1 Expert Witnesses: Scotland 1.When is expert evidence admissible? An ordinary witness must, as a rule, confine himself to matters of fact which are within his own direct knowledge. By contrast, the opinion of a witness who possesses particular skill or expertise in the subject under investigation is admissible where evidence is required to assist the tribunal of fact to interpret matters of a technical or scientific nature which are outwith the tribunal s knowledge and experience. The evidence of such witnesses is often referred to as expert evidence or evidence of skilled witnesses. On those occasions where the court is able to reach its own conclusions without such assistance that is, where the matter is within its own experience and knowledge the evidence of a skilled or expert witness is inadmissible. But in areas which cannot be properly understood without special knowledge or experience (such as unfamiliar kinds of phenomena, machinery, or documents, or an inquiry into a person s medical condition), evidence is admissible of opinions formed by witnesses who possess such knowledge or experience. Where conflicting expert evidence has been provided, it is for the tribunal of fact to decide which evidence, if any, it will prefer. Expert evidence is not admissible merely because it might be useful to a jury. See: Gage v HM Advocate (No 1)  HCJAC 40, 2012 SCCR Who can be an expert witness? There are no detailed rules as to who may testify as an expert. The question of whether a witness is sufficiently qualified to testify is for the judge to decide. Appropriate study or practical experience of the subject under examination is normally essential, and the witness s qualifications and experience are matters upon which he may be cross-examined. The courts require of expert witnesses the highest standards of accuracy and objectivity. Furthermore, it appears that an expert witness for the Crown must disclose in a written report all relevant
2 information he has, and must indicate how his conclusions may be tested and what inferences cannot properly be drawn from his evidence. 3.What is the function of expert witnesses? An expert witness is no more entitled than an ordinary witness to state an opinion on the facts at issue in a case. Rather, the function of expert witnesses has been authoritatively explained in these terms: Expert witnesses, however skilled or eminent, can give no more than evidence. They cannot usurp the functions of the jury or Judge sitting as a jury, any more than a technical assessor can substitute his advice for the judgment of the court... Their duty is to furnish the Judge or jury with the necessary scientific criteria for testing the accuracy of their conclusions, so as to enable the Judge or jury to form their own independent judgment by the application of these criteria to the facts proved in evidence. The scientific opinion evidence, if intelligible, convincing and tested, becomes a factor (and often an important factor) for consideration along with the whole other evidence in the case, but the decision is for the Judge or jury. In particular the bare ipse dixit of a scientist, however eminent, upon the issue in controversy, will normally carry little weight, for it cannot be tested by cross-examination nor independently appraised, and the parties have invoked the decision of a judicial tribunal and not an oracular pronouncement by an expert (Davie v Edinburgh Magistrates 1953 SC 34 [at 40]). Beyond this, the job of the expert witness is not simply to articulate their client s position, but is rather to assist the decision maker (a court, tribunal or other similar body) with such information about the specialist area as is necessary before a decision can be made. 4.What are the duties of expert witnesses? (i) Duty to the court In Scots law the question as to whether an expert witness primarily owes a duty to the court or to their client has yet to receive a definitive answer. In the view of Lord Glennie in BSA International SA v Irvine  CSOH 77; 2009 S.L.T. 1180:
3 It has been accepted in Scotland for some time that an expert witness owes a duty to the court. It has become the established practice for an expert to state in his report that he is aware of and has complied with that duty. The precise ambit of such duty may be open to discussion. However in the earlier case of Amy Whitehead s Legal Representative v Graeme John Douglas and Another  CSOH 178, Lord Carloway emphasised the differences between the English position on expert witnesses and that taken by the Scottish courts. In his judgment he remarked: It is not at all clear that an expert, instructed by one party, has some form of duty to the court greater than any professional or other witness. There is no reason to suppose that, in producing a report for a party on the instructions of agents, an expert thereby imposes upon himself a duty to the court, at least where he is unaware that the court might be asked to rely upon his report in advance of his testimony. The issue has been brought to the fore once again in the English case of Jones v Kaney  UKSC 13, where the Supreme Court held by a majority of 5-2 that expert witnesses were no longer to enjoy the immunity other witnesses enjoy, as part of a blanket immunity from which judges, witnesses and juries also benefit. However, Jones