1 Air Conditioning and Refrigeration C H R O N O L O G Y Significant dates pertaining to Air Conditioning and Refrigeration revised May 4, 2006 Assembled by Bernard Nagengast for American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Additions by Gerald Groff, Dr.-Ing. Wolf Eberhard Kraus and International Institute of Refrigeration End of 3 rd. Century B.C. Philon of Byzantium invented an apparatus for measuring temperature Doctor, Blas Villafranca, mentioned process for cooling wine and water by adding potassium nitrate About 1597 Beginning of 17 th Century Galileo s air thermoscope Francis Bacon gave several formulae for refrigeration mixtures 1624 The word thermometer first appears in literature in a book by J. Leurechon, La Recreation Mathematique 1631 Rey proposed a liquid thermometer (water) Mid 17 th Century Alcohol thermometers were known in Florence 1657 The Accademia del Cimento, in Florence, used refrigerant mixtures in scientific research, as did Robert Boyle, in Robert Boyle established the law linking pressure and volume of a gas a a constant temperature; this was verified experimentally by Mariotte in Detailed publication by Robert Boyle with many fundamentals on the production of low temperatures Philippe Lahire obtained ice in a phial by enveloping it in ammonium nitrate
2 1697 G.E. Stahl introduced the notion of phlogiston. This was replaced by Lavoisier, by the calorie Guillaume Amontons improved the air thermometer; foresaw the existence of an absolute zero of temperature 1715 Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit developed mercury thermoneter 1730 Reamur introduced his scale on an alcohol thermometer 1742 Anders Celsius developed Centigrade Temperature Scale, later renamed Celsius Temperature Scale 1748 G. Richmann presented papers on experiments with cold At St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences 1755 William Cullen of Glasgow, Scotland produced cold from fluids evaporated by a vacuum pump Hoell noted the strong cooling rate when expanding air in a cylinder (more exact tests by Wilcke in 1770) 1760 Von Braun, in Petersburg, froze mercury, using a refrigerant mixture 1761 Joseph Black introduced the notion of latent heat 1774 Joseph Priestley isolated ammonia and noticed its great affinity for water 1779 J.H. Lambert (posthumous note) stated that -270 degrees C was the absolute zero 1783 Laplace suggested that heat was due to movement of molecules of matter 1784 Clouet and Monge liquefied a gas (sulfur dioxide) for the first time using low temperatures 1787 J.A.C. Charles showed that all gases, at constant pressure, had the same coefficient of expansion (shown precisely by Gay Lussac, in 1802) 1787 Martinus van Marum liquefied ammonia, by compression
3 1788 Publications by Blagden on experiments for subcooling water and freezing point depression of hydrous solutions 1793 Lowitz obtained -50 C by a mixture of snow and calcium chloride 1799 Fourcroy and Vauquelin liquefied ammonia, at atmospheric pressure (the experiment was repeated by Guyton de Morveau in 1804) 1803 Dalton announced his law of partial pressures 1803 Thomas Moore of Maryland received US patent for refrigerator. First patent issued in US on refrigeration Oliver Evans proposed a closed cycle vapor compression refrigeration system in The Young Steam Engineer s Guide 1805 Frederic Tudor, Boston, founded the natural ice industry Seebeck discovered the thermoelectric effect for generation of electricity 1821 Jacques Berard Experiments on storage of fruits in various gas mixtures 1822 Cagniard de la Tour introduced the notion of critical temperature 1823 (and following years) M. Faraday liquefied a series of gases, including chlorine, SO2, CO2, H2S, NH2, nitrous oxide 1823 John Leslie constructed a vacuum/absorption freezing apparatus in England Sadi Carnot, Reflections on the motive power of fire, and on machines which can develop this power (concept that all thermal power cycle efficiency is limited by the temperature difference between the source and the sink) Nathaniel Wyeth received US patent for a horse drawn ice Cutter Bi-metal type thermostat invented by Andrew Ure
