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1 CD INSTRUCTIONS This CD is created in Adobe Acrobat pdf files. It has been created to allow you to navigate the CD by means of key links. For example, the Contents page (click here to view), has links to all the individual Chapters; just click on the Chapter you wish to view and you will be directed there. There are further links throughout the document, and this is shown by the hand symbol reverting to a pointing finger. By clicking where this occurs you will be directed to the relevant section. There are also links to the other pdfs on the CD; go to Appendix 2 CD-ROM Contents and click on the name of the file you wish to be directed to.

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3 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING improving safety through engineering and integration April 2005

4 Published by the Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers Designed and produced by WDH Publishing Services Ltd, Essex Printed in England by HQ Media Services Ltd, Essex Published April 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this publication shall be reproduced, copies stored in an electronic retrieval system or transmitted without the written permission of the publishers The Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers ISBN: Price: 45.00

5 Disclaimer: The Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers and the members of the Steering Group which produced these Guidelines have endeavoured to ensure the accuracy of its contents. However, the guidance and recommendations given should always be reviewed by those using the guidance in the light of the facts of their particular case and specialist advice should be obtained as necessary. No liability for negligence or otherwise in relation to these Guidelines and its contents can be accepted by the Institute, the members of the Steering Group, its servants or agents.

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7 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING improving safety through engineering and integration April 2005 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING 1

8 PREFACE FROM THE MINISTER Motorcycling has an important role to play within the transport system and trends show that it is becoming increasingly popular. The growth of motorcycling demonstrates that Central Government needs to have policies in place for this mode of transport and we began to address that shortly after coming into office. The White Paper on the future of transport, A New Deal for Transport: Better for Everyone, recognised some of the benefits offered by motorcycling. However, it also recognised that the role of motorcycling within transport policy raises some complex issues. We have to acknowledge that motorcyclists are our most vulnerable road users. Unfortunately, with the increase in motorcycle use has come a significant rise in motorcycle casualties. The Government s Motorcycling Strategy was recently published. This builds on the work of the Advisory Group for Motorcycling (AGM), which the Government convened in 1999 and whose final report was published in The strategy aims to address a wide range of issues which will ensure that motorcycling is facilitated as a mode choice within a safe and sustainable framework. I therefore welcome the IHIE Guidelines designed to fill the gap, identified by the AGM Integration and Traffic Management Task Force, for advice on how to provide for safer motorcycling on the road network Engineers and planners need to be aware of motorcycling issues and to take them into account in transportation projects. If guidance is not available, and motorcycles are overlooked, the safety of the rider may be compromised, possibly with serious consequences. The Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers celebrates its 40th anniversary this year. I very much welcome its work in providing guidance and training for practitioners in all aspects of highway and transportation design and management and these Guidelines in particular. David Jamieson MP Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State Department for Transport 2 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING

9 FOREWORD FROM THE PRESIDENT Motorcycle traffic has grown by around 50% over the last ten years and, with around 1.5m machines in use, it is clear that motorcycles, scooters and mopeds are very much part of the UK transport system However, few engineers recognise that motorcycles behave and use the road very differently to four-wheeled vehicles and that riders face hazards not apparent to car drivers. Drawing on the combined expertise of engineers, road safety officers and motorcyclists IHIE has published these Guidelines, the first in the UK. Their purpose is to demonstrate the role motorcycling can play in an integrated transport system and to assist highway and traffic engineers in delivering a safer and more motorcycle-friendly road environment. We are extremely grateful to the editorial team led by Vice President, Anthony Sharp, for their dedication and to all who contributed during the consultation process for their assistance The Government s Motorcycling Strategy is very much to be welcomed and IHIE s Guidelines address and extend several aspects of that strategy. Correctly incorporated into Local Transport Plans motorcycling can help in addressing the Government s four key targets: reducing congestion, improving road safety, enhancing air quality and tackling social inclusion (accessibility). Obviously the Guidelines do not claim to solve all problems but we hope that by highlighting both the hazards and good practice that engineers, planners and road safety officers will be better equipped to improve the road and reduce casualties. The Guidelines highlight areas for further research or investigation. We would therefore very much welcome feedback on new developments and on the application of these Guidelines as we are committed to future revisions. Go to On behalf of the IHIE I commend the Guidelines for Motorcycling to all with a professional interest in the integration of motorcycling into national and local transport policies. I am confident that policy makers and engineers alike will develop innovative and radical solutions to incorporating motorcycles into a 21st century transport system. Gerry Harvey IEng FIHIE President IHIE IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING 3

