Legal Issues Abound in World of Telecommuting Including: Workers Compensation, Tax Issues, And Compliance with ADA and OSHA Regulations

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1 Legal Issues Abound in World of Telecommuting Including: Workers Compensation, Tax Issues, And Compliance with ADA and OSHA Regulations Prepared by Ken Winter, September 2007 VDOT Research Library 530 Edgemont Road Charlottesville, VA Ph: (434) Fax: (434) KEY SEARCH TERMS: Telecommuting Telecommute Telecommuters Home Office Workers Laws Research Synthesis Bibliography No. 12 Research Synthesis Bibliographies (RSBs) are distillations of relevant transportation research on current topics of interest to researchers, engineers, and policy/decision makers. Sources cited are available for loan (or available through Interlibrary Loan) to VDOT employees through the VDOT Research Library.

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3 While Telecommuting Gains Momentum, It Remains Fraught with Practical and Legal Considerations: Caution is Advised in Assessing Benefits and Liabilities Telecommuting is defined as using telecommunications technology to allow employees to work from remote locations (including the field, while traveling, or most typically from their homes) instead of commuting to a conventional workplace at a conventional time. By definition, telecommuting decentralizes, defying conventional notions of how work, workers and the workplace are structured. Technological advancements in the form of better network connectivity, faster handheld devices, and improved and less expensive portable computing are creating more opportunity for many workers to work outside the office. In addition, state and federal governments are beginning to emulate private industry by revising and updating their policies to add telecommuting as a means of attracting and retaining skilled white-collar workers, and to remain flexible and competitive in today s tight labor market. Proponents argue that telecommuting can improve productivity, while helping employees balance life demands. Opponents argue that there are many pitfalls in telecommuting, including isolation, lessened productivity, and reduced teamwork, synergy and camaraderie. A literature search reveals that telecommuting cases are gaining momentum in the workplace and in the courtroom. Both employers and the courts are reconciling this new paradigm with employment laws that predate modern technology. The most common legal liability seems to stem from workers compensation concerns and the fact that it is often unclear precisely when telecommuters are working, when are they preparing to work, and when they have temporarily stopped working. In addition, there have been some cases where employees requested telework arrangements as a reasonable accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act. In 2000 a trial balloon on regulating home offices caused an uproar in the popular press and OSHA issued a formal directive to soothe concerns about possible intrusions into workers' homes, stating that it will not inspect home offices for violations of federal safety and health rules, and it does not expect employers to do so either. Still, many employers remain wary of telecommuting. These are just a few of the issues that have sprung up around telecommuting. The following literature search presents a wide variety of articles covering the topic from many different angles. Many emphasize the need for (and some give examples of) telecommuting agreements and an understanding of how teleworkers will be managed. Some also clarify alternative work arrangements that take advantage of telecommuting technology and opportunities as alternatives to full-time telecommuting. Those options include but are not limited to: job sharing, flex time, partial telecommuting, working as an independent contractor, and working as a leased or contract employee. --- Ken Winter, MLIS

4 Databases Searched for this RSB InfoTrac J-STOR LegalTrac Legal Periodicals Full Text TRIS Online TRANSPORT WorldCat OVERVIEW Research Synthesis Bibliographies (RSBs) are selected lists of resources on current topics of interest to VDOT employees or divisions. When available, links to online documents are provided. In some cases the library has printed copies of these documents and that is indicated. RSBs are selective listings, organized and distilled from the larger universe of materials to save the researcher s time. Selection criteria used by library staff include authority, relevance, and timeliness. GETTING RESOURCES LISTED HERE Full text copies of all resources listed in this document are available in the VDOT Research Library s collections, via online links, or through Interlibrary loan. In many cases, the VDOT Research Library owns both virtual and hard copies of documents, as well as formats such as CD-ROM. Library staff is available Monday-Friday 8:00-5:00. Don t hesitate to contact us if you have a reference question, a question about our lending policies, or need any other kind of help. Library Checkout and Interlibrary Loans Requests: Misty Boos, Circulation Assistant Reference Questions: Ken Winter, Director Library/Info. Services Cataloging & Technical Services Questions: Pat DeSalvo, Associate Librarian

