square miles with a residential population of approximately 348,189, averaging an approximate increase of 25 percent during the workday. The trend since 1950 has been a declining population in the City of St. Louis. The 1970, the population of St. Louis was 622,000. See Figure STLC1 in the back of the Technical Appendix. The Mississippi River was the most important influence on the early development of the St. Louis area. The Missouri, Mississippi, and Illinois Rivers were primary transportation routes, making the area a popular destination to many Native American tribes, including the Pottawatomie, Miami, Kickapoo, Delaware, Shawnee, Iowa, Sauk, Fox, Illini, Osage, and Missouri. In 1541, 50 years after the discovery of the new world by Columbus, Hernando De Soto discovered the Mississippi River and claimed the area for Spain. Other explorers to visit the area were Radisson and Groseilliers (around 1654), Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet (1673). In 1682, Sieur de la Salle traveled past St. Louis and claimed it for France. Auguste Chouteau and Pierre Linquest, explorers from New Orleans started a trading post in February They named the post St. Louis in honor of King Louis XV of France and his patron saint, Louis IX. Spain regained control of the area in In 1803, the area became part of the United States territory.
5 2 City of St. Louis Section 1 The town was incorporated on November 9, 1809 and was the capital of the Missouri Territory from 1812 to The town was incorporated as a city in St. Louis County was officially organized on October 1, 1812, as one of the five original counties. In 1876, the City of St. Louis voted to separate itself from St. Louis County; the two are completely separate units of government, each maintaining its own courthouse and records. Consequently, the city government performs both municipal and county functions. The City of St. Louis is the only city in Missouri not within a county. All of the city residents live in an incorporated area. The city is the heart of the region's urban core. The city owns and operates the region's airport, Lambert International, located in St. Louis County on 2,600 acres, approximately fifteen miles northwest of the city limits. The city is home to many of the cultural institutions and attractions in the region including the St. Louis Art Museum, History Museum, Zoo, and St. Louis Science Center located in one of the largest urban parks in the nation, Forest Park, designed by Frederick Law Olmstead. The Saint Louis Symphony, The Missouri Botanical Garden, The City Museum, The President riverboat casino, the St. Louis Cardinals baseball team, the St. Louis Rams football team, the St. Louis Blues hockey team, and the St. Louis Ambush soccer team all make their home within the city limits. The region's largest broadcast and print media outlets are also located in the city. The central business district for the entire region is downtown St. Louis located just west of the Mississippi River and the Gateway Arch. The convention center located downtown, "America's Center", including the 70,000 seat Edward Jones Dome, allows the St. Louis region to host to some of the largest conventions and special events in the nation. Geography, Geology and Climate The City of St. Louis is located on the eastern border of Missouri, centered between the north and south state lines. It is bordered on the east by the Mississippi River, on the north by the Missouri River, on the south by Jefferson County and the Meramec River and on the west by St. Louis County. The elevation of the city ranges between 413 feet and 616 feet above mean sea level. The City of St. Louis is part of the Dissected Till Plains physiographic region. Topography varies from river bottoms/floodplains along the Mississippi River and River Des Peres to rolling upland terrain in the northern and western portions of the city. The region was partially covered by glaciers in the geologic past. The extent of the Illinoisan glaciation (glaciation that moved southwest from Illinois) terminated in approximately a north-south line located at the approximate northern tip of the City of St. Louis. Surficial materials in the City of St. Louis consist of residuum from cherty limestone (clay and gravel), which can measure up to 50 feet thick. Underlying these surficial materials is bedrock composed of the Mississippian aged Meramecian Series including the Warsaw and Salem Formations and St. Louis Limestone. These strata are located in the eastern and southern portions of the city. The northern and western portions of the city are underlain by the Pennsylvanian aged Desmoinesian Series rock including the Cherokee Group and the Marmaton Group. For the most part, the City of St. Louis rests upon sandstone and solution limestone. The limestone formations contain, in areas, sinkholes and caves. See Figure STLC2 below. Development of clay and coalmines in the southern portion of the city resulted in cave-ins. The Dupo anticline is the only major structural
