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1 Chapter 1 : AMERICAN-DUTCH HISTORY (19th and 20th century) - The NAF Dutch Enterprise in the 20th Century: Business Strategies in Small Open Country (Routledge International Studies in Business History) [Keetie E. Sluyterman] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This is the first book to summarise the twentieth century economic history of the Netherlands from a business history perspective. Multinational Enterprise and Transnational Regions offers an innovative approach to the study of the history of transnational economic regions. The Rhine valley is such a region comprising the cities and areas along the Rhine river and its tributaries. The transition from coal to oil that unfolded between and rapidly transformed the region, shattering some of the old river-based connections and creating new ones with the introduction of large-scale cross-border oil pipelines. Multinational enterprises shaped these new regional connections but divergent national government responses gave rise to differentiated development in different parts of the Rhine valley. Multinational Enterprise and Transnational Regions argues that processes of regional change should be understood from transnational interconnections rather than from local or national perspectives. It will be of relevance to academics and researchers with an interest in regional and transnational European history, international business, environmental history, and business history, as well as practitioners interested in the oil industry, energy and energy history, business history and international business, and associated disciplines. Though in its infancy, the European enterprise has the power to change both the perception and the actual face of Europe. This book evaluates the future potential of this new type of enterprise. The contributors look for European convergence at all levels of the economy: They stress various points of view, using diverse methods, and propose different measures. The financial crisis of brought new urgency to the question how best to organise national economies. This volume gives a business history perspective on the Varieties of Capitalism debate and considers the respective merits of the liberal and coordinated market economies. It looks at individual firms and business people as well as institutions and takes a long-term perspective by covering the whole 20th century. The authors examine both continuity and change with a particular focus on the Netherlands, a nation with an open economy, situated between two countries that oppose each other in the way they organize their economies: Germany and Great Britain. Contributors address the main topics of the capitalism debate, including labour relations, corporate governance, the firm and its leaders, coordination between firms, innovation, multinationals as agents of change, and economic performance. They show that the Netherlands moved from a mostly liberal market economy before towards a coordinated market economy from the s onwards, and â up to a certain extent â back again to a more liberal market economy. Under both varieties of capitalism the country experienced economic growth and stagnation, but a more equal division of wealth occurred in the coordinated market economy only. Wars and international economic crises offered moments for revaluation and changes of tack. This book raises questions for every country around the globe: How is change being brought about? Can one see different results from a liberal or a more coordinated market economy? In the first four chapters the long development of the economy is analysed in detail. Central to this part of the book are the rise and decline of managerial enterprise; the growth and fall of trade unions; and the expansion and crisis of the welfare state. The particular Dutch features of these institutional changes are highlighted. The second part of the book deals with different periods of growth from, and, and relative stagnation, and Page 1

2 Chapter 2 : Dutch Enterprise In The 20th Century Download ebook PDF/EPUB This study is the result of my work in the field of Dutch business history during the past twenty years, which included the writing of a number of company histories. First of all I want to thank the company executives who entrusted the writing of the history of their company to me (and my colleagues. Contact Author American Gothic, a famed painting from the twentieth century that failed to define itself within the bounds of the largest art movements of the time. Source The twentieth century was one of particular worldwide upheaval, ranging from wars to economic downturns to radical political movements. No one can disagree that the years between and were years of extreme change for artists all over the world. These changes were boldly reflected in the works of avante-garde artists throughout the century. Classical art was being challenged more and more as waves of nationalism and imperialism spread over the world in the early half of the twentieth century. Artists explored extreme and varying themes in the years before and after World War I, and those same themes were revisited in the aftermath of World War II, creating an interesting parallel. This article is divided into two sections: Art Movements Timeline from Art Movements from Timeline created by Shanna Click on image for larger size. Bright vivid colors and somewhat abstract forms characterized Fauvism and Expressionism. Source Fauvism and Expressionism By the turn of the century, artists were rapidly making their departure from more classical works and were seeking to express themselves through different means. Fauvism was the short lived name for the longer-lasting art movement called Expressionism. From about to artists sought to explore emotions in new ways, employing the use of bright, vivid colors and emotional images and subjects. This