3 Value Creation The main objective of project is creation of value for its stakeholders. Value is created financially by creating net cash flow socially by creating social benefit. The private sector main objective is value creation for their owners (stock holders). This is in terms of wealth maximization. The public sector attempts to maximize social benefits. Value creation is the guiding principle through out this discussion. That is any project must be able to create value
4 Explicit and Implicit Cost In accounting all the costs and revenues are explicit, in finance and economics, they are both explicit and implicit. Explicit cost are the accounting costs that are realized. For example, labor cost, energy costs, and material. Implicit costs are those costs that are hidden. One such a cost is the difference between revenue and revenue from best alternative investment. For example if we make A amount of investment and we receive X amount of return but an alternative investment would create Y return, where Y>X, from economic point of view there is a loss equal to Δ = Y-X. In accounting term there is a profit of Y.
5 Explicit and Implicit, Continued Social cost benefit analysis centers on the difference between explicit and implicit cost. Social cost are costs that are incurred by society. A firm maybe dumping wastes into a river. From firm s point of view there is zero cost associated with waste disposal. However, the social cost of firms operation (from society point of view) is very high since they either have to clean water (a cost for the society) or have polluted water. Social benefits maybe also different that private benefit.
6 Time Value of Money One important implicit cost is the time value of money. Accounting statements such as Balance Sheet and Income Statement do not take this factor into account. Time value of money simply suggest that there is a cost associated with holding cash. The cost is the interest rate that one could get from putting the fund in a saving account (time deposit) that has zero risk. This concept plays a central role in our discussion and analysis Example: Assume interest rate (risk free) is 8% per year, and that we have $100. If we put the money in interest baring deposited, by the end of the year we would have 100*(1.08)= 108 If we do not put the money in interest baring instrument and keep it as cash, while in accounting term we have no cost, we have had $8 as economic cost (opportunity cost) In our example, the Future value of annual interest rate is 108 at the end of the year Alternatively, $108 of one year in future would have a present value of 108/(1.08)= 100 (approximately) More generally for a period of one year: FV= PV *(1+r) FV is Future Value PV = FV/(1+r) PV is Present Value Alternatively r is interest rate ( r is in fraction)
7 How does Construction Relates to Overall In this stage we identify Whether investment is creating highest possible rate of return Project? Stages of Project Feasibility Study Construction Operation Fund Requirement This for preparing documentation, technical specifications, and preparation of bid Heavy Investment It would include purchase of land and equipment, fund for Working capital, and payment of interest on the borrowed funds Fund Generation Fund requirements is for payment of interest and principle for the borrowed fund, as well as for the operational expenses. This stage, however, is net cash generator.
8 Various Types of projects Private sector is sponsor of project Financing is from company (corporate finance) Separate financing for project (project finance) Government sponsors project but private firm is involved Government financed through various means including issuing of bonds Build Operate and Transfer (Public private partnership)
9 Private sector uses corporate financing The first type is when sponsor, private sector finances construction through its own resources. Below cash transaction of project is shown Bank and other Equity financial institutions - - Repayment of loan Initial Fund + + Sponsor + Initial Equity Fund capital requirement - Construction Revenue
10 Government Financing of Project The second type is traditional public sector project finance. In these types of projects, public sector entity sponsors the project and it funds the project construction. Source of fund is either special purpose bond or over all government bond which is supported by government ability to pay it off by its future taxes collection. Bank and other financial institutions - + Sponsor/Government Agencies + Taxes + + Construction Project benefits
11 Project Finance The third type is when the project is directly financed. This is called Project Financed. In these type of financing, a project company is set up and the sponsor provides equity financing to the project company. The remaining financial needs Of the project is raised directly through the project company. Sponsor could be either public authorities or private firms. The cash flow of the project pays for the financing cost Sponsor Financial Institutions Equity Loan Profit Interest and Principle Payyme Project Company Fund Cash Flow Project Itself
12 Project Valuation: Cash Flow Analysis Cash flow analysis Each period revenue is forecast Each period cost is determined Difference between cost and revenue is gross return Determine taxable income by subtracting depreciation Subtract tax Add back depreciation Discount cash flow to present time take into account proper discount rate
