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1 Indian Journal of Science International Weekly Journal for Science ISSN EISSN Discovery Publication. All Rights Reserved Analysis Open source software as tools for building up of digital libraries: an overview Publication History Received: 09 August 2015 Accepted: 2 September 2015 Published: 21 October 2015 Citation Sophia R, Jannath Najeemunnisa Beegum M, Indumathi K. Open source software as tools for building up of digital libraries: an overview. Indian Journal of Science, 2015, 21(73), Page444

2 OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE AS TOOLS FOR BUILDING UP OF DIGITAL LIBRARIES: AN OVERVIEW R. Sophia 1, M. Jannath Najeemunnisa Beegum 2 and K. Indumathi 3, 1. Librarian, Meston College of Education, Ch 14.mail: 2. Librarian, Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed College for Women (Autonomous), 3. Librarian, Anna Adarsh College for Women, Che 40. ABSTRACT Due to the development of modern technology and information explosion, every library is in a position to adopt modern technologies to increase the exponential growth of knowledge. But, since the high cost and vendors closed-access attitude is dealing with proprietary software made the libraries to look for open source software as an alternative option. This paper focuses on the general and specific features of some of the popular packages of integrated library management software, content management system and institutional repository (digital library) software. Keywords: Open Source Software, Integrated Library Management Software, Content Management System, digital library software 1. INTRODUCTION Exponential growth of knowledge and information made the human-being to be dependent to the technology and libraries are not exception to it. It is imperative to implement use of certain technology-driven software to distribute and manage vast information resources in the libraries. Due to the budget constraints in the library to purchase for the proprietary software (commercial software) and to continue with the annual maintenance, the cost of free/open source software (FOSS) rightly fit w ith the philosophy and needs of the libraries. Therefore it is highly recommended that librarian should opt for FOSS. 2. TYPES OF SOFTWARES Even-though freeware, open source, and shareware are having same meanings, there is difference between these terminologies and their use. Their definitions and difference between them are as follows: a) Proprietary (Commercial) Software If we opt the Proprietary Software, the user of this software should totally dependent on the commercial developer and has to pay high cost for its purchase, maintenance, and improvement. If the user wishes to modify the programme with his own needs, it makes him feel helpless and should depend upon the person who has sold this software. b) Shareware Software Shareware can be downloaded free of cost to try as a sample, but for the ultimate use, user is supposed to pay for it. It would have developed and released by someone who will keep the full control of the intellectual property. The user will not be given any access to the source code and cannot modify it. There is also no collaboration or community around shareware. c) Freeware Software Freeware is the software which can be downloaded, used and copied without any restrictions. No access to the source code, no community, no development, and no improvement can be possible. d) Free/Open Source Software 1 The FOSS or free/libre/open-source software (FLOSS) is a software that is both free software and open source. It is liberally licensed to grant users the right to use, copy, study, change, and improve its design though the availability of its source code rather than its cost. This approach has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognised by both individuals and corporations as free software. This terminology came from the ideological movement against proprietary from FSF (Free Software Foundation) in 1985 and open source from OSI (Open Source Initiative) in The FSF (Free Software Foundation) defines free software as software that respects the following 4 (four) freedoms to 1. Run the program, for any purpose. 2. Study how the program works, and change it so it does you computing as you wish. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. 3. Redistribute copies so you can help your neighbour. Page445

3 4. The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. 1. Free and Open-source Software. (accessed on 01/06/2015) As per the OSI (Open Source Initiative), definition 2 of open source software is as follows: 1. Free Redistribution: The license shall not restrict its component to use or sell as component of an aggregate software. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale. 2. Source Code: Must be available through a well publicised means. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the programme. Intermediate forms such as the output of a microprocessor or transistor are not allowed. 3. Derived Works: Licence must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be redistributed under the same terms as the license of original software. 4. Integrity of the Author s Source Code: Original source code must be maintained. Modified codes can be assigned different versions and names. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups.: The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons. 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavour: Must not restrict to use in a specific field. e.g. business or genetic research. 7. Distribution of License applied to anyone receiving the program without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties. 8. License must not be Specific to a Product: The rights attached to the programme must not depend upon program s being part of a particular software distribution. Same rights as those are granted with original software distributed. 9. License must Not Restrict Other Software:. License must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. 10. License must be technology-neutral: No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface. About FOSS: FOSS is an inclusive term that incorporates both the ideologies of free software and open source software, which despite describing similar development models, have differing in cultures and philosophies. Free Software focuses on the philosophical freedoms it gives to users. 2. The Open Source Definition. (accessed on 01/06/2015) 3. Whereas, Open Source Software focuses on the perceived strengths of its peer--to-peer development model. 4. Apart from these differences FOSS is a term that can be used without particular bias towards either political approach. 3. OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE AND LIBRARIES Both libraries and open source have same philosophy i.e. Community First. Blake Carver s modifications of Ranganathan Law for software 3 is 1. Software is for use; 2. Every Computer its user; 3. Every reader his source code; 4. Same the time of the user; and 5. A system is a growing organism Need of Open Source Software in Libraries Following are the benefits of open source software made available to use in the libraries: 1. Code of software is open to modify, improve and redistribute 2. Mature Software 3. Libraries outlive any software producer r vendor 4. No dependence on vendor or producer 5. It is more reliable 6. Perform better 7. More Secured 8. Use without restriction 9. Reduced cost Thus, the philosophy, flexibility, freedom, cost and continuity of OSS makes this as an ideal choice for libraries. Page446