5 INITIAL READING The following books, reports and articles provide a good overview of the issues involved with telecommuting contracts and practice, including some information published by federal, state, or local government agencies. There are a few reports affiliated with Departments of Transportation. Many of these reports and articles focus on legal aspects of telecommuting and several offer practical guidance on key points to consider when creating a telecommuting program or in creating employee telecommuting agreements. City Of Seattle Employee Telecommuting Policy Project PUB. DATE: 1990s SOURCE: Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, Public Technology, Energy Program, et al., [i], 11, [6] : ill. ; 27 cm.; Geographic: Seattle (Wash.) -- Officials and employees -- Transportation.; Note(s): "A Project of the Public Technology, Inc. Energy Program."/ Funding: Performed by the Seattle Engineering Department and funded through the Urban Consortium and the U.S. Department of Energy.; General Info: Phase I final project report./ January 1992-June 1, 1993.; Responsibility: Urban Consortium Energy Task Force.; Entry: ; Update: ABSTRACT: unavailable ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan. The Costs And Benefits of Telecommuting : A Review And Evaluation Of Micro- Scale Studies and Promotional Literature SOURCE: Kevan R. Shafizadeh, Partners for Adanced Transit and Highways (Calif.), California, et al., v; ill. ; 28 cm.; Note(s): "Performed... in cooperation with the State of California Business, Transportation, and Housing Agency, Department of Transportation; and the United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration."/ "August 2000."/ Includes bibliographical references (p )./ Also available on the Internet. Adobe Acrobat Reader required.; Responsibility: Kevan R. Shafizadeh... [et al.] (University of California, Davis).; Date of Entry: ; Update: ABSTRACT: In this report, four small-scale telecommuting pilot project studies that take into account costs and benefits are reviewed for their methodology and assumptions. The report identifies common inputs, critical assumptions, and limitations of the studies. In addition, the major findings of each study are presented and compared to claims found in promotional literature. It is found that few pilot evaluations contained cost-benefit results. ACCESS: Conference Proceedings, Minnesota Telecommuting Conference, May 15-16, 1991, Bloomington, Minnesota PUB. DATE: 1991 SOURCE: Mary E. Brauer, Minnesota and Dept. of Transportation., 79 p. ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Includes bibliographical references (p. 64).; Responsibility: sponsoring organizations, Minnesota Department of Transportation... [et al.] ; edited by Mary Brauer. ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan 1

6 The Expanding Workplace: Telecommuting and Legal Liability Under OSHA, ADA, and Workers' Compensation PUB. DATE: 1999 SOURCE: David R. Wade. Labor Law Journal, Vol. 50, No. 4, p ABSTRACT: The trend toward telecommuting work arrangements poses challenges to established employment law doctrines. Although precise estimates of the number of telecommuters is difficult to establish, it is frequently reported that there were 11.1 million telecommuters in the U.S. in 1997, compared with 8.5 million in Moreover, telecommuting, and other flexible work place arrangements, will become increasingly common in the coming years. As a result, concerns and difficult questions with regard to employment law will also become more prevalent, and legislative guidelines or administrative rules will be needed in order to assist the decision-making bodies that are called on to adjudicate in such cases. DATABASE: Legal Periodicals Full Text Final Evaluation Report On Year One of The Hawaii Telework Center Demonstration Project PUB. DATE: 1991 SOURCE: Anonymous, SMS Research, Hawaii and Dept. of Transportation., 59, [2] leaves : map ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Cover title./ "January 8, 1991."; Responsibility: SMS Research ; prepared for Department of Transportation, State of Hawaii. Final Report On Telecommunication Shared Resources Legal And Institutional Issues PUB. DATE: 1997 SOURCE: United States and Dept. of Transportation., Named Corp: United States. Dept. of Transportation -- Management. Homework SOURCE: William J. Kilberg. Employee Relations Law Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, p. 1. ABSTRACT: The Labor Department has been reluctant to recognize that many of its policies and interpretations are out of step with a changing workplace. On November 15, 1999, the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) of the Department of Labor responded to a two-year-old query from CSC Credit Services in Houston asking what its obligations would be if it permitted some of its sales executives to work at home. Although the Safety and Health Act applies to "workplaces" without defining them, OSHA's letter disregards any duty the agency might have to provide a rational definition of the Act's language and assumes that the Act must apply. Although ordering the letter withdrawn in the wake of protest from Congress, business groups, and others, neither the Secretary of Labor nor the Assistant Secretary for OSHA exhibited any appreciation for the silliness of 2