6 A Regional Overview All-Hazard Mitigation Plan 3 feature located in the city limits. This feature runs from the northwest to the southeast in the northern portion of the city and terminates in the north near the Missouri River. The feature terminates on the south end in Illinois. FIGURE STLC2 GENERALIZED GEOLOGIC MAP OF MISSOURI Source: Missouri Department of Natural Resources Soils - The survey area soils consist of urbanized, nearly level to moderately sloping lands. All of the land drains into the Mississippi either through direct runoff or into creeks and small rivers (Des Peres River) that then drain east into the Mississippi River. Refer to Figure STLC3 below. FIGURE STLC3 TOPOGRAPHIC RELIEF MAP OF MISSOURI Source: Missouri Department of Natural Resources
7 4 City of St. Louis Section 1 In the City of St. Louis, soils consist mainly of two soil associations: the Urban Land- Harvester-Fishpot Association and the Menfro-Winfield-Urban land association. These soils consist of urban land that is nearly level to moderately steep, moderately well drained and somewhat poorly drained deep soils formed in silty fill material, loess and alluvium. The soils are located on uplands, terraces and bottomlands. Limestone sinks are in some areas. Slope ranges from zero to 20 percent. This association makes up about 41 percent of the survey area. It is about 64 percent Urban land, 22 percent Harvester, six percent Fishpot soils and eight percent soils of minor extent. Urban lands consist of areas that are occupied by structures and pavements. The Harvester Soils were formed by cutting, filling and reworking deep silty upland soils during urban development. Fishpot soils occupied landscape positions that were formerly bottomlands and terraces. Goss soils make up the minor portion of the soil association. They typically have cherty or stony limestone residuum on or near the surface. The Menfro-Winfield-Urban association consists of gently sloping to very steep, well-drained and moderately well drained, deep soils formed in loess and Urban land. These soils are located on uplands. This association consists of narrow drainage-ways and dissected, loess capped ridges and side slopes on uplands in the western edge of the city limits. Limestone sinks are located in some areas, slopes ranging from two to 45 percent. This association makes up about 29 percent of the survey area. It is about 64 percent Menfro soils, 24 percent Winfield soils, eight percent Urban and four percent soils of minor extent. The urban land is occupied by structures and pavements and is in complexes with Menfro, Winfield or Iva soils and makes up about 35 percent of the complexes. Of minor extent in this association are moderately well drained Iva soils on the broad divides, the well-drained Menfro, karst, and the manmade Harvester soils in the Urban land areas. The Dumps-Orthents complex areas are active landfill sites. About 100 percent of the acreage of this association has been cleared and is used for urban development. Refer to Figure STLC4 below. FIGURE STLC4 SURFICIAL MATERIALS IN MISSOURI Source: Missouri Department of Natural Resources
8 A Regional Overview All-Hazard Mitigation Plan 5 Climate - The climate in City of St. Louis consists of cold winters and long, hot summers. Heavy rains occur mainly in spring and early summer when most air from the Gulf of Mexico interacts with drier continental air. In winter, the average temperature is 33 degrees F; the average daily minimum temperature is 24 degrees F. The lowest temperature on record, at Lambert Airport on January 23, 1963 was -11 degrees F. In summer, the average temperature is 77 degrees F and the average daily maximum temperature is 87 degrees. The highest recorded temperature at Lambert Airport is 115 degrees F. The total annual precipitation is 33.8 inches. Of this 20 inches (60 percent) falls in April through September. The heaviest one-day rainfall during the period of record was 3.95 inches at Lambert Airport on June 14, Thunderstorms occur on about 50 days each year in the summer. The character of air over Missouri on any particular day or series of days is dominated by the source regions from which it comes. Missouri's mid-continental location makes it subject to airflows from a variety of source regions with markedly different properties. The state is close enough to the Gulf of Mexico that warm air with high humidity can flow into the state