1 Designing and Teaching a Course with a Critical Thinking Focus Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) Lunch and Learn Seminar Facilitator: Dr Mervin E. Chisholm Manager/Coordinator, CETL
2 Objectives To decide on ways to add critical thinking approaches to courses from the design stage To determine how critical thinking approaches can be applied during the teaching of courses.
3 What is Critical Thinking? and Why is it so Important? the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action (Scriven & Paul, 2007, p. 1).
4 Why Focus on Critical Thinking? Students who are able to think critically are able to solve problems effectively. To be effective in the workplace (and in their personal lives), students must be able to solve problems to make effective decisions; they must be able to think critically.
5 How Critical Thinking Relates to Instructional Design Critical thinking is to knowing as listening is to hearing. This implies that critical thinking is a learned skill. It must be developed, practised, and continually integrated into the curriculum to engage students in active learning.
6 How Critical Thinking Relates to Instructional Design To support the premise that critical thinking is learned, focused attention needs to be placed on the application of content, the process of learning, and methods of assessment.
7 Promoting Critical Thinking/1 In terms of the application of content, teaching techniques that promote memorization) do not support critical thinking. Some content, require memory, however, it is the application of the content that stimulates thinking.
8 Promoting Critical Thinking/2 Teaching for the development of critical thinking calls for the use of questioning techniques Plan questions
9 Promoting Critical Thinking/3 Use questioning approaches that call on students to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information to solve problems and make decisions (think) rather than merely to repeat information (memorize).
10 Asking the Right Questions o What do you think about this? o Why do you think that? o What is your knowledge based upon? o What does it imply and presuppose? o What explains it, connects to it, leads from it? o How are you viewing it? o Should it be viewed differently?
11 Teaching Strategies Teaching strategies that employ students higher-order thinking skills lead to improved critical thinking skills (Duplass & Ziedler, 2002; Hemming, 2000; Wong, 2007). Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering
13 Remembering The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information Describing Finding Identifying Listing Retrieving Naming Locating Recognizing Can students recall information?
14 Understanding Student grasps meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned Classifying Comparing Exemplifying Explaining Inferring Interpreting Paraphrasing Summarizing Can students explain ideas or concepts?
15 Applying Student makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned Implementing Carrying out c = Using Executing Can students use the information in another familiar situation?
16 Analysing Student breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information Attributing Comparing Deconstructing Finding Integrating Organizing Outlining Structuring Can students break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?
17 Evaluating Student makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment Checking Critiquing Detecting Experimenting Hypothesising Judging Monitoring Testing Can students justify a decision or a course of action?
18 Creating Student creates new ideas and information using what previously has been learned Constructing Designing Devising Inventing Making Planning Producing Can students generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?
19 Assessment/1 Assessment activities should emphasize thinking rather than facts (Ennis, 1993). Graded assignments, quizzes, or tests should become intellectual challenges rather than memory recall (Schafersman, 1991).
20 Assessment/2 Subjective tools such as essay questions and case studies require students to apply their knowledge to new situations and are better indicators of understanding than objective true/false or standardized multiple-choice assessments.
21 Assessment/3 It is possible to create multiple-choice questions that require critical thinking. For example, a question that asks students to identify the example that best applies a specific concept requires more critical thinking and analysis than a question that asks students to identify the correct term for a given definition.
22 Modeling/1 Students must learn how to think critically before they can apply the skill to content scenarios. Modeling can be demonstrated in a discussion setting by asking a question and walking students through the process of critically thinking.
23 Modeling/2 To enhance students processing skills, it is important to review test questions and explain correct answers by modeling the critical thinking process (Brown & Kelly, 1986; Duplass & Ziedler, 2002; Schafersman, 1991
24 Critical Thinking Activities/1 Critical thinking activities should be based on a structure that includes four elements: ill-structured problems, criteria for assessing thinking, student assessment of thinking, and improvement of thinking (Broadbear, 2003, p. 7).
25 Critical Thinking Activities/2 Ill-structured problems are questions, case studies, or scenarios that do not have a definite right or wrong answer; they include debatable issues that require reflective judgment.
26 Critical Thinking Activities/3 For example: Asking students to evaluate comparable websites, such as Appliance Traders and Courts, will require them to think about the contents of the websites, their format, and their usability. Right and wrong = X
27 Critical Thinking Activities/4 The second element, criteria for assessing thinking, provides students with a framework for thinking about their thinking. 1. Why do you think Appliance Trader s navigational menus are easier to use than Courts? 2. Why do you like one s colour scheme over the other? 3. What is your perspective based upon?