4 1834 Jacob Perkins patents mechanical refrigeration machine Caoutchoucine, a distillate of natural rubber, used as a refrigerant by John Hague in the first working model of a vapor-compression refrigeration machine using Perkins patent Thilorier solidified carbon dioxide 1834 Peltier described the heating effects of electricity (thermoelectricity) and discovered the reduction of temperature by the thermoelectric effect 1835 Thilorier first produces dry ice 1842 Dr. John Gorrie proposes comfort cooling of homes, and entire cities in the South using mechanical refrigeration J.P. Joule Experiments and report on the mechanical equivalent of heat 1844 Dr. John Gorrie proposes an air-cycle refrigerating machine for making ice. (British patent 13234, 1850; US patent 8080, H. Helmholz. Paper on conservation of energy 1848 Dr. David Boswell Reid proposes air-conditioning in British House of Parliament using cool well water and by ice and deodorizing bactericides 1848 Alexander Catlin Twining began experiments with vaporcompression refrigeration and ice making. Caveat filed with US Patent Office in British Patent of US Patent 10,221 of Charles Piazzi Smyth presents results of experiments with air-cycle refrigeration to Royal Society of Edinburgh 1850 Alexander Twining proposes carbon dioxide as a refrigerant in British Patent of 1850.
5 1850 R.J.E. Clausius put forward the modern version of Carnot s Principle and introduced the notion of entropy (the word was not used until 1865) 1852 William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) introduced the thermodynamic scale of temperature and described the concept of a heat pump, for heating a house 1854 James Harrison began experimenting with vapor compression for ice making in Victoria, Australia. Victoria Patent 25/55 in British Patents 747 of 1856 and 2362 of A dozen of his machines were in operation in von Rittinger (Austria) Installation of mechanical vapor recompression heat pump for salt production 1855 First commercial ice making plant using vapor compression refrigeration constructed in Cleveland, Ohio by Alexander Twining First refrigerated railway transport (U.S.) 1860 Ferdinand Carre patented aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration. British Patent 2503 of US Patent of D.I. Mendelev introduced the notion of the critical state as the absolute temperature of vaporization 1861 Meat freezing plant, Sydney, Australia 1860 s Commercial fan type warm air heating and ventilating systems marketed by B.F. Sturtevant Company, Boston 1862 Thomas Andrews established the critical state of CO Closed air-cycle refrigerating system by Alexander Kirk 1864 Scientific American publishes article proposing comfort cooling system for hospitals Daniel Somes publishes pamphlet promoting his system for cooling hotels, theaters, halls and churches.