movement is most well known for capturing the creations of such famous artists as Henri Matisse. The Fauvism movement eventually faded into the calmer, more thoughtful expressionistic art as Fauvism- which came from the word Fauves meaning wild beasts- lost popularity. The addition of geometric figures to expressionism style paintings characterized the Cubism movement. Source Cubism and Primitivism Pioneered by Pablo Picasso, Cubism sought to deepen the consideration that expressionist artists had created by rendering objects and ideas from different angles, seeking to break up and analyze things. Primitivism was similar by extension and was influenced by American colonization and exploration in the early s. This art movement was also rather short and reached its height in the years between and, extending and intermingling with the Futurism movement, although art scholars agree it had reached the end of its lifetime by Futurism Movement One of the lesser known art movements, the Futurism art movement did not produce any works of art that are still widely known by the world today. However, futurism was an important political tool used by artists in the years leading up to World War I. In fact, some scholars believe the unrest associated with the futurism movement may have served as propaganda for World War I. The movement advocated societal revolution and changes in the way art was made and produced. Largely an Italian movement, the Futurism movement featured growing unrest and unhappiness with the economic climate that was producing larger separations between the working and upper classes. Source Dada art By the end of World War I, artists were realizing that the Futurism movement was not the answer to their problems. World War I left artists across the world disillusioned, angry and bitter. Their art was irrational and their ideas were a radical departure from centuries of art forms. The Dada movement espoused strange and radical ideals as they explained in one of their many art manifestos: Dada spits on everything. Dada has no fixed ideas. Dada does not catch flies. Dada is bitterness laughing at everything that has been accomplished, sanctified Dada is never right No more painters, no more writers, no more religions, no more royalists, no more anarchists, no more socialists, no more politics, no more airplanes, no more urinals Like everything in life, Dada is useless, everything happens in a completely idiotic way We are incapable of treating seriously any subject whatsoever, let alone this subject: The art produced during the Dada movement was fascinating in the abstract principles and ideas it sought to portray. Often the artists of the Dada era sought to mock more classical and conventional artists, as Marcel Duchamp did when he submitted an old urinal to an art museum as a piece of work. Dada was the final explosion of the Futurism movement and gave way to surrealism by Surrealism The anger after World War I gradually faded and was replaced by surrealism, a longer-lasting art movement that explored the Page 2

3 human psyche. Pioneered by such artists as Salvador Dali, the surrealism movement followed in the footsteps of many leading psychologists of the day in discovering dreams and exploring what made reality real. Characterized by strange paintings and dream-like qualities, art of the Surrealism movement is fascinating to look at and study today and is reminiscent of some of our strangest dreams and ideas. Surrealism was the return to a calmer art movement that sought to dig deeper into human consciousness, emotion and preference instead of overturning it. This World War II American propaganda shows the use of art in garnering public support for the war effort. Source Propaganda Many art scholars argue that all art has its roots in propaganda or religious ideas. While this sweeping generalization is still debated today, it is obvious that some art is indeed used first and foremost as propaganda. The end of the surrealism movement was marked by the beginning of World War II in Europe and propaganda was the movement of the day, with artists requisitioned to contribute to the war efforts and produce works of art that would motivate their country into supporting the war effort. The idea was to create a "righteous anger". Some of the most famous works of World War II propaganda came from the United States, which entered the war a bit late and had to garner support. Rosie the Riveter, Uncle Sam and other famous faces decorated propaganda art until the end of Timeline of Art Movements from to Timeline made by shanna It concerned a specific set of ideas related to human existence, thought and ideas that were abstract and were generally unique to each individual. Existentialism in art was similar to expressionism and renewed the same sort of cynical ideas about human existence. Art focused on angst, despair, reason, failings and many complex, dark and difficult emotions. Many of the artists were atheists and centered around what one art history textbook calls the "absurdity of human existence" Gardner. Francis Bacon is a noted artist from this time period with his work simply called "Painting" that portrayed a gruesome slaughterhouse scene and symbolic meaning in the life of man. A splatter-paint image done in the style of Jackson Pollock. Source Abstract Expressionism In the late s, Abstract Expressionism sprang up with the idea of expressing a state of mind. Considered the birth of "modern art", artists who painted during the Abstract Expressionism movement wanted viewers to really reach deeply for understanding of an image. They wanted the ideas about the painting to be free of conventional thinking and believed that their images would have a unique, instinctive meaning for each viewer. Some of the famed artists during this time period were Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko, using splatter-paint and other