10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers would like to thank the following people without whom this document would not have been possible: Managing Editor Steering Group Editorial Consultants Scoping Study Organisations and individuals consulted who responded with comments: Document Designer Financial Support provided by Motorcyclists Mike Mounfield Anthony Sharp, IHIE (Chairman) David Brown, Highways Agency Nich Brown, Motor Cycle Industry Association Craig Carey-Clinch, Motor Cycle Industry Association Marilyn Cranfield, Transport for London Richard Olliffe, British Motorcyclists Federation Suku Phull, Department for Transport Steve Proctor, TMS Consultancy Alan Tilly, Transport Research Laboratory Judith Walker, IHIE Rosemary Welch, County Surveyors Society Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick & Co Ltd (Mike Mounfield, John Moss, John Cole, Kevin Smith, Julia Stubbs, Naomi Dunn) Transport Research Laboratory British Parking Association Cyclists Touring Club Department for Regional Development, Northern Ireland Department for Transport Disabled Persons Transport Advisory Committee (DPTAC) FORSTA Highways Agency Institute of Lighting Engineers Institution of Civil Engineers LARSOA Motorcycle Action Group Motor Cycle Industry Association Professor Marcus Wigan Quarry Products Association Roadsafe ROSPA RTPI Scottish Executive plus all the delegates at the Consultation Workshops on 4 October 2004 Wendy Hooper, WDH Publishing Services Ltd The BMF Foundation County Surveyors Society Department for Transport Highways Agency Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers MCIA Transport for London David Bowers John Frayn 4 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING

11 CONTENTS PAGE NUMBER PREFACE by David Jamieson MP 2 Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Department for Transport FOREWORD by Gerry Harvey IEng FIHIE 3 President of the Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineers CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Scope of the Guidelines Naming Conventions Types of Motorcycle Increasing Motorcycle Use Motorcycle Safety Tacking action The Government s Motorcycling Strategy 14 CHAPTER 2 POLICY Key Points Context Integrating Motorcycling into Transport Policies and Strategies Consulting with Riders Travel Plans and Motorcycles Motorcycle Security Policy is Vital 19 CHAPTER 3 TRAVEL PLANS Key Points Context Potential Benefits of an Increase in Motorcycle Use Incentive Schemes Issues to Consider Provision 25 CHAPTER 4 ROAD DESIGN AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING Key Points Context Road Design Traffic Engineering 32 CHAPTER 5 MOTORCYCLE PARKING Key Points Context Assessing Demand Motorcycle Rider Parking Behaviour and Requirements Identifying Motorcycle Parking Resources Practical Design Issues Parking Standards and Dimensions 45 Checklist for Motorcycle Parking Design 47 Useful Weblinks 48 Survey Form 49 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING 5

12 CHAPTER 6 ROAD MAINTENANCE Key Points Context Road Maintenance Winter Maintenance Road Works 56 CHAPTER 7 ROAD SAFETY CAMPAIGNS Key Points Context Education The Role of Training Co-operative Working Determining the Target Audience and the Message Campaign Examples Resources Complementing Other Road Safety Campaigns Evaluation 65 CHAPTER 8 MOTORCYCLES AND TRAFFIC CALMING Key Points Context Design Materials Maintenance 71 CHAPTER 9 MOTORCYCLING AND ROAD SAFETY AUDIT Key Points Context Accident Characteristics Dynamics Dynamic Implications Urban Schemes Rural Schemes 78 APPENDIX 1 REFERENCES 79 APPENDIX 2 CD-ROM CONTENTS 83 6 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING

13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Scope of these Guidelines Motorcycles have been a feature of our roads for well over a hundred years. During that time they have served as a basic mode of transport, an economical alternative to the car, a workhorse and even a lifestyle icon. Their popularity has risen and fallen in concert with a number of diverse social and economic factors. Recent years have seen an upturn in the popularity of motorcycling, bringing the advantages and disadvantages of the mode into sharp relief, the most obvious of the latter being safety. Although motorcycles were able to exceed their year 2000 road safety targets, progress since then has been poor. Against the 2010 casualty reduction targets, motorcycle casualty numbers buck a trend of generally improving road safety. Motorcycle rider deaths rose by 14% in 2003 alone. Currently, motorcycles are the only mode of transport that is showing an increase rather than a decrease in casualty numbers. However, it is important to remember that those services provided by the motorcycle for over a century are still valid and that being a vulnerable mode is not the same as being an undesirable one. Motorcycles and policy All modes of transport have strengths and weaknesses; good practice demands the framing and implementation of policies to maximise the strengths and minimise the weaknesses. Motorcycles have long provided a cost-effective and relatively low-polluting form of transport for commuting, work or leisure purposes. Despite riders being susceptible to serious injury even in low-speed collisions, the specific safety needs of motorcycles with their reliance on an adequate and consistent friction between their tyres and the road surface are frequently overlooked by policy makers, planners, road designers and maintenance engineers. Motorcycles and Travel Plans A Travel Plan is an access strategy used to manage multimodal access to the workplace. Travel Plans focus on encouraging modal shift from single-occupancy private cars by improving options for travel to the workplace and encourage wider use of sustainable transport. This is often achieved by introducing a combination of incentives and disincentives to persuade and support people using alternative commuter modes. Motorcycles are an affordable alternative mode of transport where public transport provision is lacking or non-existent and where distance dictates that walking and cycling are unrealistic. For these reasons they will be a common feature of many Travel Plans. Motorcycles and traffic engineering The requirements for safe use by motorcycles demand special consideration by the traffic engineer. Some features, benign to other road users, can present a hazard to motorcycles. The issue of motorcycle access to bus lanes and advanced stop lines at traffic signals is contentious but a number of existing schemes and trials would suggest that motorcyclists can use such facilities without IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING 7

14 disadvantaging other vulnerable road users. More trials are needed, especially in the shared use of Advanced Stop Lines. Motorcycles and parking Parking provision is an important tool in local transport policies as well as traffic management and crime reduction. It is also a fundamental requirement for any motorcycle user. Motorcycle parking can be provided on-street or off-street, in surface parking or multi-storey parking, by commercial site operators as well as local authorities, employers, retailers, and colleges. Motorcycles and maintenance A good quality surface gives a safer, more pleasant experience for all road users, but it is an essential requirement for motorcyclists. Factors affecting motorcycle stability include: skid resistance, surface contamination and debris, drainage gullies, utility covers, road markings and road studs all of which should be considered from a motorcycle-inclusive viewpoint. Motorcycles and road safety campaigns Road safety campaigns are a vital ingredient in the mix of initiatives needed to improve the safety record of motorcyclists. Rider attitudes play a major role in determining rider behaviour, irrespective of age or trip purpose. Any measure designed to modify behaviour must address these attitudes and take account of the individuality often expressed in choosing a motorcycle as the travel mode. Riders respond better to messages related to their own perspective and are likely to ignore must do or must not do approaches. Motorcycles and traffic calming Traffic calming measures are very effective in reducing numbers of injury accidents, especially in residential areas, and polarising public opinion about their desirability. Motorcyclists are no more exempt from the intended effects of traffic calming devices than any other road user, but they can suffer disproportionately from unintended effects, often safety-related, which then undermine the casualty-reducing purpose of installing traffic calming measures in the first place. Motorcycles and Road Safety Audit Road Safety Audit has existed in the UK since the late 1980s. Audits of trunk road and motorway schemes have been mandatory since Many local authorities voluntarily carry out such designindependent audits using the trunk road standard as a reference. Highway design and traffic engineering practice in England and Wales usually separates safety auditing and user auditing. The latter focuses on encouraging better infrastructure provision for sustainable and often vulnerable modes to encourage modal shift. However, it has always been good practice for safety auditors to take a multi-modal approach to the process, taking special care with safety implications for vulnerable road users; equestrians, 8 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING

15 cyclists and pedestrians. While not being completely overlooked, motorcyclists have had a lower profile in this special care regime, perhaps because the higher speeds of motorcycles push them, almost intuitively, into the same camp as twin-track motor vehicles. This is a serious misapprehension. The dynamics of motorcycles and the vulnerability of their riders make motorcycling a unique mode in the traffic mix, demanding separate, informed consideration by designers and auditors alike. 1.2 Naming Conventions Throughout the Guidelines the term motorcycle is used to cover all forms of powered two wheelers (PTW) from the smallest mopeds, through scooters to the largest sports and touring machines. The terms twin track vehicle and single track vehicle are also used in the Guidelines. Although the terms are far from elegant, they do focus on the fundamental design differences between motorcycles and other motor vehicles that often lead to the misunderstanding at policy, design and operational levels with consequent under-performance of the road environment. 1.3 Types of Motorcycle Standard or Naked. Triumph Motorcycles Ltd There are a wide variety of machines available today all of which have there own characteristics covering design, typical engine size, handling and style. Similarly, the riders of a given type of machine may be very diverse. In law, a motorcycle is a twowheeled vehicle that is not a moped (see below); riders must be aged 17 or over. Standard or Naked Custom. Triumph Motorcycles Ltd These vehicles cover a wide range of the performance spectrum of power, handling and braking. Sometimes called retro machines they are typically used as practical transport, but with no fairing (or a small handlebar fairing) and have an upright riding position. Custom Also known as cruisers or choppers they are long with a low saddle height and typically have high handlebars with forward footrests. The emphasis is on appearance, and style, with polished chrome much in evidence. Trail/Enduro/Adventure sport. Honda (UK). Trail/Enduro/Adventure sport Also known as Dual-Sport bikes, they combine features needed to ride on or off road. Larger machines are often similar to those included in the touring category, for example fairings and larger luggage compartments. Touring Touring. Honda (UK) These machines generally have large engines and are designed for relaxed, long-distance riding. Typical features include a more comfortable seating position for rider and pillion, luggage IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING 9

16 capacity and weather protection, such as fairings with a fixed or adjustable windscreen. Sports Sports. Yamaha UK These machines may be designed to mimic racing motorcycles, with full fairings and low handlebars, or may have partial fairings and more practical rider and pillion seating, with medium-rise handlebars for longer distance travel. They tend to have medium to large capacity engines. Scooters Representing about 25% of motorcycles on the road, scooters differ significantly from most other motorcycles because of their bodywork and step-through chassis design. Engines are usually small to medium capacity, integral to the rear suspension and normally with automatic transmission. Mopeds Scooters. Piaggio Ltd In law, mopeds are motorised two-wheel vehicles with an engine capacity of less than 50cc and a maximum speed of 30mph. Riders must be aged 16 or over. Most electric-powered machines (not to be confused with electrically-assisted bicycles) are akin to mopeds. 1.4 Increasing Motorcycle Use Motorcycle use has continued to grow over the last decade by all relevant measures. Motorcycle usage is far more seasonal than most other motorised modes. The standard measure of vehicles in use is taken from an end-of-year DVLA census; typically a time of year when significant numbers of motorcycles are out of use and untaxed. This does not give an accurate picture of all motorcycles in use, as shown in the chart at figure 1. Figure 1: Motorcycles in use (DfT 2004) The growing number of motorcycles has meant a significant rise in the level of motorcycle traffic; Transport Statistics Bulletin - Road Traffic Statistics: 2003 (DfT 2004) shows how the index of motorcycle traffic has grown more than that of other vehicle types - 47% between 1993 and This rise compares with an increase in 10 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING

17 other motor vehicle traffic of 19% and an increase in road-length of just 1.8% over the same period (figure 2), suggesting that the increase in motorcycle use may be a response to traffic congestion, as is the greater use of bicycles and public transport. Figure 2: Motorcycle Traffic (100 million Km) (DfT 2004) The rise in all modes suggests that, where growth in motorcycling has resulted from modal switch, motorcycles have replaced car use, with most motorcycle users also having access to a car. 1.5 Motorcycle Safety Safety is without doubt the single issue most commonly associated with motorcycle use among transport professionals and the wider public. Although fatal accidents are still rare events in absolute terms - one rider is killed every eight million kilometres travelled by motorcycle - riders are many times more likely to be killed than occupants of enclosed, twin-track vehicles which offer far more protection in the event of a collision In 2003, of 693 motorcycle users killed, 73% died after collision with a larger vehicle (DfT 2004a). The single largest grouping of such collisions was the 38% in collision with a single car. In terms of danger to other road users, figures for 2003 show 3.0% (n=23) of pedestrian road deaths and 1.8% (n=2) of cyclist deaths followed collision with a motorcycle There is also concern over the 24% of riders killed in accidents where no other road-user was recorded as being involved. However, this figure is low compared with occupants of cars where 35% (n=614) died in such accidents during 2003 and even higher proportions for other larger vehicles. Motorcycle casualty rates While there is no place for complacency when dealing with those killed or injured on our roads, it is important to recognise that a key measure of safety, the rider casualty rate per kilometre (a proxy for rider exposure to risk), has shown year-on-year improvement, falling by 18.1% over the baseline years for IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING 11

18 casualty reduction targets (figure 3, below). It should be noted there are no disaggregated targets for motorcycles. A number of improvements in motorcycle design and rider training have taken place over the last decade and the overall casualty rate for motorcycles has generally improved, despite the largely urban nature of motorcycle use and greater volume of larger vehicles within the same road space. Unfortunately the fatality rate has remained more or less constant at around 12 rider deaths per hundred million vehicle kilometres. Figure 3: Motorcycle rider casualty rates (DfT 2004a). Motorcycle accidents - urban and rural Urban and rural areas see different patterns of motorcycle accidents. The severity of these accidents also tends to vary with the kinds of hazards encountered, and the impact speed of the vehicles involved. While the rural accident involvement rate (per 100 million Km ridden) was 36% lower than for urban roads in 2003, the motorcycle user fatality rate was three times higher on rural roads There is a public focus on rural casualties; but as accidents occur on both urban and rural roads so strategies need to be targeted in both areas. Motorcycling is playing an increasingly important role as an alternative to the car in congested areas and rider vulnerability in towns and cities needs to be addressed with similar vigour to strategies to reduce casualties in rural areas where motorcycle safety has a higher profile. Table 1: Motorcycle KSI casualties by road environment 1998 to 2003 (DfT 2004a) Broadly speaking, motorcycle traffic is split 60:40 between urban and rural roads and this is reflected in a similar split for nonfatal rider casualties. The situation is reversed for fatalities, where 60% occur outside built-up areas. The number of motorcycle user deaths in rural areas has been relatively stable in recent years, but rose by 28% in 2003, perhaps linked to the significant rise in motorcycling during the unusually long, fine-weather riding season of that year (see table 1). Built Up Roads Non Built Up Roads All Roads Killed KSI Killed KSI All Casualties IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING

19 Motorcycle accidents in context National data from Road Casualties Great Britain 2003 (DfT 2004a) shows that motorcycle accidents occur in three broad contexts and have a seasonal element. Junctions: 67% of all motorcycles involved in accidents during 2003 were reported as at a junction, making junctions the most common accident location and, according to studies, these are most likely to be precipitated by another road user. Many collisions take place at junctions where the driver of a motor vehicle may have looked but did not see.there are also a minority of riders who ride inappropriately, exposing themselves to higher risk. Overtaking: 15% of motorcycle accidents involve overtaking a moving or stationary vehicle. Bends: 12% of motorcycles involved in accidents were reported as going ahead on bend.in rural areas a significant proportion of these are involved in single vehicle accidents with speed and lack of rider skill playing a major role. Time of year: Motorcycle casualty numbers also vary according to time of year(see figure 4). As noted above, motorcycle activity rises between spring and autumn, and the number of KSI rider casualties also rises, but the casualty rate falls because motorcycle traffic volume also rises. The rise in absolute casualty numbers in better weather can shift the focus away from the particular hazards faced by all-year/all-weather riders during winter months. Index mean=100. Figure 4: Motorcyclist KSI casualties: number and rate by month of year (indexed), 2003 (DfT 2004b). IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING 13