6 1867 Daniel Livingston Holden began constructing ice making Plants using chymogene (petroleum ether) refrigerant Carbon dioxide refrigerating system patented by Thaddeus Lowe (British Patent 952) 1867 J.B. Sutherland, Detroit Refrigerated wagon (ice) patented 1868 Methyl ether used as a refrigerant by Charles Tellier 1868 Frederick Edwards: Ventilation of Dwelling Houses 1868 Ammonia vapor-compression ice making plant constructed by John Beath in San Francisco 1869 Double acting ammonia compressor constructed in New Orleans by Francis DeCoppet 1870 Peter Van der Weyde patented thermostatically controlled refrigeration system (US Patent ) 1870 Carl Linde publishes paper using a rigorous thermodynamic approach to refrigeration: The Extraction of Heat at Low Temperature by Mechanical Means Ammonia vapor-compression ice making system perfected by David Boyle 1875 Cold storage plant using mechanical refrigeration by Thomas Mort of Australia 1875 Sulfur Dioxide refrigerant successfully used as a refrigerant by Raoul Pictet in Switzerland. British Patent First intercontinental refrigerated transport by ship (U.K.) 1876 Covered ice skating rink, Chelsea, England Louis Cailletet liquefied oxygen by expansion (as a fog). A similar result was obtained shortly afterwards for nitrogen, air, methane, carbon dioxide
7 1877 Raoul Pictet liquefied oxygen by cascade cooling, obtaining a transitory jet 1877 Enclosed crankcase compressor using piston wrist-pins patented by Alexander Ballentine (US Patent ) 1877 Leicester Allen built a high pressure (15 bar) closed cycle air refrigerating machine F. Windhausen built the first industrial water vapor refrigerating machines (from studies made in 1870) 1878 Methyl Chloride successfully used as a refrigerant by Camille Vincent of France. (British Patent 470 of 1879) 1878 First refrigerated morgue (Paris Carre s absorption machine) 1879 Charles Tellier used refrigerated ship Le Frigorifique to send meat from France to South America 1880 Use of cork as insulating material for cold stores patented by GRÜNZWEIG 1882 Electric Fan marketed by Schuyler Skaats Wheeler 1881 Kamerlingh Onnes founded the Leyden cryological laboratory 1883 Ethyl Chloride vapor-refrigerating system patented by Cassius Palmer (US Patent ) 1883 K. Olszewski and S. Wrobleski liquefied oxygen in a permanent form and later obtained the same result for nitrogen and carbon dioxide 1884 Lodge - first large electric filter or precipitator for air cleaning ca First ideas on the use of refrigeration for air-cooling and dehumidification of private buildings specially in hot countries. (Smith, Pettenkofer, Linde, Brückner) Compound ammonia compressor W.G. Lock s Australian patent
8 1886 T.B. Lightfoot, of London, produced a list of various refrigerant mixtures 1886 F. Windhausen constructed an operational CO2 refrigerating comnpressor 1887 J. & E. Hall industrial manufacture of CO2 compressors 1889 J. & E. Hall First two-stage CO2 compressor 1889 Sulzer: First industrially manufactured two-stage ammonia refrigerating compressor. Another type (Stuart St. Clair) was made by York in Downward distribution system for conditioned air used by Alfred Wolff at Carnegie Hall. Subsequently used by Wolff in all his air conditioning systems The trade journal Ice and Refrigeration began publishing 1891 Massachusetts Ventilation Law ca Broadway Theater, New York, comfort cooled using ice 1892 First air conditioned house in U.S. San Lorenzo, CA by M. Dillenberg of San Francisco 1893 Committee to define standard ton of refrigeration established by American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1894 Hans Lorenz introduced the polytropic cycle 1894 Hermann Reitschel publishes a "Guide for the Calculation and Design for Ventilating and Heating Installations" Included a chapter that applied scientific principles to comfort cooling of rooms American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers founded by Hugh Barron, Louis Hart and William Mackay Hermetically sealed refrigeration system patented by Marcel Audiffren in France (French Patent ). Manufactured after 1903 in France by Henri Singrun.