v Kaney was an English case and is accordingly only binding in England and Wales. The position in Scotland remains that an expert does have immunity unless and until the House of Lords decision in Watson v McEwan (1905) 7F (HL) 109 is reversed. In Scotland, this immunity extends to giving evidence in court and, at least, preparing a report for relying on and giving evidence. It would possibly now also include joint statements by the experts for both parties in a civil action. Until greater clarity is offered by the courts in relation to the duty of expert witnesses in Scotland, it would be worthwhile for any expert to include an express provision in his terms and conditions noting that the primary duty in any court-orientated work is to the court, even if this means disclosing a piece of evidence which is prejudicial to the interests of the person instructing them and paying their fee. In the interim, it is worth noting that the view that expert witnesses primarily owe a duty to the court gains some support in Lord Hope s dissenting decision in Jones v Kaney at paragraph 154, where he notes that while the English rules clearly do not apply in Scotland: it seems... that the principles which they express are of universal application. As such, it appears this view is to be favoured for now. (ii) Duty to give an honest and complete opinion
4 An expert owes a duty to the court to give his honest and complete opinion. He must bring to the attention of the court all matters which could affect his opinion one way or the other, and he is not entitled to keep some reservation about his opinion to himself simply because he is not asked the precise question which would bring it out into the open. Accordingly, he is not simply in a position to be able to volunteer information, but is rather under a duty to do so if his failure would leave the court with a misleading impression of his whole opinion on the issue (BSA International SA v Irvine). However, it should be noted once again that an opposing view was expressed in Amy Whitehead s Legal Representative v Graeme John Douglas and Another. Here Lord Carloway stated: when he is in the witness box, what he is permitted and not permitted to say will depend not just on what he is asked but on what he is not asked. He is not in a position to volunteer information. If an expert s testimony is to be accepted, a party may have to lay a proper foundation for the opinion ultimately delivered, but that is for that party to do. It cannot be achieved by the expert in isolation. (iii)duties re area of expertise If the witness is presented as an expert it follows that the opinions that person expresses should be within that individual s area of expertise. (iv)duties re basis of opinion The factual information underlying any opinion-based evidence must be based on actual knowledge or on identifiable sources of information. Where it is possible for there to be a range of reasonable opinion on any matter this should be acknowledged. (v) Duties re independence The opinions the expert expresses should be the expert s own, formed independently, and not the views of either the client or of any other person. (vi)duties re legal tests Where an expert witness is being asked to express a view about the actions of another professional or specialist, then the expert witness must also understand the correct legal test which the court applies to that professional or specialist s acts.
5 5.Summary of key principles The key principles to be borne in mind and which allow an expert to be considered as credible and reliable expert witness are therefore that: the expert witness s primary obligation is to the court (in whatever form it may take); the expert witness needs to be independent, impartial and objective, and this requires the expert witness not to be selective in the materials drawn upon to support the conclusions reached but rather to take into account any matters which might be contrary to that conclusion; the expert witness should do nothing to compromise his integrity; an expert witness is entitled to, and probably should, charge a proper professional fee for their services; the fee should not be dependant upon the outcome of the dispute, nor should the expert witness seek or accept any other benefit over and above their normal fee and expenses; the expert witness should avoid a conflict of interest; the expert witness s work should be properly informed and done to a proper standard, having regard to all appropriate codes of conduct, codes of practice and guidelines; the expert witness should therefore have a high standard of technical knowledge and practical experience; and the expert witness should keep themselves up to date through work experience and appropriate continuing professional development and training. 6.Further reading For further discussion on the duties and responsibilities of expert witnesses see the summary of Mr. Justice Cresswell in National Justice Compania Naviera SA v Prudential Assurance Company Limited (also known as the Ikarian Reefer case; Appendix 1). This summary has received approval in Scotland in the cases of Elf Caledonian Limited v London Bridge Engineering Limited, and McTear v Imperial Tobacco Ltd. Also, see Code of Practice: Expert Witnesses Engaged by Solicitors by the Law Society of Scotland (Appendix 2).
