Finnängen Swedens first renovated plusenergy house. The path to energy-neutrality. Andreas Molin Linköpings Universitet

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1 Finnängen Swedens first renovated plusenergy house The path to energy-neutrality Andreas Molin Linköpings Universitet

2 Agenda Energy efficiency measures at Finnängen Why?

3 Finnängen before renovation

4 Myresjöhus-1976 U-value (W/m 2 K) Wall 0,40 Roof 0,32 Ground 0,6/1,6 Window 3 Infiltration Pa (300m 2 )=2,67 l/s,m 2 Ventilation- Mech. Exhaust air + Firing Heating Hydronic Bio-mass pellet Space heating demand kwh/yr Domestic hot water demand kwh/år Electricity kwh/år Household kwh/år Building electricity kwh/år

5 Finnängen Hydro power Grid Photovoltaic - 10 kw-68m 2 Solar Thermal - 11m 2 Ventilation Horisontal ground coil 200 m HRX Solar tank-800l Heat pump-6kw th Seasonal heat storage- Ground coil-100 m Insulation 25 cm Air-tightness Windows

6 Air-tightness is acheived by membrane 0,3 ACH (0,13 l/s,m 2 ) at 50 Pa Passive house standard: 0,6 ACH (0,3 l/s,m 2 )

7 Thermal comfort - windows Comparison surface-temperature 10 C out Older Newer 16 C 20,5 C Thermal comfort important when doing energy efficiency measures. Otherwise rebound-effect

8 Grey EPS Lambda 31 mw/mk Long service life & form stability

9 Smart heat storage Use super-heating of the heat pump condenser No need of electric resistance heating for hot water Heating with low primary temperature gives high SPF Low primary heating temp. : Increased insulation Better air-tightness Increased convection area Ventilation heater Can be used for increased perfrmance in District heating systems Lowers return temperature = higher electricity/heat ratio Potential SPF 5 Condensation at 30 Hot water becomes C. No legionella problems

10 Modeling Heat Validation Prognosis

11 Modeling Electricity

12 [kwh] Follow-up: Electricty Solar consumption prod Buy Januari Februari Mars April Maj Juni Acc. Electricity Consumption : : : : Air-tightness will be tested after 1 yr.

13

14 Before Annual use U-value (W/m 2 K) 10ton Pellets & Wall 0, kwh el Roof 0,32 => Ground 0,6/1,6 Window kwh el Infiltration Pa (300m 2 )=2,67 l/s,m 2 Ventilation-Mech exhaust+firing Heating- Bio-mass pellets Heating kwh/år Hot water kwh/år Electricity kwh/år Household kwh/år Building kwh/år After U-value(W/m 2 K) Wall 0,10 Roof 0,08/0,10 Ground 0,6/1,6 Window 0,77 Infiltration 60 Pa (454m 2 )=0,13 l/s,m 2 Ventilation- HRX Heating-Solar Thermal/heatpump Heating kwh/år Hot water kwh/år El kwh/år Household kwh/år Building kwh/år Heat pump kwh/år Solar el kwh/år

15 2 sept 2010, Solar power commisioned

16 , Winter view, ~2%of annual power lost due to snow

17 Heat pump commisioned

18 Life-Cycle Zero Energy Buildings (LC-ZEB) Embodied energy Operational energy use + embodied energy = 0 Operational energy use must be negative. Finnängen 7000kons-9000prod=~-2000kWh/yr LC-ZEB will be acheived after certain years (ex kwh/ kwh = 50 år) Focus will be choice of materials & service life Older buildng embodied energy must be handled Competition: Which building will first be LC-ZEB?

19 Agenda Energy efficiency measures at Finnängen Why?

20 Why all the Kyoto-pyramid at once? Air-tightness must be planned Finding more development making use of the old building Renovation plan: make efficiciency measures when maintenance is needed & plan for air-tightness

21 Why LC-ZEB on 150m 2? -Biofuels needs vast amount of land -Affects the nitrogen cycle when combusted -Bio-diversity loss with bio Planetary boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity Rockström et al, 2009 Rockström et al, 2009

22 Why solar power on building => decreased biodiversity loss Solar power= minimum pollution = no effect on nitrogen cycle Building solar power= nonexploiting = no effect on biodiversity Good potential Roof & facades in Sweden: 660 km 2 PV power: TWh, Depending on system efficiency, demanded rate of return. (Kjellson, 2000)

23 Öre/kWh Problem in Sweden: Sold electricity is less valued due to tax Elpris 50 Köpt el Moms Elnätavgift Elcertifikat Annual net-billing => Uses the full roof=> 40 Todays system Decreased exploitation 20 optimises economy for energy=> small systems Decreased bio-diversity 0 loss Energiskatt Såld el Nätnytta Elforsk 10:93

24 However: Higher value of solar power than average power A. Molin, P. Rohdin, B. Moshfegh. +2% +11% Positive power market value for gridconnected roof-top solar power in Sweden. 11th World Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, September Similar to Carbon Savings: Night-time lower price +23% An investigation of the impact of time of generation on carbon savings from PV systems in Great Britain. P. A. Burgess 1,*, M.M. Vahdati 2, D. Davies 3 Daytime higher electricity price

25 TACK Andreas Molin Skype: andreas.molin Mobile: Solar blogs : bengts.blogg.viivilla.se

26

27 Solar Combined PV/T Kombinerad solcell/solfångare Maximal användning av solenergi Ökad elproduktion vid kylning med energibrunn eller markvärmelager Snöavtäckning med frivärme ifrån energibrunnen kwh el /kw t,år Återladdar energibrunn/markvärme Laddar varmvattenberedaren

28 Integrated photovotaics can minimize costs Source: Elforsk 10:94 60% cost is in module and system Installation- & material-cost can be minimised with BIPV

29 Annual net billing gives more investment VAT Investment-VAT more important, than energy tax/kwh Årsnettning ger större anläggningar & mer investeringsmoms till staten Elforsk 10:93

30 How to acheive 5% of Linköpings

31 Återbetalningstid [år] Antagen systemkostnad [kr/kw] [kr/kwh] ex moms Investeringsstöd => ej produktionsoptimerade anläggningar Alternativt förslag Solstöd 2,5 2 1,5 1 0, Bästa Pay-off Sämsta Pay-off Antagen systemkostnad Multipel på elcertifikat Sol kwh*10 (icke exploaterande) Sol kwh*5 (exploaterande) Garanteras i 10 år Sänk multipel med 10% varje år Återbetalning 8-24 år Antaget alternativt elpris= Ränta & inflation De bästa anläggningarna betalar av sig inom 10 år och blir lönsamma.

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