9 1895 Chicago Telephone Co. installed air washer to cool, filter and humidify the air at its exchange building "Bypass method" of air conditioning first proposed by S. Woodbridge for cooling Senate Wing of U.S. Capitol 1895 Hampson, Linde First Joule-Thomson air liquefiers Revillon Bros. fur merchants, New York, air conditioned with system designed by Alfred Wolff using Carbondale equipment 1899 Use of liquid air in dermatology (A.C. White, in New York). In 1908 M.C. Query, in Paris, used it to treat eczema. Practical use in dermatology only after Linde Air liquefier with ammonia precooling ca 1900 Dental anesthesia by vaporization of refrigerants 1900 Passenger compartment air conditioning installed on 6 Mississippi river steamships Warren Johnson invents the "humidostat" 1901 Auditorium of Scranton High School comfort cooled using ice ton co-generation comfort air conditioning system installed at New York Exchange. System designed by Alfred Wolff. Used absorption refrigeration machinery designed by Henry Torrance, Carbondale Machine Co Claude First expansion engine air liquefier Linde Single-stage rectification column Armour Building, Kansas City MO, installed dual-duct air conditioning system; each room individually controlled with a thermostat 1902 Research lab for fans and air heating and cooling established by Buffalo Forge Co., Buffalo NY
10 1902 Air conditioning system for precise humidity control designed by Willis Carrier for a Brooklyn, NY printing plant Multiple-effect compression system developed by Gardner T. Voorhees. US Patent of Formation of the Ice Machine Builders Association of the United States (forerunner to ARI-1953) 1903 Use of solid carbon dioxide in dermatology (M. Julinsberg, Germany) 1904 Public debut of air conditioning: Missouri State Building, St. Louis World's Fair 1904 Self-contained mechanical refrigerator displayed at St. Louis World s Fair by Brunswick Refrigerating Co First air conditioned bank: Hanover National Bank, New York, by Alfred Wolff 1904 American Society of Refrigerating Engineers founded 1904 Introduction of enthalpy and plotting of calculation of compression refrigerating machines by R. Mollier. Thermodynamic properties of carbon dioxide and ammonia are published 1905 Modern type Automatic Expansion Valve patented by Albert Marshall (US Patent ) 1906 Willis Carrier patents "Apparatus for Treating Air" Psychrometric Chart developed by Willis Carrier first published in Buffalo Forge Catalog The term "air conditioning" coined by Stuart Cramer 1906 Clock (night setback) Thermostat by Jewell Thermostat Co. and Electric Thermostat Co Frank Lloyd Wright s Larkin Administration Building, Chicago. First office building specifically designed to
11 accommodate the paraphernalia of air conditioning. Used Kroeschell Carbon Dioxide system Brooklyn Bridge subway station air conditioned Walter Fleisher designs first air conditioning system for a tobacco factory 1906 Freeze-drying. Discovery of the process by A. d Arsonval and F. Bordas (France). The method was discovered independently by Shackwell (U.S.A.) in Claude Improved air separation with reflux column Heylandt High pressure expander for air and oxygen liquefaction First hospital to be air conditioned: Boston Floating Hospital 1906 Walter Nernst Theory of the behavior of matter in the neighborhood of absolute zero ( Third law of Thermodynamics). In 1912 he produced a new formula: absolute zero is in principle unattainable Air conditioning installed in dining and meeting rooms at Congress Hotel, Chicago, equipment designed by Frederick Wittenmeier Willis Carrier patents dew point control system for precisely controlling humidity in a room Elements of year round air conditioning defined by G. B. Wilson (heating, cooling, humidifying, dehumidifying, filtering) 1908 First International Congress of Refrigeration, Paris 1908 Maurice Leblanc Steam jet refrigerating machine (made by Westinghouse in 1909, in Paris) 1909 German Society of Refrigerating Engineers (DKV) founded 1909 Open air ice skating rink using brine, Vienna, Austria
12 1909 A sliding vane compressor (ethyl chloride) was in use on an American ship, the Carnegie 1911 Constant superheat (thermostatic) expansion incorporated in a multiple evaporator refrigeration system patented by Albert Marshall (US Patent ) 1913 First International Refrigeration Exposition held in Chicago 1913 M. T. Zarotschenzeff began experiments in quick freezing 1913 E. Altenkirch- Comprehensive thermodynamic study of binary mixtures for absorption refrigerating machines 1914 Air cooled electric self-contained household refrigerating unit, the DOMELRE, marketed by Fred Wolf Jr Water cooled self contained household refrigerating unit marketed by Edward Williams 1914 Kelvinator founded household refrigeration unit marketed Average employee has to work 3162 hours to pay for a refrigerator St. Louis Coliseum uses 12 tons of ice to cool air that was blown " through conduits into the hall, above the heads of the gathered throng" at the Democratic National Convention Clarence Birdseye began experiments in quick-freezing First insulated containers (France, U.K., Italy) 1919 ASHVE Research Bureau founded 1920 Hermetic motor-compressor patented by Douglas Stokes of Australia (US Patent ) 1920 W.S.E. Rolaff Rolling piston rotary compressor, first manufactured by Norge in Detroit as Rollator using sulfur dioxide refrigerant.