from a southerly direction at almost any time of the year. This warm, moist air is the principal source of spring, summer and fall precipitation and, occasionally, winter as well. In contrast, air arriving over Missouri from semi-arid to arid regions to the southwest is warm or hot and usually dry. Air that has moved from west to east over the Rocky Mountains arrives warm and dry, having lost most of its low-level moisture as it climbed the west side of the mountains. Such air may arrive over Missouri with surface winds from southwest through west to northwest. Abnormally cold air in the winter and cold summer air with only very small moisture content arrives over Missouri from the northwest or north. The air has acquired its coolness in the polar and arctic source regions of Canada, Alaska, and, at times, Siberia. Occasionally, when a low-pressure center passes eastward or northeastward to the south of Missouri while a high-pressure center is passing eastward to the north, air will enter Missouri from a northeasterly direction and will tend to be cool and moist. Steady light precipitation-rain or snow-may accompany this air. Normally, the flow from one of the principal source regions will last for two or three days before switching to a different direction and source region. These transitions typically are accompanied by a frontal passage during which the change in wind direction, temperature and moisture content, or any combination, is concentrated. These typical and frequent variations give rise to shortterm variability in Missouri weather in which natives, such as Mark Twain, take some pride. In some instances, however, a particular flow pattern may be very persistent or dominant for a period of weeks or even months. These periods can lead to wet, dry, hot or cold spells that place stress on normal agricultural processes or activities. A look aloft where flow patterns are less complex and variable than at the surface provides a better understanding of the atmospheric factors that determine the surface flow patterns present at any one time or persisting for an abnormally long time.
9 6 City of St. Louis Section 1 Form of Government A Mayor and 28-member Board of Aldermen govern the city. The three-member Board of Estimate and Apportionment, which is comprised of the Mayor, President of the Board of Aldermen, and the city Comptroller, must approve all financial decisions. The city is comprised of 28 political wards under a Mayoral government system. Community Partnerships The City of St. Louis collaborates on numerous issues including infrastructure, law enforcement and emergency services. Illinois Department of Transportation, MoDOT, St. Louis County and the City of St. Louis collaborate on transportation issues where it applies to infrastructure systems across the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers and county lines. The city also collaborates with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the U.S. Coast Guard where the issues pertain to the Mississippi River transportation traffic and river flow. Significant Cultural/Social Issues Race relations between Caucasian and African-Americans have been in forefront in business/road construction projects and public safety incidents. A private consulting firm is currently managing the public school system. The downtown area is seeing significant revitalization efforts, to include approximately 48 residential development projects, 18 hotel and entertainment projects, 32 commercial and office projects, 22 education development projects, 11 transportation and infrastructure projects and 14 community and government projects in various stages of progress. Many of these developments are privately financed, reflecting the strength and viability of the city. The initiatives represent over $4.5 billion dollars in ongoing and proposed investments in the city. Public Awareness Most of the communities contacted in EWG planning region have been very responsive to the Hazard Mitigation Plan initiative. The initial meeting was held on June 13, Approximately 100 representatives from the city and communities were invited to learn about the advantages of developing hazard mitigation plans. Public awareness for environmental issues, including green space, air, land and water pollution, is an ongoing effort to improve the living environment for residents. The redevelopment of Brownfields properties by the St. Louis Development Corporation in certain economically and culturally depressed areas is an ongoing effort. Various environmental issues on Brownfields properties may include lead, asbestos, solid waste and contaminated soils. The City of St. Louis is making efforts and strides to develop the downtown areas.