7 APPENDIX 1: National Justice Compania Naviera SA v Prudential Assurance Company Limited  2 Lloyd s Rep 68 at pages 81-82: THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF EXPERT WITNESSES The duties and responsibilities of expert witnesses in civil cases include the following: 1. Expert evidence presented to the Court should be, and should be seen to be, the independent product of the expert uninfluenced as to form or content by the exigencies of litigation (Whitehouse v. Jordan,  1 W.L.R. 246 at p. 256, per Lord Wilberforce). 2. An expert witness should provide independent assistance to the Court by way of objective unbiased opinion in relation to matters within his expertise (see Polivitte Ltd. v. Commercial Union Assurance Co. Plc.,  1 Lloyd s Rep. 379 at p. 386 per Mr. Justice Garland and Re J,  F.C.R. 193 per Mr. Justice Cazalet). An expert witness in the High Court should never assume the role of an advocate. 3. An expert witness should state the facts or assumption upon which his opinion is based. He should not omit to consider material facts which could detract from his concluded opinion (Re J sup.). 4. An expert witness should make it clear when a particular question or issue falls outside his expertise. 5. If an expert s opinion is not properly researched because he considers that insufficient data is available, then this must be stated with an indication that the opinion is no more than a provisional one (Re J sup.). In cases where an expert witness who has prepared a report could not assert that the report contained the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth without some qualification, that qualification should be stated in the report (Derby & Co. Ltd. and Others v. Weldon and Others, The Times, Nov. 9, 1990 per Lord Justice Staughton). 6. If, after exchange of reports, an expert witness changes his view on a material matter having read the other side s expert s report or for any other reason, such change of view should be communicated (through legal representatives) to the other side without delay and when appropriate to the Court.
8 7. Where expert evidence refers to photographs, plans, calculations, analyses, measurements, survey reports or other similar documents, these must be provided to the opposite party at the same time as the exchange of reports (see 15.5 of the Guide to Commercial Court Practice).
9 APPENDIX 2: THE LAW SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND CODE OF PRACTICE: EXPERT WITNESSES ENGAGED BY SOLICITORS (http://www.expertwitnessscotland.info/codepract.htm) Introduction This Code is intended to assist experts to ensure that they can effectively meet the needs of solicitors, so those solicitors can in consequence better serve their clients and the interests of justice. They are intended to be of general application and there may be additional requirements relating to cases in specialised areas of law. Acceptance of instructions 1. Experts should ensure that they receive clear instructions from solicitors (in writing unless this is not practical) specifying the solicitor s requirements, which should cover: (a) Basic information such as names, addresses, telephone numbers, dates of birth, and dates of incidents; (b) The type of expertise which is called for; (c) The purpose for requesting the report, and a description of the matter to be investigated; (d) Questions to be addressed; (e) The history of the matter, identifying any factual matters that may be in dispute; (f) Details of any relevant documents: (g) Whether proceedings have been commenced or are contemplated, the identity of the parties, and whether the expert may be required to attend to give evidence; (h) Whether prior authority to incur the estimated fees needs to be obtained by the solicitor before the instructions can be confirmed;
10 (i) In the case of medical reports: where the medical records are situated (including, where possible, the hospital record number); whether or not the consent of the client/patient to an examination and disclosure of records has been given; and whether or not the records are to be obtained and provided by the solicitor; (j) In cases concerning children, a note that the paramountcy of the child s welfare may override the legal professional privilege attached to the report and that disclosure might be required. 2. Instructions should be accepted only in matters where the expert: (a) Has the knowledge, experience, expertise, qualifications, or professional training appropriate for the assignment; (b) Has the resources to complete the matter within the timescales and to the standard required for the assignment. 3. A time limit for the production of the report should be agreed. When the agreed time limit cannot be met, notice of the delay should be communicated at the earliest opportunity. 4. Experts should make clear to solicitors what can and cannot be expected on completion of the assignment. In particular, as soon as possible after being instructed, they should identify any aspects of a commission with which they are unfamiliar, or not professionally qualified to deal, or on which they require or would like further information or guidance. 5. If any part of the assignment is to be undertaken by parties other than the individual instructed, then: (a) Prior agreement must be obtained from the instructing solicitors; (b) The names of the individuals to be engaged and details of their experience and qualifications must be given. 6. Where a firm has been instructed, the names of the individuals to be assigned to the project and details of their experience and qualifications must be given on request. Terms of Business 7. Experts should provide Terms of Business for agreement prior to the acceptance of any instructions. These should include:
11 (i) Daily or hourly rates of the experts to be engaged on the assignment or alternatively an agreed reasonable fee for the project or services; (ii) Treatment of travelling time; (iii) Travelling or other expenses or outlays; (iv) Rates for attendance at court (note that this may be subject to a fixed limit); (v) Provision for payment of a specified fee in the event of late notice of cancellation of a court hearing; (vi) Provision for preferred timing of payment. Professional conduct 8. Experts must comply with the Code of Conduct of any professional body of which he/she is a member. Confidentiality 9. The identity of the client or any information about the client acquired in the course of the commission shall not be disclosed by the expert except where consent has been obtained from the client or where there is a legal duty to disclose. 10. A solicitor is usually under a duty to pass on to the client all information material to the client s case; exceptional circumstances where this may not apply, and where it will be necessary for the solicitor to decide whether to disclose such information to the client, include cases where it could be harmful to the client because it will affect the client s mental or physical condition (for example, a medical report disclosing a terminal illness). Independence 11. Experts will bear in mind that: (a) When giving evidence at court, the role of a witness of fact, or an expert witness, is to assist the court and remain independent of the parties; (b) A solicitor must not make or offer to make payment to a witness contingent upon the nature of the evidence given.