13 1921 Sulzer Frigorotor sliding-vane compressor, for methyl chloride ASHVE Guide first published 1922 V-belt drive first applied to refrigeration systems 1922 Willis Carrier built prototype centrifugal compressor equipped chiller using carbon tetrachloride. Changed refrigerant to dichloroethylene in Electrically refrigerated ice cream cabinet marketed by Nizer 1924 Rich s Department Store, Atlanta, completely air conditioned 1925 Adsorption refrigerating machine using silica gel/so The Aerologist, the first air conditioning trade journal, published by E. Vernon Hill Gas fired absorption household refrigerator marketed by A.B Elektrolux in Sweden. Mfg. Under license in US by Servel after Giauque, Debye - Adiabatic demagnetization cooling 1926 R. Follain Multi-stage steam jet refrigerating machine (made in 1928 by S.C.A. M. in Paris) 1926 Carrier "Weathermaker" A high efficiency residential gas furnace incorporating a blower and filter invented by Carlyle Ashley. Marketed beginning in Capillary tube refrigerant control invented by Thomas Carpenter (US Patent ) 1927 Crosley Icy Ball portable aqua-ammonia absorption Refrigeration unit for rural areas 1927 Modern type thermostatic expansion valve patented by Harry Thompson (US Patent ) 1928 Clorofluorocarbon refrigerants synthesized by General Motors Research Lab team of Thomas Midgley, Albert Henne and Robert McNary for Frigidaire. Announced
14 publicly in Electrically refrigerated vending machine by Vendometer Corporation of New York 1928 Keesom Discovery of superfluidity Railroad passenger terminal, Cleveland OH, air conditioned 1930 Kelvinator refrigeration unit used to comfort cool a customized Cadillac automobile Home in Tucson, AZ installed a heat pump air conditioner 1930 Railroad passenger terminal, Cleveland OH, air conditioned 1930 I. Amundsen Domestic adsorption refrigerator (activated carbon: methyl alcohol) st International Heating and Ventilating Exposition held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ca 1930 Sulzer conceived the dry piston compressor ca First market survey of air conditioning sent to 2000 high grade men and 500 high grade women. By Time Magazine 1931 Georges Ranque discovered the production of cold by the vortex effect. French patent, 1933) 1931 Rockefeller Center designed with air conditioning Frigidaire markets "Hot-Kold" year round central system air conditioning system for homes Southern California Edison C. installed a heat pump air conditioning system in its Los Angeles office building 1932 Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad begins running first overnight train with air conditioning, the between New York and Washington.
15 1932 Self-contained console type heat pump air conditioner designed by an engineering team led by Henry Galson. Marketed by DeLaVergne div. Baldwin-Southwark Corp G. Maiuri Multi-stage ammonia absorption machine 1933 Year round air conditioning of homes demonstrated by Frigidaire at "Century of Progress" Chicago World's Fair Six air conditioned homes displayed at "Century of Progress" Chicago World's Fair Lysholm conceived the screw compressor (with two rotors) air conditioning installations reported in Chicago. Includes 171 offices, 143 restaurants, 136 theaters, 90 stores, and 69 restaurants tract homes constructed in Washington DC that featured year round General Electric air conditioning Freeze-drying. Paper by E.W. Flosdorff and S. Mudd (U.S.) described freeze-drying equipment developed by them in previous years Air-Conditioning Manufacturers Association was formed in the U.S. ca 1935 Small electromagnetic refrigerating compressor developed by W. Konig United Air Lines uses air conditioning in its "three mile a minute" passenger planes Crosley Radio Corp. markets air-conditioned bed Albert Henne, co-inventor of the Chlorofluorocarbon Refrigerants, synthesizes refrigerant R-134a. This refrigerant was hailed in the 1980 s as the best non-ozone depleting replacement for the most commonly used Chlorofluorocarbon.