10 A Regional Overview All-Hazard Mitigation Plan 7 The City of St. Louis is aggressively approaching the problem of elevated blood lead levels in young children living in the city, with significant support from federal political officials and assistance from local agencies and the State Department of Health and Senior Services. Most of the children diagnosed as having lead poisoning fell victim because they live in older houses that contain lead-based paint. When this paint gets old, is disturbed during remodeling, and turns into dust or chips, it becomes dangerous. Lead paint is found in most homes that were built before 1960 and in many homes that were built before This dangerous paint may have been used indoors and outdoors. Seventy-six percent of all homes in St. Louis County and 99 percent of all homes in the City of St. Louis were built before All of these homes could contain lead paint. The following standards have been followed by the St. Louis City Health Department to ensure lead free environments. The city, the county and the state have ordinances (laws) to protect children from being poisoned by lead. Homeowners and landlords are required by these ordinances to remove the lead or make the home lead-safe. If someone has high blood lead levels, the health department may send a lead inspector to their home to help find the lead. When necessary, the health department will also test outside surfaces, soil, water and any other possible place where lead may be. Even if the resident has not had a blood lead test, anyone can call the health department and they may be able to send an inspector to a home where children under seven years of age live or stay during the day. Licensed day care centers in Saint Louis County and City must be lead-safe. The kind of inspection required will depend on local laws and codes. To ensure the safety of a child's day care center is lead-safe, ask the center if it has been inspected for lead. Real estate transactions in Saint Louis City require that a buyer be told about the possibility of lead paint in any home built before A private environmental/lead inspector can be hired by a prospective buyer to test for lead in your home. For a current list of State-certified inspectors, check the Lead Poisoning Help-List. The following lead poison data is specific to the City of St. Louis. The City of St. Louis had a lead poisoning rate of 31.1% among those children under the age of six who were tested in This compares to a national lead poisoning rate for preschoolers of close to 10 percent and a Missouri rate of 13.7%. Lead poisoning is the leading preventable disease of U.S. children. Both EPA and HHS have declared lead poisoning the No. 1 environmental disease of U.S. children. Even at low levels, lead poisoning causes loss of IQ and attention span, hyperactivity, aggressive behavior, reading disabilities, and other learning and behavioral problems. Children under age six are most vulnerable to lead poisoning. Childhood lead poisoning disproportionately affects minorities, disadvantaged, and low-income people. Most children are poisoned by lead-based paint and dust hazards in their homes.
11 8 City of St. Louis Section 1 The Health Department estimates about 140,000 housing units in St. Louis contain lead paint. Lead paint becomes a hazard when it begins to deteriorate and children are exposed to flaking and peeling paint. Since lead-based paint is no longer in use, eradication of lead poisoning by cleaning up and controlling the old sources of lead paint is imperative. Missouri is the leading producer of lead in the country. Mayor Slay, in November 2003 was issued a report by Ruth Ann Norton (Executive Director of the Coalition to End Childhood Lead Poisoning) titled Lead Safe St. Louis, A Comprehensive Action Plan for the Eradication of Childhood Lead Poisoning in St. Louis by This report provides recommendations for a plan to eradicate lead poisoning in the City of St. Louis. The three city agencies that currently share responsibilities for lead poisoning prevention include Department of Health (Lead Inspection and Hazard Control Section), Department of Public Safety s Building Division and the Community Development Agency (CDA). The report identified the program goal (reduce childhood lead poisoning by 50% within four years). The report also identified program strategies that include: (1) management plan; (2) prioritization plan; and (3) action plan. The prioritization plan includes the following components: (1) enforce blood lead level testing laws (Statutes and state regulations 19 CSR , 19 CSR , 19 CSR , 19 CSR and 19 CSR ); (2) focus intervention strategies. Finally, the report also included an action plan. Components of the action plan include the following: (1) inspections (including emergency, targeted, and routine); (2) intervention (including enforcement, remediation, relocation); (3) education and outreach; (4) contractor capacity building; and (5) legislative initiatives to provide incentives