What Constitutes a Good Animal Facility?

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1 What Constitutes a Good Animal Facility? Germain Rivard, DVM, PhD 1

2 1 Institutional Policies and Responsibilities - Animals - Users - Public - Environment 2 Animal Environment, Housing, and Management 3 4 Veterinary Medical Care Physical Plant 2

3 22 Basic Room/Area Components Animal Holding Room Procedures Room Surgery Area Loading Docks [Clean/Dirty] Animal Reception Feed/Bedding Storage Waste Storage Waste Disposal Washing Room Sterilization Room Janitorial Closet Necropsy Office/Reception Laundry Toilets Break & Meeting Rooms Mechanical/Electrical/Plumbing Corridors Barriers Radiation Shielded / Imaging Suite 3

4 Admin. Vet Med Care Wash Sterile Animal Holding Procedures Storage 4

5 5 Management Tools Primary Barrier [MicroEnvironment] Caging Personal Protective Equipment [PPE] BioSafety Cabinet [BSC] Local Exhaust Device [LED] Secondary BARRIER Secondary Barrier [MacroEnv.] Building Floor Area Enclosure HVAC Air Ventilation Air Pressurization Air Treatment Standard Operating Procedures [S.O.P.] Primary BARRIER CAGING PPE BSC LED Air VENTILATION Dilution-Removal Single-Pass Air TREATMENT Filtration Temperature Humidity H V Air PRESSURIZATION + - A C $$$$$$ HUSBANDRY S.O.P. Budget 5

6 AUDIT Self / Union IACUC Inspection USDA OPRR FDA CCAC AAALAC Energy Audit OHSA EPA CDC ADA IATA ILAR LEED GVF 6

7 Good Animal Facility Production / Research / Testing / Education Institutional Animal Care & Use Program 4 Performance Goals - Animal & Occupational Welfare Data: Output/Outcomes 3Rs Flexibility Health Well-being / Comfort Safety Green [Energy-efficiency, Sustainability] 7

8 3Rs Replacement Replace animals with non-sentient alternatives Use sacrificed animals Use non-animal models, training videos, online courses Find alternatives to animal use 8

9 3Rs Refinement Reduce the stress on experimental animals Provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) [Room+Cage] Improve caging, bedding, feed, water Provide novel environmental enrichment Use the most updated equipment Bundling of activities 9

10 Reduction 3Rs The greater the variability, the greater the number of animals the experimenter must use to detect a given biological change. Careful planning of experimental design Eliminate variables 10

11 Source of Variables Fig Environmental and management factors affecting animal homeostasis. (After Dr. William J. White) Handbook of Facilities Planning, Vol. 2 Laboratory Animal Facilities, Ed. by Theodorus Ruys, AIA,

12 Good Animal Facility Production / Research / Testing / Education GENETIC Strains Mutants Tg, KO HEALTH Defined Health Status ENVIRONMENTAL Engineering Controls 3 12

13 Environmental Factors as Source of Variables Conditions Feed Water Light Indoor Air Quality [Rm, Cage] Air Makeup Temperature Humidity Air Composition Oxygen Waste Gases Odors Particulates Air Velocity Disturbances Observations Intrusions Health check Watering Feeding Cage Changing Handling Attitudes Manipulation Physical Activity Air Ventilation Efficiency or Mixing Air Change Rate Air Pressurization Stressors Noise Vibration Population Density Physical Activity Social Interaction Bedding Nesting Enrichment 13

14 Air Make-up [Ventilation] Temperature, Humidity, Air composition [O2,CO2,NH3,Odors] Fresh Air at AC/h, Total-Cooling-Load Calculation Method Air Pressurization (+, -) Air Treatment (70-90%, HEPA, or ULPA Filter) Air Mixing Factor or Diffusion Patterns or Ventilation Efficiency Mixing factor ranges from 1 for perfect mixing to 10 for poor mixing. Type, Number, and Location of Air Supply and Exhaust Devices - to minimize temperature differential and dead air spaces - to control CO2, NH3, Allergens, Airborne Contaminants Recirculation or Dilution-Removal Ventilation Single-Pass or Laminar Flow Ventilation 5 14

15 Recommended-ACH = Q [exhaust airflow in cubic feet per minute] X 60 V [volume in cubic feet] Minimal ventilation to accommodate the heat load expected to be generated by the largest number of animals to be housed plus any heat expected to be produced by non-animal sources and heat transfer through room surfaces [Total-Cooling-Load Calculation]. Required-ACH = Recommended-ACH X Mixing Factor Adequate ACH to prevent both stagnation and short-circuiting of air, i.e. passage of air directly from the air supply to the air exhaust. 15