28 Critical Thinking Activities/5 Student assessment of thinking (feedback) Providing students with individualized feedback based on their responses allows them to address specific criteria upon which they can assess their thinking, which is the third element. Model the criteria for assessing thinking and provide a framework, and students will eventually apply these techniques on their own (Lundquist, 1999).
29 Critical Thinking Activities/6 Finally, the process concludes with improvement of thinking. When opportunities are created for students to think about their thinking processes and practice logical constructs, students will become more willing to reconsider and revise their thinking (Duplass & Ziedler, 2002).
30 Guiding Students Critical Thinking Assign students to two-person teams; one student might be assigned the role of the problem-solver, and the other is the peer coach.
31 Guiding Students Critical Thinking Using the Six Steps to Effective Thinking and Problem Solving, or IDEALS (Facione, 2007), the problem-solver works through a case study or activity by responding to questions from the peer coach. The IDEALS are to Identify, Define, Enumerate, Analyze, List, and Self-Correct:
32 Guiding Students Critical Thinking I D E Identify the Problem: What is the real question we are facing? Define the Context: What are the facts that frame this problem? Enumerate the Choices: What are plausible options?
33 Guiding Students Critical Thinking A Analyze Options: What is the best course of action? L List Reasons Explicitly: Why is this the best course of action? S Self-correct: Look at it again what did we miss?
34 References Brown, M. N., & Kelley, S. M. (1986). Asking the right questions: A guide to critical thinking, 7th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Broadbear, J. T. (2003). Essential elements of lessons designed to promote critical thinking. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(3), 1 8. Duplass, J. A., & Ziedler, D. L. (2002). Critical thinking and logical argument. Social Education, 66(5), Ennis, R. H. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory Into Practice, 32(3), Facione, P. A. (2007). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Retrieved January 2, 2008, from cthinking7.htm Hemming, H. E. (2000). Encouraging critical thinking: But what does that mean? Journal of Education, 35(2), 173.
35 References Ladyshewsky, R. K. (2006). Peer coaching: A constructivist methodology for enhancing critical thinking in postgraduate business education. Higher Education Research and Development, 25(1), Lundquist, R. (1999). Critical thinking and the art of making good mistakes. Teaching in Higher Education, 4(4), Scriven, M., & Paul, R. (2007). Defining critical thinking. The Critical Thinking Community: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Retrieved from Schafersman, S. D. (1991). An introduction to critical thinking. Retrieved from thinking.html Tempelaar, D. T. (2006). The role of metacognition in business education. Industry and Higher Education, 20(5),
Building Critical Thinking Skills in General Education and Career Programs Wayne County Community College District Presented By: Mary Mahoney Jo Ann Allen Nyquist College Definition of Critical Thinking
Alignment of Taxonomies Bloom s Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain Bloom s Taxonomy Cognitive Domain Revised Cognitive Demand Mathematics Cognitive Demand English Language Arts Webb s Depth of Knowledge Knowledge
IACBE Advancing Academic Quality in Business Education Worldwide Bloom s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives and Writing Intended Learning Outcomes Statements International Assembly for Collegiate Business
Resources for Writing Program Learning Outcomes Supplementary Materials for Writing and Revising Learning Outcomes Workshop Presented Jointly by TLA and Student Affairs LEVEL OF SPECIFICITY AND REACH Learning
APPENDIX Revised Bloom s Taxonomy In 1956, Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues published the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, a groundbreaking book that classified
2.5: Inquiry Tutor/Student Handout 2.5.1 (1 of 2) Three-Story House (Costa s Levels of Questioning) To better understand the content being presented in their core subject areas, it is essential for students
Degree- Level Expectations and Course Learning Outcomes Introduction to DLEs Degree-Level Expectations (DLEs) are a threshold framework for the expression of the intellectual and creative development of
Revised Bloom s Taxonomy Revised Bloom s Taxonomy (RBT) employs the use of 25 verbs that create collegial understanding of student behavior and learning outcome. Bloom s Revised Taxonomy Taxonomy of Cognitive
HONORS INDEPENDENT STUDY GUIDELINES: According to the Lake Land College catalog course description, independent study is designed to permit the student to pursue a course of study not typically available
Course Design Each course offered at DSU plays a role in the completion of General Education and/or degree/program learning goals. Be sure to align course learning objectives with these learning goals.