and upgrade enforcement (including city, state and federal). Other issues being followed include refuse and waste concerns, quality of the drinking water, asbestos and green space by over 39 groups including the RCGA s Environmental Council, Sierra Club, Audubon Society, Choose Environmental Excellence-Gateway Region, Earth Share of Missouri, Earthworms, Missouri Coalition for the Environment, Community Environmental Resource Program, Confluence Greenway, East-West Gateway Council of Governments (EWG), Greenway Network, Forest Releaf, Metropolitan parks and Recreation District, Mississippi River Basin Alliance, Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Environmental Fund, Missouri Forestkeepers Network, Missouri Recycling Association, Missouri Watershed Information Network, Missouri Conservation Department, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Open Space Council, Trailnet, St. Louis Earth Day, St. Louis Lead Prevention Coalition, St. Louis Science Center, Sustainable St. Louis. Air pollution is a major concern in the St. Louis metropolitan area. Numerous initiatives are continuous to improve air quality including: St. Louis Community Air Project, Gateway Clean Air Program, and the St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership. Air pollution is a major concern in the St. Louis metropolitan area. Numerous initiatives are continuous to improve air quality including: St. Louis Community Air Project, Gateway Clean Air Program, and the St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership. There are 16 air
12 A Regional Overview All-Hazard Mitigation Plan 9 quality-monitoring stations within the metropolitan area. There are six air pollutants that are monitored: carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulates, lead, carbon dioxide and ozone. The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized method of reporting air pollution values. Over the past 25 years, the air quality in St. Louis has greatly improved. Through the introduction of controls, ozone levels have significantly decreased. In 2002, the St. Louis Metropolitan area (Missouri-Illinois) reached a significant air quality milestone. Based on air quality monitoring data, the area attained the onehour standard. On May 12, 2003, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) designated the area as in maintenance of the one-hour standard. However, this is only one step in the road to cleaner air in the St. Louis region. The area must soon meet the new eight-hour ozone standard, as well as the fine particulate standard. Clean water is a concern of the St. Louis area. The Missouri-American Water Company supplies the majority of drinking water to customers in St. Louis County. About 80 percent of the surface water comes from the Missouri River on the northern end of the county. About 20 percent of the water comes from the Meramec River on the southern end of the county. The Missouri-American Water Company tests the water consistently to ensure compliance with federal and state drinking water standards. In 2001, the substances detected complied with or were less than the standards. Residents are also aware of resource recovery and recycling efforts; there are 22 recycling centers in the region that recycle anything from aluminum cans, newspaper, used oil, plastic, foam and metal (brass, aluminum, etc.), glass. Reference can be made to for further information. Media Relationships Several newspapers are published in the city, and are distributed throughout the county (St. Louis Post Dispatch, Suburban Journals, Riverfront Times). A variety of radio and television stations are available which include (21 AM and 27 FM stations; six commercial and one PBS station): Radio Television KDHX 88.1 FM KETC-PBS KEZK FM KMOV-CBS KFUO 99 FM KPLR-Independent/WB KHITs 96 FM KTVI-Fox 2 KLOU FM KSDK-NBC KMOX 1120 AM KDNL- ABC KNSX 93.3 FM Cable Channel -3 KPNT FM KSHE 95 FM
13 10 City of St. Louis Section 1 KSLQ FM KTRS 550 AM KWMU 90.7 FM KYKY 98 FM WEW 770 AM WIL 92 FM WRTH 1430 AM WVRV 101 FM Demographic Information The 2000 U.S. Census was used to construct a profile of the average City of St. Louis resident. Statistically, this person is between the age of 35 and 44 and lives in a rented home. The average $63,754 home is maintained with a household income of $27,156. Approximately 71.3 percent of the population has a high school diploma; 19.1 percent of the population has a bachelor s degree or greater. Commuting to work typically takes 20.6 minutes. See Figure STLC5 in the back of the Technical Appendix. Diversity According to the 2000 Census, 152,666 persons are white, 178,266 persons are African- American, 950 individuals have an Indian background, 6,891 are Asian, 6,539 persons are two or more races, and 7,022 persons are Hispanic. Although the City of St. Louis remains predominantly black in the 2000 Census, the diversity of the population has increased somewhat due to the Asian and Hawaiian ethnic influx. The 2000 Census showed the white population decreased by 24 percent. The city s Hispanic population grew significantly between 1990 and 2000, increasing from 5,124 to 7,022, an increase of 37 percent. Refer to Table STLC1 that summarizes the population of the city by race. TABLE STLC1 CITY OF ST. LOUIS POPULATION BY RACE Percent Change Census 2000 Total Population 396, , % Hispanic or Latino 5,124 7,022 37% Total Population-One Race 341,650 White Only 202, ,666-24% Black Only 188, ,266-5% Indian American/Alaska % Asian & Hawaiian 3,733 6,985 87% Asian 6,891 Native Hawaiian 94 Other Race 1,509 2,783 84% Source: 2000 U.S. Census