16 How to Determine a Mixing Factor? CFD: Predict without resorting to expensive prototyping Tracer Gas Simulations: Use rate of decay to calculate AC/h CO2 SF6 Neutrally Buoyant Helium Bubble Simulations: Show airflow patterns Reynolds: 7ppm Isosurfaces of ammonia Mechanical Engineer Smoke Release (Calculate Time for 99% Smoke Removal Efficiency) SageAction: Clean Room 16

17 Location Equipment Heat Loads In/Out Air Conduits/Plenums Horiz./Vert. Contaminated-Air Recirculation Supply 12 0 C Exhaust 30 0 C 15 AC/h 144 min. for 99% smoke removal efficiency Poor Mixing Factor [8] 17

18 Location Equipment Heat Loads In/Out Air Conduits/Plenums Horiz./Vert. Contaminated-Air Recirculation Supply 18 0 C Exhaust 22 0 C 15 ACH 7 min. for 99% smoke removal efficiency Good Mixing Factor [2] 18

19 19

20 The longer the exposure; the higher the number of potential variables! IVC (Forced-air, Recirculation-Ventilation by Air Balancing) 60 ACH 20 min. for 99% smoke removal efficiency Poor Mixing Factor +/ m/s EVC (HVAC-assist, Single-Pass Airflow by Exhaust Ventilation) 20 ACH 4 min. for 99% smoke removal efficiency Near-Perfect Mixing Factor m/s 20

21 High-Velocity: m/s [ fpm ], AC/h Small diameter air valve or nozzle = High Frequency Noise Turbulences, Drafts, and Dead-Air Spaces = Poor Air Mixing 20 o C [68 o F] air moving at 0.3m/s[60 fpm] = Evaporative Cooling Effect of 7 o C [12.6 o F] +/- 0.3 m/s +/- 0.5 m/s Low-Velocity: m/s [4-30 fpm ], AC/h m/s Large vent port = No Noise No Drafts = Fair to Near-Perfect Air Mixing Low Velocity = No Cooling Effect m/s +/- 0.1 m/s +/ m/s 21

22 22

23 Low-Frequency High-Frequency Noise Level Noise Human Mice khz Ultrasound: Echolocation, Alarm calls, Pup distress calls, Social/Sexual interactions Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice: Timothy E.H. and Zhongsheng G., Depart. of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. PLOS Biology, Vol 3, Issue 12, Between 32 and 62 khz: Repulsive to Rodents ( PestChaser induces auditory stress) Recommended Maximum Noise Level for Human: BELOW 85 db Rodent: BELOW 50 db Noise exceeding 83 db may reduce fertility of rodents 1. IVC Fan 2. Cage Changing Station 3. Air supplied through Small Valves 4. Room Air Diffuser 55 db 84 db 60 db 75 db 23

24 2. Environmental Factors Vibration Human Mice Noise Vibration Blowers on wall brackets fail to stop vibration in the cages as it is probably due to the high-velocity and small volume of air conduits on the rack. 24

25 Effect of Caging System on a MHV-model of Experimental Infection 2004, JC Gourdon, DVM, LE Guanzini, LATg, JD Baines, DVM, PhD, MM Bailey, DVM, DACLAM, Cornell University. CARE. Ithaca, NY Static [ SMI ] Ventilated (Forced-Air) IVC Ventilated (Exhaust-Air) EVC EVC cages did not exacerbate the symptomatology of MHV compared to SMI and IVC Clinical signs, severity of symptoms, and survival are affected by the caging system Caution should be applied when extrapolating data from different caging systems 25

26 Enrichment Joe Garner, PhD, Purdue U., Lafayette, IN 2003, Can we trust research done with lab mice? Discover 24(7): , Animal models - Can a mouse be standardized? Science, , Animal data jeopardized by life behind bars. Nature, 412 Barbering (stereotypy not related to dominance but overcrowding) = Schizophrenia Burying / Tussling / Biting enrichment devices are aversive and aggressive responses, not play! Defensible enrichment devices (shelters) cause territoriality, aggression, and stereotypy Enrichment structures or nest building material [paper towel] that can be shared avoid agonistic behaviors and variables 26

27 Good Animal Facility Production / Research / Testing / Education Eliminate variables to allowing the production of valid data. Reduce the number of animals needed for statistical significance. Prevent the alteration of biological, behavioral, or health status. 1. Provide similar room conditions in the cage. 2. Prevent evaporative cooling effect/avoiding eddys, drafts, dead air spaces. 3. Avoid noise and vibration in the cage. 4. Eliminate recirculation of heat loads, moisture, waste gases, and particulates at the room and cage levels. 5. Preclude expression of stereotypic behaviors (barbering, cannibalism) using nesting materials, enrichment structures and IAQ. 6. Fail to exacerbate the symptomatology of metabolic changes. 27