7 their policy, and, instead, both reasserted that home work sites are subject to government regulation, irrespective of the nature of the activity involved. Jobs today are more flexible and adaptable to the U.S. worker, and telecommuting has offered employees new freedom, but instead of welcoming these trends, the Department is extending its authority to oppose them. House Will Scrutinize DOL Letters; OSHA Advisory On Telecommuter Safety Prompts a Hearing SOURCE: Anonymous, National Law Journal, 02/07, Section 22, Issue 24, p. B1. Implementing Telecommuting PUB. DATE: 1994 SOURCE: Wendell H. Joice, United States, Dept. of Transportation, et al., 38 p. ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Cover title./ In cooperation with the Technology Sharing Program./ "Interagency Telecommuting Program."/ "DOT-T "/ Report: DOT-T ACCESS: Available at the VDOT Research Library, Call Number: HD 2336.U5 J International Workshop on Planning Regional Telecommuting Programs Workshop Proceedings PUB. DATE: 1997 SOURCE: Katherine F. Turnbull, United States, Dept. of Transportation, et al., ix; ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Workshop held Nov. 3-5, 1997 at the Arnold and Mable Beckman Center, Irvine, Calif./ "May 1997."/ Funding: "Presented by U.S. Department of Transportation and the Travel Demand Management Committee, Telecommunications and Travel Behavior Committee, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council." The Law of Telecommuting PUB. DATE: 2001 SOURCE: Nicole Belson Goluboff and American Law Institute-American Bar Association Committee on Continuing Professional Education., xxvii; ; 24 cm.; Note(s): Includes bibliographical references and index.; Responsibility: Nicole Belson Goluboff. Long Arm: Does OSHA's Reach Extend To Employees Working At Home on Company-Provided Computers? 3

8 SOURCE: Linda S. Peterson. Tennessee Bar Journal, Vol. 36, No. 11, p. 14. A Look At What Some States Are Doing. Florida's Telecommuting Pilot Program SOURCE: Anonymous, AASHTO Quarterly Magazine, Vol. 71, No. 4, p ABSTRACT: A 2-year state employee telecommuting pilot program was enacted by a law in Florida in The Florida Department of Transportation was afforded the opportunity to participate in the program. The law defines telecommutng as a work arrangement whereby selected state employees are allowed to peform the normal duties and responsibilities of their positions, through the use of computers or telecommunications, at home or another place of work. This article briefly describes how designated employees routinely work at home two to four days a week, and report to the central office to attend meetings, collect assignments and other materials. Experience across the country shows energy savings, pollution reduction and higher job satisfaction. DATABASE: TRIS Online ACCESS: Available at the VDOT Research Library. Minnesota Department of Transportation 1998 Employee Telecommuting Survey Results : A Report Generated By Minnesota Department of Transportation's Sustainable Transportation Initiatives Group, Office of Advanced Transportation Systems PUB. DATE: 1999 SOURCE: Mary E. Jackson, Minnesota, Dept. of Transportation, et al., ii, 28, [2] leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.; Named Corp: Minnesota. Dept. of Transportation -- Officials and employees - - Attitudes.; Note(s): "March 1999."/ Includes bibliographical references. ACCESS: Available at the VDOT Research Library. NOTE: Telecommuting and the Americans With Disabilities Act: Is Working at Home a Reasonable Accommodation? PUB. DATE: 1997 SOURCE: Anonymous. Minnesota Law Review, 05/01. DATABASE: LexisNexis Academic Universe Off-Premises Policy; While California Law On Workplace Safety For Telecommuters Is Still Unclear, Employers Can Minimize The Potential For CAL- OSHA Liability By Taking A Few Proactive Steps (California Law Business) PUB. DATE: 1999 SOURCE: Manik K. Rath and Kimberly Ann Gates. Los Angeles Daily Journal, Section 112, Issue 211, p. S18. 4