14 A Regional Overview All-Hazard Mitigation Plan 11 Age According to the 2000 Census, the City of St. Louis has a total of 90,037 persons under the age of 18; 210,310 persons between the age of 18 to 64; and 47,842 persons 65 years of age and older. Per Capita Income and Persons Below the Federal Poverty Level The 2000 Census noted that the per capita income for City of St. Louis was $16,108 and 82,764 citizens, or 23 percent, living below the federal poverty level. Education Levels The 2000 Census noted that 63,715 individuals did not graduate from high school, 61,046 persons had completed high school, 54,852 individuals had completed some college and 25,431persons had graduated from college with a Bachelor s degree. Table STLC2 summarizes the population and education for the city. TABLE STLC2 CITY OF ST. LOUIS EDUCATION ATTAINMENT Group Percent Change Percent Total Less than 9 th grade 42,066 21, th -12 th ; No diploma 53,156 42, Some College 42,616 54, Bachelor degree 24,431 25, Graduate/professional 14,746 16, Source: 2000 U.S. Census See Figure STLC6 below that depicts the distribution of residents with bachelor s degrees. FIGURE STLC6. BACHELOR DEGREE OR HIGHER IN CITY OF ST. LOUIS
15 12 City of St. Louis Section 1 Source: 2000 U.S. Census Table STLC3 below summarizes the employment status of the city. Economy, Employment, and Industry TABLE STLC3 CITY OF ST. LOUIS EMPLOYMENT STATUS Group Percent Change Percent Total Population 16 & over 306, , In labor 181, , Not in labor 124, , Population 16 & over 181, , Civilian 181, , Armed Forces Civilian Labor Force 181, , Employed 161, , Unemployed 19,872 18, Source: 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census Table STLC4 summarizes the commuting patterns for the City of St. Louis. The majority of all workers commute in a vehicle alone to work. Refer to Figurer STLC7 below that depicts the average travel time in City of St. Louis. FIGURE STLC7 AVERAGE TRAVEL TIME IN CITY OF ST. LOUIS Source: 2000 U.S. Census TABLE STLC4 CITY OF ST. LOUIS COMMUTING TO WORK Group Change Percent Total Workers 16 & over 158, , Car, truck, van, alone 105,342 96, Carpool/public 22,389 19, Walk 7,271 5, Other 1,449 1, Work at home 2,714 2, Source: 2000 U.S. Census
16 A Regional Overview All-Hazard Mitigation Plan 13 Table STLC5 summarizes the occupational groups within the City of St. Louis. The majority of workers are categorized in the management, professional, and retail trade industries. TABLE STLC5 ST. LOUIS SELECTED INDUSTRIES Group Percent Change Percent Total Employed civilians 161, , Agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, mining 1, Construction 6,343 5, Manufacturing 24,393 17, Wholesale Trade 6,735 4, Retail Trade 27,733 13, Public Administration 9,557 8, Transportation/warehousing/utilities N/A 8,405 N/A 5.8 Information N/A 4,587 N/A 3.2 Finance, insurance, real estate, rental/leasing N/A 9,470 N/A 6.6 Professional, scientific, management, administrative N/A 13,991 N/A 9.7 Educational, health, social svcs N/A 33,767 N/A 23.5 Arts, entertainment, recreation, food N/A 15,045 N/A 10.5 Other N/A 8,486 N/A 5.9 Source: 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census Labor Force According to the 2000 Census, 123 persons are in the Armed Forces, 162,106 individuals are in the civilian labor force, 143,850 individuals are employed, and 18,256 are unemployed. A total of 105,807 individuals were not included in the labor force. Average Wage Rate The average wage rate at the time of the census was $40,834. Unemployment Rate This unemployment rate at the 2000 Census study period was 11.3 percent. Primary Employers and Industries The primary employers include the manufacturing industry, retail trade industry and the services industry. The agriculture and mining sector employ 419 individuals, 5,652 individuals are employed by the construction industry, 17,220 persons are employed by the manufacturing industry, 8,405 individuals are employed by the transportation, communications and public utilities industries, 4,062 persons are employed by the wholesale trade, 13,903 persons are employed by the retail trade, 9,470 persons are employed by the finance, insurance and real estate industry, 71,289 individuals are employed by the Services industry and 8,843 individuals are employed in the public administration industry. Refer to Table STLC5 above and STLC6 below.