28 Flexibility Conventional In/Out Barrier I II III IV Containment ABSL 1 ABSL 2 ABSL 3 ABSL 4 Mouse Rodents Rabbits Dogs Non-Human Primates Multi-Species Farm Animal Others Multi-Point Exhaust Ventilation 28

29 Environmentally-Responsible Sustainable / Green 29

30 Green Vivarium Foundation Energy Conservation, Water and Waste Reduction Recognize Green Initiatives that Encourage Sustainable Use of Space, Materials, Resources [Water,Electricity]. A Resource for Green Design & Planning, Reduce Energy and Water Consumption, Decrease Waste Disposal, Increase Indoor Air Quality. 30

31 Green Practices in Vivaria Evidence-Based Information Concept including Theory and History Data for Metrics Electricity Gas Water Waste - Others Occupational Health and Safety CO2 NH3 Airborne Contaminants - RODAC Animal Care and Use CO2- NH3 Airborne Contaminants Breeding Performances Population Density - Sentinel Cost Analysis with Payback Case Study 31

32 The Green Vivarium Foundation 1 st Annual Awards-2008 Best Individual Initiative Carrie Grace, National Jewish Health Biological Resource Center, Denver, CO Initiated a recycling and energy, water, and waste reduction program Non-secure paper products and water bag [optimize changing periods] Best Facility NIH Mouse Imaging Facility Converted to a recyclable cage system that saves energy and space Best Product or Service Innovive, San Diego, CA [www.disposablecages.com] Innocage and Innorack disposable technology eliminates the need for on-site washing/sterilizing Save energy, water, and space 32

33 The Green Vivarium Foundation 2 nd Annual Awards-2009 Best Individual Initiative Professor Dr. Joerg Schmidt, Helmholtz Center Munich, Germany Initiated a Waste Separation Program for Plastics Best Facility Prevented 69,000 Kg of CO2 production related to transport, shredding, recycling Pfizer, St. Louis Low environmental burden at the landfill during construction Tri-level HVAC mode: Occupied [15 Ach, 12:12], Unoccupied [3 Ach, OFF], Decontamination [0 Ach, OFF] Best Product or Service Beta Star Life Science Equipment, Honey Brook, PA [www.rvii.com] Enviro Vac: Water Conservation Vacuum system Circulate and re-use water in a condenser tank to save up to 80% of water per cycle 33

34 Energy-Efficient NYSERDA Grant 3 Green Strategies to Save 70% Energy Reduce Animal Space to Air Condition Shift from Dilution-Removal to Single-Pass Ventilation Recover Energy from Exhausted Conditioned Air 34

35 Reduce Animal Space to Air Condition 6,000 cages: 3,750 sf [1.6] 1,800 sf [5.7] Reclaim Space [2,700 sf or 72%] $ Architectural &Engineering [76%] Maintenance [65%] 35

36 Shift from Dilution-Removal to Multi-Point Exhaust [Single-Pass] Ventilation 12,000 cfm [19 AC/h] 3,200 cfm [9 AC/h] Local Exhaust Devices [6,004] Exhaust Ventilated Caging System (EVC) Downdraft Workstation Low-Pressure-Drop System 3 Fabric Air Distribution Ducting Diffusers 64 Manifolded Local Exhaust Devices Recover Energy from Exhausted Conditioned Air Heat Pump Heat Recovery 3,200 cfm/6,004 LED [12 kw] = 65% Recovery 36

37 Costs and Benefits of Green Technologies 6,000 Cages Traditional IVC EVC+ LPD, HR First Cost Savings (%) $728,250 $175,650 $552,600 (76%) HVAC & Plug Load [kwh] 356,800 98,800 (72%) Carbon Footprint: CO2 - Savings 271 tons 75 tons 196 tons Annual Energy Cost - Savings (%) Annual Maintenance Cost - Savings (%) Annual Husbandry Costs - Savings (%) $ 88,500 $ 11,652 $76,848 (87%) $22,200 $ 7,800 $14,400 (65%) $660,000 $576,000 $84,000 (12%) perdiem/cage Cost - Savings (%) $ $ $ (26%) $232,140/yr 37

38 Reduce the flow of air, water, and waste to help fight global warming Eliminate plastic use to curb oil dependency PEV Stack-driven Wood Recycled Fiber Molding Convection Lighting Processing Bedding Cage Air Conditioning Plug-in HEAT ELECTRICITY PPE Gas BioWaste W2E Turbine-Generator Gasification 38

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