unusual methods to create abstract works of art. An image done in the style of Andy Warhol, who arguably extended and innovated the Pop Art movement. Source Pop Art A new brand of art called Pop Art emerged in the s as a surprising break-away from previous movements. Artists in the Pop Art movement felt that Abstract Expressionist art was alienating the audience and sought to use their art to communicate more effectively with the viewer. Roy Lichtenstein was the famed pioneer of this movement and used his art in a commercial way, expressing emotion and ideas in a very vividly appealing way that his audience could easily understand and relate to. The Pop Art movement is one of the most recognized movements of the twentieth century and as it morphed and expanded, famed artists like Andy Warhol became well known for their own similar brands of work. Superrealism Superrealism is in reality a very small movement that further interpreted the Pop Art movement in the s. However, superrealism produced works of art that were drastically different from pop art and past works. Artists during this movement brought a return to idealism and perfection in their art. Many artists during this time period created their works of art based off of photographs. A symbol of the s German Feminist movement and an example of art as propaganda. Source Neo-Expressionism and Feminism Superrealism crumbled beneath the powerful emotions that Neo-Expressionism and the Feminist movement sought to invoke with their works of art. Neo-expressionism was a return to the cynical artwork of the s and the Futurism movement but lacked the same angry feel. Instead, artists of this era wanted to produce a more careful, serious examination of emotion and expression. They wanted the viewer to be curious and think deeply instead of being enraged. With legislation like Title IX passed and other victories for the feminists, the art movement gradually gave way to the s and Performance Art. Performance Art The last decade of the twentieth century featured art that was largely labeled as Performance Art. This art characterized the growing use of personal computers and art was used liberally in new video games, movies, and other technological advances. Art was being used for performances sake and to catch the eye and appeal of the buyer. Art was Page 3

4 largely commercial in this last decade before the dawn of the twenty first century. Which was your favorite movement? Which was your favorite art movement? Page 4

5 Chapter 3 : Dutch East Indies - Wikipedia Dutch Enterprise in the Twentieth Century: Business Strategies in a Small Open Keetie E. Sluyterman. New York: Routledge, xiii + pp. Figures. While ongoing disagreement about exact stages exists, many economists have posited the following general states. These states are not mutually exclusive and do not represent a fixed order of historical change, but do represent a broadly chronological trend. Laissez-faire capitalism, a social system in which the government is exclusively devoted to the protection of individual rights, including property rights â one in which there exists absolutely no government intervention in the economy. Agrarian capitalism, sometimes known as market feudalism. This was a transitional form between feudalism and capitalism, whereby market relations replaced some but not all of feudal relations in a society. Mercantilism, where national governments sought to maintain positive balances of trade and acquire gold bullion. Industrial capitalism, characterized by its use of heavy machinery and a much more pronounced division of labor. Monopoly capitalism, marked by the rise of monopolies and trusts dominating industry as well as other aspects of society. Often used to describe the economy of the late 19th and early 20th century. Colonialism, where governments sought to colonize other areas to improve access to markets and raw materials and improve the standing of nationally based capitalist firms. Predominant in the s, notably as a response to the economic crises of the s. Welfare capitalism, where mixed economies predominated and governments sought to provide a safety net to alleviate the worst abuses of capitalism. The heyday of welfare capitalism in advanced economies is widely seen to be from to as major social safety nets were put in place in most advanced capitalist economies. This stage sees the rise of advertising as a way to promote mass consumption and often sees significant economic planning taking place within firms. Some economists also include the economies of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc in this category. Notable for being an economic model of fascism, it can overlap with, but is still significantly different from state capitalism. Financialization, or financial capitalism, where financial parts of the economy like the finance, insurance, or real estate sectors predominate in an economy. Profit becomes more derived from ownership of an asset, credit, rents and earning interest, rather than actual productive processes. Debates sometimes circle around how capitalism is defined, but a significant body of work has been able to bring substantive historical data to bear on key questions. One is associated with economic liberalism, with the eighteenth-century economist Adam Smith as a foundational figure, and one with Marxism, drawing particular inspiration from the nineteenth-century economist Karl Marx. Liberals tend to view capitalism as an expression of natural human behaviours which have been in evidence for millennia, and the most beneficial way of promoting human wellbeing. They tend to see capitalism as originating in trade and commerce, and freeing people to exercise their entrepreneurial natures. Marxists tend to view capitalism as a historically unusual system of relationships between classes, which could be replaced by other economic systems which would serve human wellbeing