17 14 City of St. Louis Section 1 TABLE STLC6 CITY OF ST. LOUIS TOP 50 EMPLOYERS Company Name/Website Employees in St. Louis Employees Company-wide Business Type BJC HealthCare 314/ The Boeing Company 314/ The May Department Stores Co. 314/ Schnuck Markets Inc. 314/ Wal-Mart Stores Inc. 800/ McDonald's 630/ ,416 25,731 Health Care 15, ,000 Aerospace 14, ,000 Retail Department Stores 12,250 16,500 Retail Grocery 11,400 over 1,000,000 Discount Retailer 10,950 over 2,000,000 Quick-Service Restaurant Washington University 314/ SBC Southwestern Bell 314/ SSM Health Care 314/ American Airlines 817/ City of St. Louis 314/ U.S. Postal Service 314/ Saint Louis University 314/ St. Louis Public Schools 314/ Tenet St. Louis 314/ Anheuser-Busch Cos. Inc. 314/ A.G. Edwards & Sons Inc. 314/ U.S. Bank 314/ CitiMortgage Inc. 314/ ,438 10,438 University 9, ,000 Telecommunication 9,730 21,500 Health Care 9, ,000 Airline 7,956 7,956 Municipal Government 7, ,000 Postal Service 6,897 7,009 Catholic, Jesuit National Research University 6,350 6,350 School District 5, ,000 Health Care 5,500 23,725 Brewery, Entertainment 5,245 18,145 Full-Service Brokerage 4,575 50,000 Commercial and Consumer Banking 4,300 n/a Residential Lending
18 A Regional Overview All-Hazard Mitigation Plan 15 TABLE STLC6 CITY OF ST. LOUIS TOP 50 EMPLOYERS Company Name/Website Employees in St. Louis Employees Company-wide Business Type Ameren Corp. 314/ ,129 7,415 Energy Company Edward Jones 314/ Bank of America 800/ Enterprise Rent-A-Car 314/ Walgreens 847/ Kmart Corp. 248/ Emerson 314/ United Parcel Service 314/ Charter Communications Bi-State Development Agency 314/ Francis Howell School District 636/ Harrah's Casino and Hotel 314/ Tyco Healthcare Mallinckrodt 314/ The Pasta House Co. 314/ ,000 26,400 Financial Services 3, ,824 Banking 3,425 49,831 Auto Rental 3, ,000 Retail Drug Store 3, ,000 Retail Mass Merchant 2, ,500 Technology Products and Services 2, ,000 Package Delivery 2,228 17,671 Cable TV and Internet Access 2,211 2,211 Mass Transportation Provider 2,169 2,169 School District 2,100 40,000 Casino, Hotel, Restaurants 2, ,000 Healthcare Manufacturer 1,800 3,000 Italian Restaurant Chain Access to Employment; Incommuting and Outcommuting The City of St. Louis is unique in that the city is also considered a county as well. Most people living in the City of St. Louis also worked within the city. According to the 2000 Census 80,385 individuals lived and worked within the city. As compared, 54,563 persons who lived in the city worked outside the City of St. Louis, 3,704 city dwellers worked outside of their state of residence, and 2,455 persons worked within their residence. Refer to STLC4 above.