9 Old Law Vs. The New Economy: How New Deal-Era Regulations Stifle Flexible Work Arrangements SOURCE: James V. DeLong. Government Union Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, p. 1. Orientation To Telecommuting : Trainers' Guide and Participant Workbooks PUB. DATE: 1994 SOURCE: United States, Dept. of Transportation, United States, et al., ill. ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Cover title./ "Intragency Telecommuting Program."/ "DOT-T-94-27"--P. 4 of cover./ Report: DOT-T-94-27; Responsibility: U.S. Department of Transportation [and] U.S. General Services Administration. OSHA Instruction: Subject: Home Based Worksites ABSTRACT: This instruction provides guidance to OSHA's compliance personnel about inspection policies and procedures concerning worksites in an employee's home. This instruction supersedes all previous statements and guidance on the subject. ACCESS: OSHA Still Eyes Rules On Home Offices; Study Is Requested On Bosses' Duty To Make Telecommuting Safe SOURCE: Emily Heller. National Law Journal, Section 22, Issue 22, p. B1. Report Of The Virginia Employment Commission on The Potential Benefits of Telecommuting To The Governor and The General Assembly Of Virginia PUB. DATE: 1994 SOURCE: Virginia Employment Commission, House Document No. 13. ACCESS: Available though the VDOT Research Library, Call Number: J 87.V9 1991c no.13 Report to The Minnesota Legislature on Telecommuting In The Twin Cities Metropolitan Area PUB. DATE: 1994 SOURCE: Minnesota and Dept. of Transportation., 1 v. (various pagings) : ill. ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Title from cover./ "April 20, 1994."/ Includes bibliographical references.; Responsibility: by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. 5

10 ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan. Sample Telecommuter's Agreement SOURCE: Thomas J. Griffith. Corporate Counsel's Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 2, p Sample Telecommuting Policy SOURCE: Anonymous. Corporate Counsel's Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 4, p. 96. State Tax Implications of Employing Telecommuters PUB. DATE: 2005 SOURCE: Deborah Rood and Karen Nakamura. The Tax Advisor, Vol. 36, No. 6, p ABSTRACT: As the trend to hire telecommuters becomes increasingly prominent and telecommuting options continue to grow, in-house tax directors and business advisers must ask more detailed questions about the kinds of activities that management and employees conduct in the various states. From a state tax perspective, the key consequences include personal income-tax withholding obligations; sales and use tax collection and remittance obligations; corporate franchise and income-tax obligations; and other miscellaneous tax and filing obligations, including local taxes and unemployment insurance filing obligations. DATABASE: Legal Periodicals Full Text Statewide Operating Instructions for Employee Telecommuting PUB. DATE: 1999 SOURCE: California, Dept. of Transportation and Building Operations Center., 1 v. ; 28 cm.; Named Corp: California. Dept. of Transportation -- Officials and employees -- Telecommuting.; Note(s): "September 1999."; Responsibility: prepared by State of California, Department of Transportation, Building Operations Center. The Status Of Telework In the Federal Government PUB. DATE: 2005 SOURCE: United States, Office of Personnel Management, United States, et al., 69; ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Electronic version includes 4 appendices: Appendix A: Section 359 of Public Law Appendix B: 2004 Telework Survey -- Appendix C: House Report Appendix D: Section 630(a) of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act./ Also available on the Internet on the OPM/GSA telework website: 6