Insights From Research on How Best to Teach Critical Thinking Skills Teaching in a Digital Age In today s world, students need to learn critical thinking skills in the classroom so that they can use critical
Bloom s Taxonomy Each of the three categories requires learners to use different sets of mental processing to achieve stated outcomes within a learning situation. Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999) was an educational
Writing learning objectives This material was excerpted and adapted from the following web site: http://www.utexas.edu/academic/diia/assessment/iar/students/plan/objectives/ What is a learning objective?
The Learning Skills Pyramid Brett A. Brosseit, 2013 To develop strong critical thinking and legal analysis skills, students need to: Develop new patterns of thinking Understand the mental processes they
B E S T PRACTICES NEA RESEARCH BRIEF Learning and Teaching July 2006 This brief outlines nine leading research-based concepts that have served as a foundation for education reform. It compares existing
Ellermann, Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning in the Health Sciences, Facione and Facione (eds.), California Academic Press. 1 Measuring Thinking Worldwide This document is a best practices essay
SLOs, Bloom s Taxonomy, Cognitive, Psychomotor, and Affective Domains. Benjamin Bloom (1948) developed classifications of intellectual behavior and learning in order to identify and measure progressively
SLO Action Verbs Action verbs are abundant in the English language, but how to do we know which ones are right to include in our SLO statements? Benjamin Bloom, an American educational psychologist, created
Instructional Design Educating Today s Students for Tomorrow Susan Owens MS OTR Instructional Design Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and
Approaches to learning (ATL) across the IB continuum Through approaches to learning in IB programmes, students develop skills that have relevance across the curriculum that help them learn how to learn.
DEEPER LEARNING COMPETENCIES April 2013 Deeper learning is an umbrella term for the skills and knowledge that students must possess to succeed in 21 st century jobs and civic life. At its heart is a set
CREATING LEARNING OUTCOMES What Are Student Learning Outcomes? Learning outcomes are statements of the knowledge, skills and abilities individual students should possess and can demonstrate upon completion
Getting Started A working definition of a performance-based objectives: A Learning objective is a statement that describes the specific skills or knowledge a student will be able to demonstrate as a result
Writing Learning Outcomes What is a learning outcome? Learning outcomes are statements that indicate what learners will know or be able to do at the completion of a learning experience (program, conference,
Degree- Level Expectations and Course Learning Outcomes Introduction to DLEs Degree-Level Expectations (DLEs) are a threshold framework for the expression of the intellectual and creative development of
Fornreris and Campbell, Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning in the Health Sciences, Facione and Facione (eds.), California Academic Press. 1 Measuring Thinking Worldwide This document is a best practices
Essays on Teaching Excellence Toward the Best in the Academy A Publication of The Professional & Organizational Development Network in Higher Education Vol. 19, No. 5, 2007-2008 Building Assignments that
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR DEVELOPING EXPERTISE Rebecca L. Fiedler, Ph.D. Kaner, Fiedler & Associates, LLC AN EXPERT IS... someone widely recognized as a reliable source of technique or skill whose faculty
CHAPTER 5 : COURSE AND UNIT DESIGN AND QUALITY All Curtin Courses are designed to ensure graduates are skilled in; leadership, research, Australian Indigenous knowledges and perspectives; and work-integrated
Writing Student Learning Outcomes for an Academic Program Student learning outcomes (SLOs) are statements of the knowledge, skills, competencies, or attitudes that students are expected to gain through
Framework for the Doctoral Transformation: Application of a Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The doctoral learning process is life changing. It begins with the decision to seek the doctorate and becomes
9-12 Critical Thinking/Problem Solving Goal A: [Student] will develop inquiry skills (identification and evaluation of evidence, use of analysis and synthesis to guide decision making and communicate clearly
Bloom s Taxonomy: A New Look at an Old Standby Traditional Hierarchy of Thinking Processes In 1956, Benjamin Bloom wrote Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain, and his sixlevel description
GEORGIA STANDARDS FOR THE APPROVAL OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION UNITS AND EDUCATOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS (Effective 9/01/08) Kelly Henson Executive Secretary Table of Contents Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge,
CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING RUBRIC GRADUATE PROGRAMS Adapted from the AACU LEAP rubrics, the Bases of Competence skills, Ontario Council of Academic Vice-Presidents Graduate Degree Level Expectations,