19 16 City of St. Louis Section 1 Codes/Regulations for Building, Stormwater, Fire and Zoning The City of St. Louis operates as a first class city. As established by Article XIII, Section 15 in the St. Louis Charter states that the Department of Public Safety is responsible for enforcement of all codes, ordinances regulating protection of public health, safety and welfare as it relates to existing buildings and new construction floodplain issues, fire safety requirements, seismic construction on new or vastly improved construction. The Building Division, within the Department of Public Safety, administers and enforces the BOCA 1999 code, 14 th Edition, which was adopted in For all construction projects in areas designated as flood areas per FEMA Floodway or FIRM maps, a floodway development permit must be issued even though a building permit may not be required. Mr. Ron Smith, Building Commissioner, administers the building permits for the city. The city has zoning and subdivision ordinances adopted, as well as ordinances pertaining to property maintenance, fire prevention, smoke, and carbon dioxide detectors. The Zoning Ordinance is administered by the office of the Zoning Administrator and includes twelve categories: single family, multifamily, vacant or unclassified, commercial, industrial, institutional, transportation, parks/recreation, and cemeteries. The current ordinance of the City of St. Louis was adopted in 1986 and has not been revised. You can review the twelve (12) different zoning districts on the city s website. Mobile Home Parks are not a permitted use in any zoning district. Communication towers are regulated by height in each zoning district. Junkyard and solid waste storage/disposal uses are a conditional use in the "K" Unrestricted District. The Zoning Administrator did not know if the city has a Community Impact Statement. The zoning ordinance is included a section on flood plain areas. The Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) provides cost effective wastewater and stormwater management. The Board governs MSD through ordinances. An ordinance has the force of law, and requires the approval of at least two city and two county members to go into effect. MSD is organized pursuant to Article VI, Section 30 of the Missouri State Constitution, which empowers the people of the City of St. Louis and St. Louis County "to establish a metropolitan district for functional administration of services common to the area." On November 7, 2000 voters amended the Plan of the Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District. The Plan is MSD's charter. Under the Plan, the District is a citizen participation structure... much like a city or county. Its Board of Trustees' meetings are open to the public and various groups have been formed to submit comments on ballot propositions. The following District powers are exercised through ordinances: Appropriating funds Authorizing contracts for improvements Levying taxes and issuing debt (with voter approval)
20 A Regional Overview All-Hazard Mitigation Plan 17 Establishing user charges Hiring the Executive Director (chief executive officer) and Secretary-Treasurer Buying, selling and condemning property Acquiring other sewer operations Economic Development and Transportation Planning functions are also the responsibility of the development corporation. They can be reached at Existing Community Plans In 1999, through Ordinance 64687, the St. Louis Planning and Urban Design Agency was created. The agency s major functions are to prepare a new city-wide plan that will be a framework for re-investment and revitalization, review environmental impact of federally funded programs, work with organizations devoted to the quality of the City s 79 neighborhoods, urban design for Forest Park and Downtown Plans, focus on historic districts, landmarks and cultural resources of downtown St. Louis, and conduct research, analyses and dissemination about St. Louis demographics. Currently there are approximately 17 planning activities with various groups that deals with residential and commercial improvements and developments for specific neighborhoods in the City including the Fifth Ward Neighborhoods, Forest Park Southeast, Gravois Park Cluster, Near Southside Redevelopment, North Central Plan Coalition, Vashon/JVL Community Initiative, Walnut Park Cluster, Near North Riverfront Redevelopment Initiative, Mark Twain Housing Initiative, N. Newstead Revitalization, College Hill Planning Support, Midtown Partnership Study, and the Garden District. Urban Design planning includes plans for the Riverfront Trail, Corridor Study for Florissant, Riverview and Goodfellow, St. Louis Downtown Development Action Plan, I-64/40 Improvements, Corridor Study for Delmar and Near Southside Redevelopment Design. Land Use Information St. Louis has the largest metropolitan park in the U.S. (1,293 acres) as compared to Central Park in New York, (843 acres) for a total of 106 parks covering 3,136 acres. The City of St. Louis consists of 14 historic districts and 110 historic landmarks. Developers wishing to construct in historic districts are referred to City of St. Louis s Cultural Resources Office. St. Louis Development Corporation is responsible for land use planning. They are currently in the process of updating the entire land use plan for the city. It is not public information at this point, since the Board of Aldermen has not adopted it. According to EWG land use data, the City of St. Louis has 17,723 acres in residential land use, 4,355 acres in commercial land use, 5,503 acres in industrial land use, 3,416 acres in public land use, 3,564 acres in recreational land use, and 161 acres in transportation land use. See Figure STLC8 below that depicts the land use in the City of St. Louis.