20 1.6 Taking action In both rural and urban areas, motorcycle casualties are linked to a variety of factors involving engineering and planning, behaviour, levels of skill and attitudes between motorcyclists and other road users. Compared to car users, motorcyclists are vulnerable mainly due to their physical exposure Appropriate action could take the form of individual schemes through to an extensive package of measures that integrate to form an overall local motorcycle strategy, with clear targets, not only to reduce casualties, but also to implement measures which mitigate vulnerability and change rider and driver attitudes. It is helpful to adopt a partnership approach with motorcycling stakeholders, including the motorcycle industry, users and businesses. 1.7 The Government s Motorcycling Strategy The Government s Motorcycling Strategy. DfT The Government s Motorcycling Strategy is a key development in government thinking on this mode of transport and represents the first strategy of its kind to be produced in Europe. The strategy effectively mainstreams motorcycling into core transport policy and underpins other work which has already been done to incorporate motorcycling into guidance for Local Transport Plans. Other government resources can now be linked with The Government s Motorcycling Strategy,for example TAL 2/02 Motorcycle Parking and the relevant sections of PPG13: Transport The Government s Motorcycling Strategy builds on the work of the Advisory Group on Motorcycling whose final report was published in August It covers a number of aspects of motorcycling including rider safety, training, vehicle safety and security. These Guidelines extend on the The Government s Motorcycling Strategy in the relevant sections that deal with policy and planning, parking provision, traffic engineering, road design, maintenance, road safety and road safety audit. 14 IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING

21 CHAPTER 2 Motorcycles are part of traffic mix. Keith Sharples Photography. 2.1 Key Points 2.2 Context POLICY Local Transport Plans should refer to the role that motorcycles can play, focusing on the strengths of the mode and containing strategies to mitigate their weaknesses, including reducing their accident involvement rate.these strategies should cover both engineering and non-engineering activities. Consultation with riders is essential to ensure that strategies and initiatives meet the needs of the users. Good practice in including motorcycling as an integral part of Travel Plans should be followed where appropriate. Secure parking facilities should be provided at transport interchanges and journey ends to mitigate the likelihood of theft and minimise unofficial parking. The public sector should set good examples in this area All modes of transport have strengths and weaknesses; good practice demands the framing and implementation of policies that maximise the strengths and minimise the weaknesses. Motorcycles have long provided a legitimate, cost-effective and relatively lowpolluting form of transport, for commuting, work or leisure purposes. NTS data shows 63% of motorcycle trips are for work, business or education, compared to 30% for cars (DfT 2004). There has been an increase of 45% in the number of licensed motorcycles in the ten years from 1993 to 2002 (DfT 2003) and, if the experience seen in London following the introduction of congestion charging is repeated in other cities, coupled with increasing fuel costs, this growth can be expected to continue. It also appears that increasing affluence, particularly among year old men has resulted in them buying motorcycles for leisure purposes. Increased interest in the development of Travel Plans provides opportunities for influencing the role that motorcycles can play (Chapter 3) Riders of motorcycles are susceptible to serious injury even in low-speed collisions yet the specific safety needs of motorcycles with their reliance on an adequate and consistent friction between their tyres and the road surface, have sometimes been overlooked by policy makers, planners, road designers and maintenance engineers. Raising awareness among these professionals will help redress the balance in providing for motorcycles. These Guidelines are a step in that direction Road Safety Audits need to encompass a greater awareness of motorcycle behaviour and hazards. It would be helpful if the audit team and the project manager have a sound knowledge of singletracked vehicle stability and safety needs, or have access to such knowledge via an appropriate expert (Chapter 9) Access to accurate and detailed local accident data containing real-life causation factors is fundamental to policy decisions, at political or professional level. National statistics in Road Casualties in Great Britain are valuable in providing benchmarking, but local data can be found in reported injury accidents (STATS19) and even data collected by local hospital Accident and Emergency units. IHIE GUIDELINES FOR MOTORCYCLING 15

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