16 1937 High pressure air conditioning system "Conduit Weathermaster" first installed. Designed by Carlyle Ashley and Willis Carrier A.A. Berestneff Kathabar open absorption refrigerating system (water: lithium chloride) 1937 Kapitza, Allen Theory of superfluid helium 1938 U.S. Capitol, Senate Office Building, Old and New House Office Buildings completely air-conditioned by York Ice Machinery Co. At that time, the largest air conditioning system in the world Packard markets first successful year-round auto air conditioning system Freeze-drying of penicillin. First experiments in Great Britain. Industrial preparation in Freeze-drying of blood plasma. Semi-industrial preparation in the U.S. ca 1940 ca 1940 Absorption refrigerating machine using lithium bromide: water. Studies by Servel and Carrier. Non-lubricated piston compressor, with Teflon rings impregnated with graphite 1942 Heat pipe invented by R.S. Gaugler,( U.S. patent 1944) 1944 Air cycle refrigerating machine used to cool an airplane (Lockheed) Introduction of insulating foams ,000 Window Air Conditioners sold in the U.S Peltier Thermoelectric domestic refrigerator. A.F. Ioffe s first thermocooling modules were made in Introduction of deep hypothermia in experimental surgery: J. Giaja and R.K. Andjus (Yugoslavia) and W.G. Bigelow (Canada). First tried in 1939 in the U.S.A. by C.A. Kossman.
17 ca 1950 ca 1950 Prototype absorption refrigerating machines heated by solar energy, notably by G. Lof. Beginning of commercial development of heat pumps (U.S.) made in 1954, 76,000 in 1963, 300,000 in Less than 1 % of U.S. homes have a room air conditioner. 360,000 window air conditioners sold that year. ca 1952 J. Donald Kroeker Heat pump installations on office buildings and shopping centers using ground water as the heat source Two associations, the Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers Association (REMA) and the Air- Conditioning and Refrigerating Machinery Association (ACRMA), unite to become the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) ca 1955 Penrod studies of earth heat pumps st development of scroll compressor ca 1958 Screw compressors used industrially, for refrigeration First ARI performance rating standard for heat pumps is published ARI initiates first product rating performance certification program for unitary air conditioners. ARI certification seal is introduced In December, members of ASRE and ASHAE vote to merge into the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Establishment of CECOMAF: European committee of manufacturers of refrigeration equipment 1966 First air conditioned school with no windows (New York) 1967 B. Zimmern Single screw air compressor
18 R-22 becomes standard refrigerant for unitary air conditioners and heat pumps % of new cars equipped with air conditioning 1972 ARI and ASHRAE combine forces for the first co sponsored International Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Exposition 1975 Fixed orifice expansion devices introduced for unitary air conditioners 1975 ASHRAE Standard 90-75, Energy Conservation in New Building Design has a major impact on U.S. building codes ARI s Unitary Equipment Directory features energy efficiency ratios (EER) for the first time Indoor Air Quality becomes a big issue following the outbreak of Legionnaire s disease in a Philadelphia hotel The U.S. Department of Energy calls on ASHRAE to help implement the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program Scroll compressors developed for unitary air conditioner application 1986 Air conditioning joins list of inventions immortalized in the national Inventors Hall of Fame in the U.S Parties to Montreal Protocol agree in London to amendments that eliminate CFC use and production by the year s Development of pulse-tube cryocoolers 1992 Montreal Protocol revised to advance CFC phaseout to end of 1995, with HCFCs to be phased out in steps by Automobile air conditioners transition to R-134a refrigerant 1994 Eurovent established the first industry certification program for air-conditioning equipment in Europe.