11 ACCESS: Telecommuter Law: A New Frontier In Legal Liability PUB. DATE: 2001 SOURCE: Dawn R. Swink. American Business Law Journal, Vol. 38, No. 4, p Telecommuting : How Much? How Soon? PUB. DATE: 1994 SOURCE: Hopkins, John B. O'Donnell, John. Ritter,Gary T., United States and Dept. of Transportation., p , IVHS America. Meeting (4th : 1994 : Atlanta, Ga.). The proceedings of the 1994 annual meeting of IVHS America. Washington, D.C. : IVHS America, Vol. 2. (OCoLC) ; Note(s): Includes bibliographical references (p ). ACCESS: Available at the VDOT Research Library, Call Numbers: TE I v.1 and TE I v.2 Telecommuting : Moving The Work To The Workers : A Handbook To Help You Set Up A Program At Your Company PUB. DATE: 1991 SOURCE: United States, Federal Highway Administration, California, et al., i; col. ill., forms ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Cover title./ "Prepared through grants from the United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Commission, with the cooperation of the State of California Department of Transportation"--P. [2] of cover.; Responsibility: Commuter Transportation Services, Inc., CommuterComputer.; Entry: ; Update: BACCESS: Available at the VDOT Research Library, Call Numbers: HD 2333.T Telecommuting Feasibility Analysis Report PUB. DATE: 1995 SOURCE: Tele-Commuter Resources, Minnesota and Dept. of Transportation., 34, [3] leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.; Named Corp: Minnesota. Dept. of Transportation -- Personnel management.; Note(s): Title from cover./ "October, 1995."; Responsibility: prepared for Minnesota Department of Transportation. The Telecommuting Phenomenon: Overview And Evaluation PUB. DATE: 1985 SOURCE: Southern California Association of Governments, Transportation Planning Dept 7

12 and Special Studies Section., chart ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Performed by Southern California Association of Governments, Transportation Planning Department, Special Studies Section/ "March 1985."/ Includes bibliographical references (p ). ABSTRACT: This report describes the different kinds of telecommuting; provides a number of existing examples; discusses potential advantages and disadvantages and other issues related to telecommuting; examines estimates of the extent and impacts of telecommuting; and offers some suggestions for action on the part of local governments. Telecommuting Pilot Project for The Southern California Association of Governments PUB. DATE: 1986 SOURCE: Los Angeles, California, Central City Association, Telecommunications Task Force, Telecommuting Subcommittee, 26 pages. ACCESS: Available through the VDOT Research Library, Call Number: HD 2336.U5 T Telecommuting Programs In Texas : Case Studies PUB. DATE: 1996 SOURCE: Katherine F. Turnbull, Texas Transportation Institute, Report Number: FHWA/TX-96/1446-2F, Includes Bibliographical references (p ), 59 pages. ABSTRACT: This study examines telecommuting programs at six agencies and businesses within Texas. The characteristics of the programs are summarized and the experiences with telecommuting are presented. Available reports, interviews with management personnel and telecommuters, and surveys of telecommuters are used to assess the telecommuting programs at the eight case study sites. Additional information is also summarized on other activities at the state and national levels. The study summarizes the sketch planning tools for assessing the potential for telecommuting in major Texas cities and for analyzing the impacts on the transportation system developed in an early phase of the project. Key elements of successful telecommuting programs are identified and policies the state and other groups can use to support telecommuting are outlined. Recommendations for implementing the results of the research are also identified. ACCESS: Available through the VDOT Research Library, Call Number: HD T4 T Telecommuting: A Checklist for Program Implementation SOURCE: Janet G. Payton. Corporate Counsel s Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 61. Telecommuting: The New Workplace Of The '90s PUB. DATE: 1996 SOURCE: Barry A. Hartstein and Mark L. Schulman. Employee Relations Law Journal, Vol 8

13 21, p ABSTRACT: Telecommuting should not be implemented by employers without a careful consideration of the legal risks involved. Apart from discrimination concerns--especially under the Americans with Disabilities Act--there are clearly potential risks of workers' compensation and Fair Labor Standards Act claims. Therefore, employers should develop both procedural guidelines and agreements with employees that clearly set forth the parameters of any telecommuting arrangement. Privacy implications and Family and Medical Leave Act considerations are discussed. Telework in Montana State Government: Limited Scope Performance Audit PUB. DATE: 2003 SOURCE: Jim Wingard Nelson Mike and Montana. Legislature. Legislative Audit Division., 1 v. (pagination varies) ; 28 cm.; Note(s): "Report to the Legislature."/ "03P-01."; Responsibility: Legislative Audit Division, State of Montana. ACCESS: Work A Little Magic : How To Start Your Own Telecommuting Program PUB. DATE: 1993 SOURCE: Virginia, Governor's Telework/Telecommuting Advisory Task Force, 83 pages. ABSTRACT: Not available. ACCESS: Available through the VDOT Research Library, Call Number: HD 2336.U6 V Work Structures Of The 21st Century: Implications For The Employment Law Practitioner PUB. DATE: 2001 SOURCE: Deborah S. Crumbley. Labor Law Journal, Vol. 52, No. 4, p ABSTRACT: Legal and policy issues related to evolving work structures that differ from traditional US employer/employee relationships are discussed. Alternative work arrangements covered include job sharing, flex time, telecommuting, independent contractor arrangements, and leased or contracted relationships. ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan Working At Home At Your Own Risk: Employer Liability For Teleworkers Under The Occupational Safety And Health Act Of 1970 SOURCE: Dutrow, Kelli L.,student author. Georgia State University Law Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, p DATABASE: Legal Periodicals Full Text ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan 9