13 Project Evaluation Net Present Value is when we subtract initial investment from present value of cash flow Positive NPV means that the project created value Internal rate of return (IRR) is the discount rate that makes NPV zero If the IIR is equal of greater than the company hurdle rate then the project creates value Payback period is the time it takes to cover the investment
14 Financial Evaluation NPV = -I + (R - C)(1- t a ) /(1+r) t + t a D/(1+r) t + S t / (1+r) t NPV > = 0 < accept indifferent reject r - > = r * < accept indifferent < t - = t * > accept indifferent reject NPV -I R - C t a r S r - r * t - t * reject Net Present Value Initial Investment Revenue minus all cost in each period Tax Rate Discount Rate Salvage Value of Capital at the End of Project Internal Rate of Return Hurdle Rate Payback Period Required Payback time
15 Role Depreciation Tax shield is amount of taxes that a firm is allowed not to pay because of accounting rules relative to its tax base. T.S. = ta*d where ta is tax rate (34%)and D is dollar value of depreciation Deprecation tax shield is important since it provides a free cash flow for the project
16 Cost Structure Over head cost which is fixed for company Over all salaries Energy etc. These costs need to be allocated to the project based on some corporate formula Variable cost (cost related to the specific operation) Labor Energy used by project Wages related to the project Material Leases etc. These are variable and changes with the size of project
17 What determines the discount rate r Where: r = r f + r i + r r r r f r i r r r is the discount rate the risk free interest rate. Normally government bond Rate of inflation. It is measured by either by consumer price index or GDP deflator. Risk factor consisting of market risk, industry risk, firm specific risk and project risk Market Risk r = Industry Risk Firm specific Risk Project Risk Example: If risk free interest is 5%, inflation 3% then nominal rate of interest is 8%. In addition if we add 5% risk premium then our discount rate is 11% Later we argue that weighted average cost of capital would make a good indicator for discount rate
18 Example: Meehan to accept road construction project Meehan corp. is a civil engineering company with annual revenue of $8 billion per year. The company is a multinational with operation in Latin America and South East Asia. Meehan was established in 1962, and since then it has experienced a high rate of growth. The company is involved in infrastructure development, commercial property development and oil exploration and development. Company is currently considering whether or not to accept a road construction project. Meehan has collected the following information about the project; which will take four years to complete and Meehan must initially invest about $64 million on equipment and $26 million on buying the necessary property, for a total of $90 million. The annual operation cost is $20 million a year, which include labor cost, and other operational cost. The company uses straight line 8 years depreciation. The salvage value of equipment is calculated at the cost. The tax rate of the Meehan is 34%.
19 Example: Meehan to accept road construction project The contract calls for payment of $32 million at the end of first three years and $100 million upon completion at the end of the four year period. The project will commence in January Therefore all initial expenses such as purchase of land and equipment must take place prior to the start of the project. However, operational revenue and costs are calculated for the end of each subsequent year. -Should Meehan accept this project, if the discount rate is 10%? -What if Meehan used 8% discount rate? -What if Meehan needed a $5 million working capital that it would recapture at the end of the project?
20 Meehan Construction Revenue Operation Cost Depreciation Cost Total Cost Earning Before tax Tax (0.34) Profit after Tax Add back depreciation Salvage Value Initial Investment I -90 Working Capital Cash Flow Discount Factor Present Value of Cash Flow NPV NPV (10%) ($3.4205) IRR = 9% NPV (8%) $1.62
21 Meehan Construction Revenue 32 operation Cost 20 Depreciation Cost 8 Total Cost 28 Earning Before tax 4 Tax (0.34) 1.36 Profit after Tax 2.64 Add back depreciation Salvage Value Initial Investment I -90 Working Capital -5 Cash Flow Discount Factor Present Value of Cash Flow NPV NPV (10%) ($4.8614) IRR = 8% NPV (8%) $0.39
22 Points about NPV Timing: Analysis should be on accrued bases Working Capital must be taken into account Separation of current from capital expense Overhead cost should be allocated to the project Salvage value of plant and equipment must be considered
23 NPV NPV and Internal rate of return are superior method of calculation of investment relative to payback period, since they recognize the time value of money NPV and IRR depend solely on forecasted cash flow and opportunity cost of capital and does rely on management taste and accounting practices NPV of independent projects are additive obtain total NPV. That is the NPV of two different independent projects can be summed up to. For two projects A and B NPV (A+B) =NPV(A)+NPV(B) The additive condition is an important aspect. For two project, A and B, one with positive NPV, A, and the other with negative NVP, B, we do not have to take both because they are packaged together.