Engineering 398/English 398 Professional Communication for Engineers Program Overview, Fall 2008 English 398 Curricular Timeline Pre-2006 English 398N (3 Credits): Professional Communication for Engineers
AP PSYCHOLOGY 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 A. Annabelle is planning to apply to college but has not yet decided where she will apply. Describe how the following psychological concepts and terms relate
USING THE PRINCIPLES OF ITIL ; SERVICE CATALOGUE Examination Syllabus V 1. October 009 ITIL is a Registered Trade Mark of the Office of Government Commerce in the United Kingdom and other countries APMG
Developing Your Course Outline Facilitator: Dr. Mervin E. Chisholm h Manager/Coordinator, IDU What Will We Be Doing Today? Use instructional design models and to decide on appropriate it approaches to:
Outcome-Based Education Outcome based education A student-centred learning system focusing on measuring student performance. Does not specify any specific style of teaching just that the student be able
ERIC Identifier: ED348128 Publication Date: 1992-09-00 Author: Hirose, Shannon Source: ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges Los Angeles CA. Critical Thinking in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest. The issue
A Guide for Writing Student Learning Outcomes Office of the Provost University of Florida Continuous Quality Enhancement Series Institutional Assessment Timothy S. Brophy, Director Website: http://assessment.aa.ufl.edu/
Learning Outcomes Workbook Student Services How to write Learning Outcomes Academic Affairs July 2012 Overview of the Learning Outcomes Workbook This workbook will serve as your introduction to the concept
What is independent learning and what are the benefits for students? Author(s): Bill Meyer, Naomi Haywood, Darshan Sachdev and Sally Faraday Publisher: London: Department for Children, Schools and Families
Developing Data Workshops BDK 31-01 Best practices for engaging audiences and using the BDK resources Jackie Wirz, PhD Oregon Health & Science University BD2K Open Educational Resources Oregon Health &
LEARNING THEORIES Ausubel's Learning Theory David Paul Ausubel was an American psychologist whose most significant contribution to the fields of educational psychology, cognitive science, and science education.
1 High-Impact Practices and Experiences from the Wabash National Study In our research thus far, we have found that four broad categories of teaching practices and institutional conditions predict growth
PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION SCHEME INTERMEDIATE QUALIFICATION SERVICE CAPABILITY OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AND ANALYSIS CERTIFICATE SYLLABUS Page 2 of 21 Document owner The Official ITIL Accreditor Contents OPERATIONAL
Webb Webb s Depth of Knowledge Guide Career and Technical Education Definitions 2009 1 H T T P : / / WWW. MDE. K 12.MS. US H T T P : / / R E D E S I G N. R C U. M S S T A T E. EDU 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Overview...
Five High Order Introduction The high technology like computers and calculators has profoundly changed the world of mathematics education. It is not only what aspects of mathematics are essential for learning,
TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (Excerpts from Linn and Miller Measurement and Assessment in Teaching, 9 th ed) Table 1 Major categories in the cognitive domain of the taxonomy of educational objectives
Rationale Writing clear course objectives is important because: Objectives define what you will have the students do. Objectives provide a link between expectations, teaching and grading. Stating clear
1 MINOR IN EDUCATION STUDIES Rationale The purpose of this minor is to provide NTU students with the opportunity to gain exposure to key developments in education and training as future professionals in
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Educational Psychology - Slavin, Ninth Edition Psychology 207 Mr. Conjar Chapter 1: Educational Psychology - A Foundation for Teaching 1. Define educational psychology and state its
Department/Academic Unit: Economics Degree Program: MA Degree Level Expectations, Learning Outcomes, Indicators of Achievement and the Program Requirements that Support the Learning Outcomes Expectations
Type Description Purpose Advantages Disadvantages Suggestions for use Minute Paper At the end of class students are asked to use index cards or half-sheets of paper to provide written feedback to the following
The University of Tennessee, Memphis Writing Learning Objectives A Teaching Resource Document from the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Planning and Prepared by Raoul A. Arreola, Ph.D. Portions of this
Writing the Literature Review / Using the Literature Most research reports and theses have a literature review, which discusses the "literature" around your research topic. The lit. review is often the
Arkansas Teaching Standards The Arkansas Department of Education has adopted the 2011 Model Core Teaching Standards developed by Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) to replace
ADEPT Performance Standards for Classroom-Based Teachers Revised ADEPT Performance Standards for Classroom-Based Teachers Introduction Central to the ADEPT system is a set of expectations for what teaching