4 4. OVERVIEW OF OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE IN LIBRARIES This paper is focusing on the following software coming under FOSS license and available free to the libraries for its use, modification and distribution: 1. Integrated Library Management Software 2. Content Management System 3. Institutional Repository (Digital Library) Software 4.1. Integrated Library Management Software 4 An Integrated Library System (ILS), also known as library Management System (LMS) which is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed. It usually comprises relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces. ILS software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interfaces. Examples of modules might include acquisition (ordering, receiving, and invoicing materials), cataloguing (classifying and indexing materials), circulation (lending materials to patrons and receiving them back), serial(tracking magazine and newspaper holdings) and the OPAC (public interface for users) Special Features of Selected Integrated Library Management Software Koha software is the first open source library management software widely used all over the world which provides additional facilities like tagging and RSS feeds. Its adaptable interface is translated in many languages. Evergreen software uses SIP2 support for interaction. NewGenLib system and PhpMyBibli software comply with OA institutional repositories to build digital library. Besides NewGenLib IS Unicode 3.0 compliant and RFID ready. 4.2 Content Management System (CMS) 5 Content Management System is a collection of procedures used to manage work flow in a collaborative environment. CMS is used to manage the content of a website is the fastest way to keep one s website content updated. Having a CMS saves money as a user won t need to pay a web developer every time he wants to modify the content of its website Special Features of Popular CMS Joomla software includes features such as page caching, RSS feeds, printable versions of pages, news flashes, blogs, polls, search, and support for language internationalisation. Drupal offers a sophisticated programming interface for developers. 4. Integrated Library System. (accessed on 01/06/2015) 5. Content Management System. (accessed on 01/06/2015). Mambo includes advanced features such as page caching to improve performance on busy sites. WordPress software also used for blogging. It also supports the Trackback and Pingback standards for displaying links to other sites. TYPO3 is almost completely pluggable, extensible having complex framework and highly flexible Institutional Repository (Digital Library) Software 6 An Institutional Repository (IR) is an online locus for collecting, preserving, and disseminating in digital form the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution. It preserves digital asset of an institution by self-archiving research output and gives open access and global visibility from a single location. The number of digital repositories currently in existence shows that there is both a high demand for digital library software as well as a need for a new software package to meet these demands. Most of the digital library software are based on OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) model for sharing of metadata between digital libraries by means of metadata harvesting Special Features of Selected Institutional Repository Software Fedore and DSpace are most popular IR software in the world community. VuDL includes a built-in METS metadata editor, service image generation tools, an XML database repository, and an OAI server and easy to use. XTF offers robust optimisation for large documents and RSS feeds. Both Fedora and DSpace able to export digital object as METS XML files. Page447

5 5. CONCLUSIONS Most of the academic libraries prefer the Open Source Software to be fit to make changes for immediate effect as per the need of the libraries. It resulted in cost saving of libraries. To enterprise resource planning system, to recollect, preserve, access share the resources and to manage workflow, Open Source Software are used as valuable tools for building up of digital libraries.. REFERENCES cited from websites: 1. Free and Open-source Software. (accessed on 01/06/2015) 2. The Open Source Definition. (accessed on 01/06/2015) 3. Singh, Sukhdev. (accessed on 01/06/2015), slide No Integrated Library System. (accessed on 01/06/2015) 5. Content Management System. (accessed on 01/06/2015). 6. Institutional Repository. (accessed on 01/06/2015) Page448

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