14 SECONDARY READING There are many aspects of telecommuting that bear consideration by both employer and employee. These secondary readings discuss many important details at length, including but not limited to: managing telework employees, specific case studies or liability issues, issues related to technology, insurance, and ADA and OSHA compliance. Because these reports and articles are either very specific in focus or seem of secondary importance, they are grouped together. Application Group, Inc. v. Hunter Group, Inc. {61 Cal. App. 4th 881 (1998)} PUB. DATE: 1999 SOURCE: Kahn, Mark A.,student author. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, p 283. Application Group, Inc. v. Hunter Group, Inc.; 61 Cal. App. 4th 881 (1998). ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan. Beyond The Border; Seattle Civil Rights Lawyer Plans To Telecommute From Central American Country.(Pat Stiley) PUB. DATE: 1999 SOURCE: Ashby Jones. Los Angeles Daily Journal, Issue 167, 8/30, Section 112, p 4. ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan. Cardozo Tax Professor Assessed Twice For Working Out Of State.(New York And Connecticut Tax Laws) SOURCE: John Caher., New York Law Journal, Issue 93, p 1. ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan. Changes In 'Homework' May Make Current Regulatory Debate Moot. (Home Labor) PUB. DATE: 1986 SOURCE: Lenny Siegel. Los Angeles Daily Journal, 10/02, p 4. ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan. Comment: Telecommuting: A Reasonable Accommodation Under The Americans With Disabilities Act As Technology Advances PUB. DATE: 2006 SOURCE: Anonymous, Regent University Law Review, 01/01, ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan. 10

15 Corporate Counsel's Primer On Telecommuting PUB. DATE: 2003 SOURCE: Janet G. Payton and Business Laws., 40 p. ; 28 cm.; Note(s): Author from page 1./ Cover title./ Includes bibliographical references (p. 35).; Other Titles: Telecommuting; Responsibility: [Janet G. Payton].; Entry: ; Update: ABSTRACT: 1. Introduction The benefits and pitfalls of telecommuting The legal implications of telecommuting Conclusion. ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan Court First To Rule On Telecommuting: Unemployment Benefits Available In State Where Employee Is Physically Present PUB. DATE: 2003 SOURCE: John Caher. New York Law Journal, Vol. 230, No. 3, p. 1 DATABASE: InfoTrac Do You Know Where Your Employees Are? And Do You Know What They Are Doing? The Virtual Work Environment Has Created A Legal Obstacle Course PUB. DATE: 2001 SOURCE: Stephen A. Fuchs. New Jersey Law Journal, Vol. 166, No. 11, p. 28. Does OSHA's Reach Extend To Employees Working At Home On Company- Provided Computers?(Long Arm) SOURCE: Linda S. Peterson. Los Angeles Daily Journal, 02/24, Issue 37, p 7. Electronic Communications And The Law: Help Or Hindrance To Telecommuting? PUB. DATE: 1998 SOURCE: Jennifer C. Dombrow. Federal Communications Law Journal, Vol. 50, No. 5, p 685. The Enforceability Gap of Covenants Not To Compete In Telecommuting Employment Relationships PUB. DATE: 1996 SOURCE: Kuo, Emily J.,student author. Univeristy of Chicago Legal Forum,