Inquiry, the Learning Cycle, & the 5E From the Guidelines for Lesson Planning from the Electronic Journal of Science Education: The National Science Education Standards (NSES,1996) define inquiry as: Inquiry
Three domains of learning Leslie Owen Wilson all rights reserved Three domains of learning What are the differences between the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor taxonomies? There are three main domains
2 We are all accustomed to periodic summative testing for achievement, but in this chapter the importance of requiring mastery of fundamentals as the baseline for evaluation, regardless of the level of
What is a learning outcome? A learning outcome states what a student should be able to do or know as a result of having completed a particular course or program. Learning outcomes can include knowledge,
New Faculty Orientation 2012 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT & LEARNING STYLES LEARNING AND TEACHING This student-centered perspective is a hallmark of the CSUDH approach to teaching. We strive to empower instructors
Bill Cerbin UW La Crosse, Center for Advancing Teaching & Learning Prioritize the subject matter What subject matter topics, ideas, concepts are 1. Essential 2. Important 3. Worth being familiar with Use
PRACTICUM OBJECTIVES AND LEARNING GOALS 1. To help students translate into practice in a particular setting the concepts and principles taught in the classroom. 2. The learning opportunities are designed
The purpose of this brief is to provide Iowa educators with a clear understanding of what is meant by rigorous and relevant curriculum as a characteristic of effective instruction of the Iowa Core. A rigorous
WORLD-CLASS INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT The English Language Learner CAN DO Booklet Grades 9-12 Includes: Performance Definitions CAN DO Descriptors For use in conjunction with the WIDA English
COGNITIVE & K Critical and Creative Thinking: Students combine and apply artistic and reasoning skills to imagine, create, realize and refine artworks in conventional and innovative ways. The student will
Developing Critical Thinking: Student Perspectives LILAC 10 Discussion Paper Dr Angus Nurse, University of Lincoln SUMMARY/ABSTRACT This discussion paper relates to the interim findings of a research project
PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION SCHEME INTERMEDIATE QUALIFICATION SERVICE CAPABILITY PLANNING, PROTECTION AND OPTIMIZATION CERTIFICATE SYLLABUS The Swirl logo is a trade mark of the Cabinet Office ITIL is a
DiSC Behavioral Profile for: Paul Persuader Personalized Description and Success Strategies from the Personal Profile System Strategies for Sales Management Dimensions of Behavior 06-19-2002 1998 by Inscape
PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION SCHEME INTERMEDIATE QUALIFICATION SERVICE CAPABILITY SERVICE OFFERINGS AND AGREEMENTS CERTIFICATE SYLLABUS Page 2 of 23 Document owner The Official ITIL Accreditor Contents SERVICE
Writing a Course Paper Capella University 225 South 6th Street, 9th Floor Minneapolis, MN 55402 1-888-CAPELLA (227-3552) Table of Contents Creating Major Sections... 3 Writing Fundamentals... 7 Expressing
Janet Russell CNDLS Workshop Goals: 1) Teaching vs. Learning goals Participants will be able to distinguish between teacher-centered and student-centered learning goals. 2) Articulate a set of learning
VIDEOCONFERENCING TEACHING ACTIVITIES VIDEOCONFERENCING TEACHING ACTIVITIES As suggested in the document Videoconferencing: Instructional Design Considerations, there is a tendency for students to remain
Bloom's Taxonomy Revised Key Words, Model Questions, & Instructional Strategies Bloom s Taxonomy (1956) has stood the test of time. Recently Anderson & Krathwohl (2001) have proposed some minor changes
Robin Fogarty & Associates Presents: Critical Thinking Skills of Common Core Robin J. Fogarty, Ph.D. email@example.com Author of: A School Leaders Guide to the Common Core Solution Tree Press (Spring
NW COLORADO BOCES ALTERNATIVE LICENSURE PROGRAM 1 *For specific online course requirements, please refer to the attached course handout entitled Comprehensive Online Teacher Induction Program and Alternative
TOOL 1 HESS COGNITIVE RIGOR MATRIX (READING CRM): Applying Webb s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels to Bloom s Cognitive Process Dimensions Revised Bloom s Taxonomy Webb s DOK Level 1 Recall & Reproduction Remember
Overview 9 th grade English Research Report/Expository Essay Unit 2006-2007 Aya Allen The Effects of Marijuana Grade 9 2 weeks Overview of unit: This unit is a response to a non-fiction article. Students
AP French Language and Culture Curriculum Framework 2011 2012 Contents (click on a topic to jump to that page) Introduction... 3 Structure of the Curriculum Framework...4 Learning Objectives and Achievement
1. Change Leadership: A structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. 2. Coaching: Organizational Development Theories and Techniques
Universal Design for Learning: Best Practice in Inclusive Education Dr. Patricia McDaid Special Education Service Agency Anchorage, AK firstname.lastname@example.org Agenda Brief introduction to Universal Design for