24 NPV There are however circumstances that A and B are two different stages of project. In this case, if the second stage depends on the first stage then the additive condition is violated. An example is when a construction company may bid for a project with negative NPV in order to be able to get second project which is substantially larger and would have potentially a very high NPV. [for this types of investment there is other analytical instrument called Real Option. Real Option will be discussed subsequently]. Or that a project opens other opprtunities that have positive NPV
25 Breakeven Analysis Breakeven structure and lumpiness of capacity What is breakeven for a firm? It determine at what level of activities a project can cover all its cost. Breakeven Point: Fixed cost + Variable cost = Revenue Form above we can obtain breakeven quantity: Revenue = P*Q Variable cost = C *Q [C is a unit cost] Total Cost = FC + VC Breakeven output is: Q * = FC/ (P-C) In analysis of cost we must take into account all explicit and implicit costs
26 Breakeven Analysis, Continued Oil Exploration Sunk Cost After investment takes place the only way to recoup the investment is through depreciation. Initial capital investment is a sunk Cost. This also impact negotiation between contractor and sponsor Why lumpiness of capital important? Once activities increase beyond certain point additional capital investment would be required. If capital is lumpy, then part of it may stay ideal. In this case the total cost would be allocated to the project, which could bring profitability low or negative. How to deal with lumpiness? lease outsourcing alliances
27 Impact of Inflation Inflation impacts a number of variables in in the NPV equation. Therefore, calculation of NPV, using real value for variables provides different results than if nominal values were used. NPV = -I + (Rc - Cc)(1- ta)(1+i) /(1+r)^t (1+i)^t Where Rc, Cc, and Rc are constant rates and i is the inflation rate Impact of inflation on different costs parameters maybe different. Therefore, if nominal values were being used each cost components would have to be discounted by its own price index.
28 Impact of Inflation on Tax Shield Impact of inflation on tax shield is another important aspect. Inflation reduces tax shield of depreciation. This is because, based on USA accounting rules, depreciation is a fix value of the cost of capital good. The difference is particularly important in when there is hyper inflation NPV = -I + (Rc - Cc)(1- ta)(1+i) /(1+i)(1+r)t + ta D/(1+i)(1+r)^t + SV/(1+i) (1+r)t
29 Example of Inflation Company XYZ is considering three different projects, A, B, C. Project A does not need any initial investment, while project B and C require $1,000 and $10,000 investment respectively. All projects have 10 year life span and use straight line depreciation. Annual cash flow of A, B, and C are $361.4, $671.4 and Assuming a discount rate of 20% and tax rate of 34% calculate : After tax NPV of each project Determine the impact of 4.17 % inflation rate on the NPV of each project.
30 Example A B C Initial Investment Project life Depreciaton (D/n) Annual Cash Flow R(1-ta) t*d After Tax Cash Flow (1-ta)R+T*D (1) Sum[(1-ta)+T*D]/(1+R)t NPV Note: tax Shield is 34*4.19 =140 (1) $1 annuity at 20% interest for t=10 is equal to $ *4.192 = *4.192 = *4.192 =11000
31 Example Continues Nominal Discount Rate Annual Inflation Rate (1+interest rate)(1+ inflation rate) 4.17% (1.0417)(1.2) = 1.25 Ten Years annuity at discount 8.33% (1.0833)(1.2) = 1.3 rate of 25% is 3.57 and not % (1.125)(1.2) = 1.35 Shown in previous case 16.67% (1.1667)(1.2) =1.4
32 Example Continues With 4.17% Inlfation A B C Initial Investment Depreciation Cash Flow (CF) After tax return Annual Depreciation tax shield PV of cash flow PV. Of depreciation tax shield PV of total cash flow Net Present Value *4.19= *4.19= *3.57= *3.54=
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