16 Equality In The Virtual Workplace PUB. DATE: 2003 SOURCE: Michelle A. Travis. Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law, Vol. 24, No. 2, p From A Distance: Legal Telecommuters Find A Place At Home; How Do You Manage Them? PUB. DATE: 1999 SOURCE: Catherine Pennington Paunov. Legal Management, Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 48. From Workplace To Work Space; The Increase In Telecommuting Is Raising A Host Of Legal And Management Issues.(Labor & Employment) PUB. DATE: 1996 SOURCE: Maggie Murray Courtney and Lisa A. Lavelle. Legal Times, 06/10, Section 19, p.s30. The Home Office And The Tax Home: Where Are They In The Virtual World Of The Wi-Fi Society? PUB. DATE: 2006 SOURCE: James A. Fellows and Michael A. Yuhas. Taxes: The Tax Magazine, Vol. 84, No. 2, p. 29. Home Work Problems; Employers Must Address Liabilities Of Telecommuting SOURCE: Andrew M. Reidy. ABA Journal, Vol. 86, p.70. ABSTRACT: The increase in telecommuting, the need for employer awareness of the legal liabilities of this arrangement, and the liability insurance products available to employers with telecommuting programs are discussed. Employers should have a written policy on telecommuting and make sure existing insurance polices cover telecommuters. Home Work; Telecommuting Is A Rapidly Growing, But Legally Troublesome Trend PUB. DATE: 1999 SOURCE: Mary Micheletti. Los Angeles Daily Journal, Vol. 117, No. 74, p

17 Home-Based Workers: Data From The 1990 Census Of Population PUB. DATE: 1996 SOURCE: Linda N. Edwards and Elizabeth Field-Handley. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 119, p. 26. ABSTRACT: While the Current Population Survey of 1991 revealed that 33% of US workers do some of their work at home, only 14.5% of those worked more than 35+ hours at home. Analysis of the Public Use Microdata Sample of 1991 shows that home-based workers are predominantly (63%) self-employed versus only 5.5% of on-site workers. Home-based workers are mostly female, they work nonstandard hours, and are more likely to live in rural areas. This suggests that work flexibility is the most important aspect of home working for home workers. How To Manage The Work Space (Workplace Injuries) PUB. DATE: 1996 SOURCE: Maggie Murray Courtney and Lisa A. Lavelle. New Jersey Law Journal, Vol. 146, p. S6. Huckaby v. New York State Division of Tax Appeals: In Upholding the Current Tax Treatment of Telecommuters, the Court of Appeals Demonstrates the Need for Legislative Action PUB. DATE: 2006 SOURCE: Bentley, Meredith A.,student author., PD: Bibliographic footnotes; CC: Huckaby v. N.Y. State Div. of Tax Appeals; 829 N.E.2d 276 (N.Y. 2005). St. John s Law Review, Vol. 80, No. 3, p. 1,147. Information At The Speed Of Life : Deciphering The Law Of Nevada Telecommunication SOURCE: Marshall, Kathleen M. McMillan, Kristin B. Pongracz, Ann C. and National Business Institute., 2 v. (471) p. ; 28 cm.; Note(s): "08T2908."/ "This manual was prepared to accompany the faculty's presentation"--[i].; Other Titles: Deciphering the law of Nevada telecommunication. Insuring The Workplace In The Age Of Telecommuting (Legal Technology) PUB. DATE:

18 SOURCE: Clarissa L. Wieiant. New Jersey Law Journal, Vol. 148, p. S2. Is The DOL Regulating Through The Back Door?: The Significance Of Its Interpretative Letters SOURCE: Heather L. MacDougall. Employee Relations Law Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, p. 47. ABSTRACT: Recent interpretative letters issued by the U.S. Department of Labor regarding telecommuting and stock options have set off a firestorm of opposition from the business community, the public, and legislators. These controversies have called into question the relevance of such guidance, its applicability beyond the party who sought the letter, and the impact on employers generally. To some extent, this depends upon the amount of deference courts will grant such agency interpretations. Deference principles have been part of our jurisprudence for most of our country's history. These principles, at first glance, seem relatively straightforward. For example, when a statute is ambiguous, a reviewing court is to accept the governing administrative agency's interpretation and its relevant regulations. However, in practice, this apparent clarity of deference principles is deceiving, not only to practitioners but also to the federal courts. In particular, there is confusion with regard to what deference is owed interpretative rules, such as interpretative letters and advisory memorandum issued by a governing agency. The federal courts have impeded clarity on this issue by applying a variety of deference standards to these interpretative rules. In addition, since not all agency interpretations wind up being reviewed by a court, this article explains the practical significance of interpretative rules--no matter what level of deference the courts determine to apply. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. Keeping In Touch... Or Not SOURCE: Richard A. Leiter. Legal Information Alert, Vol. 21, No. 6, p. 9. DATABASE: InfoTrac The Law of Telecommuting SOURCE: Bryan M. Carson. Legal Information Alert, Vol. 21, No. 4, p. 18. DATABASE: InfoTrac Legal And Employment Issues Related To Telecommuting SOURCE: John R. Paddock. The Colorado Lawyer, Vol. 29, No. 2, p

19 The Legal Side Of Telecommuting SOURCE: Kim M. Hastings. For the Defense, Vol. 42, No. 12, p. 34. DATABASE: Infotrac Limit Employer Liability (From The Bakersfield California)(Editorial) SOURCE: Anonymous. Los Angeles Daily Journal, Section 113, No. 6, p. 6. N.J. Firms Offer Telepractice' as Hiring Incentive PUB. DATE: 2001 SOURCE: Sandy Lovell. New Jersey Law Journal, Vol. 163, No. 13, p. 29. The Need For Workers' Compensation In The Age Of Telecommuters PUB. DATE: 2001 SOURCE: Duckworth, Matthew B.,student author., Journal of Small & Emerging Business Law, Vol. 5, No. 3, p DATABASE: Legal Periodicals Full Text New Wage-And-Hour Issues, Safety Issues And Workplace Violence Considerations Are Raised By Telecommuting Employees Of Your Firm PUB. DATE: 1998 SOURCE: Mike Tonsing. The Federal Lawyer, Vol. 45, p. 19. New York May Tax Nashville Programmer Who Spends Only A Quarter Of Time In State SOURCE: John Caher. New York Law Journal, Section 227, Issue 115, p

20 New York's "Convenience-Of-The-Employer" Rule: From Defending The Fisc To Punishing Telecommuters: Ken Smith And Matt Cristy Suggest How To Preserve New York's Convenience-Of-The-Employer Rule, While Still Encouraging Telecommuting PUB. DATE: 2006 SOURCE: E. Kendrick Smith. Journal of State Taxation, Vol. 24, No. 3, p. 17. DATABASE: InfoTrac NOTE: Electronic Communications and the Law: Help or Hindrance to Telecommuting? PUB. DATE: 1998 SOURCE: Anonymous. Federal Communications Law Journal, 05/01. DATABASE: LexisNexis On The Increasing Presence of Remote Employees: An Analysis of The Internet's Impact On Employment Law As It Relates To Teleworkers PUB. DATE: 2001 SOURCE: Joan T. A. Gabel and Nancy Mansfield. University of Illinois Journal of Law, Technology & Policy, Vol. 2001, No. 2, p Opportunities In Using The Office-In-Home Deduction Of Code Sec. 280A (Tax Deductions For Home Offices, Telecommuting) SOURCE: Donald T. Williamson. Taxes: The Tax Magazine, Vol. 80, No. 1, p. 19. ABSTRACT: Tax Code rules applicable to home office and telecommuting tax deductions are outlined. Topics include the five business uses of a home, allocation of expenses to the business portion of a home, transportation expenses associated with a residence used in trade or business, and reporting requirements. Out of Sight, Out Of Mind, Into Court PUB. DATE: 2007 SOURCE: Daniel J. McCoy. National Law Journal, 01/08. DATABASE: InfoTrac Potholes For Teleworkers: Transportation Deduction Rules Present A Hazard For Flexible Work Arrangements PUB. DATE: 2004 SOURCE: William V. Vetter. Taxes: The Tax Magazine, Vol. 82, No. 12, p

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