12 12. Experts will disclose to solicitors at the start of each project any personal or financial or other significant circumstances which might influence work for the client in any way not stated or implied in the instructions, in particular: (a) Any directorship or controlling interest in any business in competition with the client; (b) Any financial or other interest in goods or services (including software) under dispute; (c) Any personal relationship and/or professional relationship, and the nature thereof, with any individual involved in the matter; (d) The existence but not the name of any other client of the expert with competing interests; (e) Whether the expert has worked with the expert instructed by the opposing party (if known). 13. Any actual or potential conflict of interest must be reported to the solicitor as soon as it is raised or becomes apparent and the assignment must be terminated. Investigation 14. Experts should consider whether there is a need to see the client, visit a site etc, and if so, agree the practical arrangements with the solicitor in advance. 15. In the case of medical reports: (a) If the doctor has treated the patient before, ensure that the patient s consent has been obtained to the release of the information contained in the notes and that such consent is informed consent; (b) If the doctor has not treated the patient before, ensure that the patient s consent is obtained to the examination and to the disclosure of their records to the doctor; and, where practicable, consent of the other doctors involved in the care of the patient should be obtained before releasing information held by them. Preparation of the report 16. The report should cover: (a) Basic information such as names and dates; (b) Purpose in presenting the report, and description of matter investigated;
13 (c) The history of the matter; (d) Methodology used in investigation; (e) Details of any documents used; (f) Facts ascertained; (g) Inferences drawn from the facts, with reasoning; (h) Summary of the expert s qualifications and experience. 17. Plain English should be used and any technical terms explained. 18. Copies of any document or papers referred to in the report should be provided; any items referred to may be subject to recovery by commission in any court proceedings and experts should ascertain from instructing solicitors whether or not in view of that it is appropriate to refer to documents provided by the solicitor; it is unnecessary to copy widely and easily available documents. 19. The expert s final report should be dated and signed by the individual(s) who will if required give evidence in support of it. Complaints procedure (if requested) 20. Experts should provide a procedure for resolving complaints by solicitors, including the following: (a) If there is a complaint, the expert must give the solicitor client the name of the person to contact in the event that they are dissatisfied with the service provided; (b) In the event of a complaint being made, the expert should: (i) Tell the solicitor what the procedure will be for resolving the complaint; (ii) Respond appropriately offering any appropriate redress in a timely manner; (iii) If the solicitor remains dissatisfied, give them the names and addresses of any professional or trade bodies of which the firm or the individuals assigned to the commission are members; (iv) Identify the cause of any problem and correct any unsatisfactory procedure.
14 (c) In the event of allegations relating to an Expert s failure to adhere to the above Code of Practice or any breach of their contract with the instructing solicitors, The Law Society of Scotland and W. Green reserve the right to exclude such an Expert from any future edition of the Directory of Expert Witnesses. References to the Directory 21. An expert listed in the Directory may describe themselves as so listed. The expert may not refer to this listing as a qualification or describe themselves as approved, accredited, or recommended by The Law Society of Scotland and W. Green.
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