19 1995 R-410a introduced as refrigerant for unitary air conditioners 1999 A major history exhibit on air-conditioning, Stay Cool! Air-Conditioning America opened at the National Building Museum in Washington, DC The Global Refrigerants Environmental Evaluation Network (GREEN) program was inaugurated as a global testing program to evaluate the performance of hydrocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants in HVAC&R equipment.
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1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )
The System Evaluation Manual and Chiller Evaluation Manual have been revised and combined into this new book; the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration System Evaluation Guide. It will be available soon as
Ground-breaking conversion of critical Data Room WaterChiller from R22 to R422D / MO29 A refrigerant retrofit project, involving the conversion of a large Data Room cooling system from R22 to R422D (DuPont
Refrigeration and Airconditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 22 Refrigeration System Components: Compressor (Continued)
GENERAL INFMATION F REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE OF CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT ( Direct & Chiller ). Name of sector Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Name of Module REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE OF CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Prof M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 38 Air Conditioning Systems Welcome back in the last lecture
REVIEW Key Concepts Unit 3 Heat and Temperature 1.0 Technologies for Obtaining and Controlling Heat Heat technologies have evolved over time Culture and technology are linked Evolution has integrated heat-related
Ambient Energy Fraction of a Heat Pump u Aye, R. J. Fuller and.. S. Charters International Technologies Centre (IDTC) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering The University of Melbourne Vic 3010
Refrigerants and their Application Presented by Thomas E. Watson, P.E. Fellow ASHRAE McQuay International Staunton, Virginia USA 1 What is a Refrigerant? In a refrigerating system, the medium of heat transfer
Gas Laws Some chemical reactions take place in the gas phase and others produce products that are gases. We need a way to measure the quantity of compounds in a given volume of gas and relate that to moles.
Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume.
Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity
1 How air conditioning works The essential ingredients in an air conditioning system are a fan to blow air around, a cold surface to cool and dehumidify the air, a warm surface and a source of water vapour.
Automobile Air Conditioning Primer An air conditioner is basically a refrigerator without the insulated box. It uses the evaporation of a refrigerant, like Freon, to provide cooling. The mechanics of the
Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2000 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning with Reduced Environmental Impact D.
SERVICE GUIDELINES HCFC R22 TO HFC REFRIGERANT BLENDS 2009 Tecumseh Products Company. All rights reserved. Page 1 of 8 Refrigerant R22 is widely used for residential and commercial air conditioning, as
air conditioners how to choose a cooling system taking responsibility As an individual, your efficient use of energy brings benefits such as lower bills, improved comfort levels in your home and a reduced
ASHRAE Boston Chapter Meeting Designing AC Refrigeration Systems Lessons Learned February 11, 2014 Explanation of the refrigeration cycle. Compressors. Benefits and operating characteristics. -Reciprocating
HVAC Systems: Overview Michael J. Brandemuehl, Ph.D, P.E. University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA Overview System Description Secondary HVAC Systems Air distribution Room diffusers and air terminals Duct
2. AIRCONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION 1. INTRODUCTION Air Conditioning and Refrigeration is an important area where in lot of self-employment opportunities are available. Now a day there is hardly a house
1 Natural gas exists in nature under pressure in rock reservoirs in the Earth s crust, either in conjunction with and dissolved in heavier hydrocarbons and water or by itself. It is produced from the reservoir
Dehumidification Basics Why do you want to keep indoor Rh between 30-60%? ASHRAE recommends keeping the relative humidity in a home between 30-60% to limit the effects of many unwanted conditions and harmful
COMMERCIAL HVAC CHILLER EQUIPMENT Air-Cooled Chillers Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory, system design, equipment selection and application topics. They
Liquefaction of Gases Hydrogen as an example See Flynn Ch. 3 and 6 Properties of Cooper Pairs Which of the following is true for Cooper pairs? A. All Cooper pairs have total spin S = 0 B. All Cooper pairs
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