better. They tend to see capitalism as originating in more powerful people taking control of the means of production, and compelling others to sell their labour as a commodity. This sees capitalism originating in trade. Since evidence for trade is found even in palaeolithic culture, it can be seen as natural to human societies. The VOC was a driving force behind the rise of financial capitalism in the early modern period. By the early seventeenth century Dutch shipyards were producing a large number of ships to a standard design, allowing extensive division of labour, a specialization which further reduced unit costs. Within the Communist countries, the spectrum of socialism ranged from the quasi-market, quasi- syndicalist system of Yugoslavia to the centralized totalitarianism of neighboring Albania. One time I asked Professor von Mises, the great expert on the economics of socialism, at what point on this spectrum of statism would he designate a country as "socialist" or not. For it means that there is a functioning market in the exchange of private titles to the means of production. There can be no genuine private ownership of capital without a stock market: Other companies existed, but they were not as large and constituted a small portion of the stock market. If one looks closely at the Dutch in the seventeenth century we can see virtually every major feature of large-scale industry credited to the English two centuries later. Production was increasingly mechanised, as in Page 5

6 sawmilling ; standardised parts were deployed in manufacturing, especially in shipbuilding; modern financial markets were developed, underscored by the formation of the Amsterdam Bourse in And it was all underwritten by an agricultural system that did what all capitalist agricultures must do: Moore, Political Economy Research Centre Goldsmiths, University of London, December [24] The role of Dutch-speaking lands, especially present-day Flanders and the Netherlands in particular modern-day North Holland and South Holland, in the history of capitalism has been a much discussed and researched subject. The Dutch Republic was also an early industrialized nation-state in its Golden Age. The Dutch also played a pioneering role in the rise of the capitalist world-system. But the only states to be controlled by capitalists before the European transformation in the seventeenth century were semiperipheral capitalist city-states such as the Phoenician cities, Venice, Genoa, and Malacca. These operated in the interstices between the tributary states and empires, and though they were agents of commodification, they existed within larger systems in which the logic of state-based coercion remained dominant. The first capitalist nation-state was the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century. This coming to state power by capitalists in an emerging core region signaled the triumph of regional capitalism in the European subsystem. Moreover, in the Netherlands an entire people became imbued with the capitalist spirit; so much so, that in the 17th century Holland was universally regarded as the land of capitalism par exellence; it was envied by all other nations, who put forth their keenest endeavours in their desire to emulate it; it was the high school of every art of the tradesman, and the well-watered garden wherein the middle-class virtues throve. This notes that traditional mercantilism focused on moving goods from markets where they were cheap to markets where they were expensive rather than investing in production, and that many cultures including the early modern Dutch Republic saw urbanisation, and merchants amassing great wealth, without capitalist production emerging. In the wake of the Norman Conquest, the English state was unusually centralised. This gave aristocrats relatively limited powers to extract wealth directly from their feudal underlings through political means not least the threat of violence. These circumstances produced a market in leases. Landlords, lacking other ways to extract wealth, were incentivised to rent to those tenants who could pay the most, while tenants, lacking security of tenure, were incentivised to farm as productively as possible to be able to win leases in a competitive market. This led to a cascade of effects whereby successful tenant farmers became agrarian capitalists; unsuccessful ones became wage-labourers, required to sell their labour in order to live; and landlords promoted the privatisation and renting out of common land, not least through the enclosures. Twenty-first-century developments[ edit ] The twenty-first century has seen renewed interest in the history of capitalism, and "History of Capitalism" has become a field in its own right, with courses in history departments. They have grown in the aftermath of the financial crisis of â and the associated Great Recession. Notice the large commons area and the division of land into small strips. The mustard-colored areas are part of the demesne, the hatched areas part of the glebe. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, According to some[ which? Manorial arrangements inhibited the development of capitalism in a number of ways. Serfs had obligations to produce for lords and therefore had no interest in technological innovation; they also had no interest in cooperating with one another since they produced to sustain their own families. The lords who owned the land[ citation needed ] relied on force to guarantee that they were provided with sufficient food. Because lords were not producing to sell on the market, there was no competitive pressure for them to innovate. Finally, because lords expanded their power and wealth through military means, they spent their wealth on military equipment or on conspicuous consumption that helped foster alliances with other lords; they had no incentive to invest in developing new productive technologies. This crisis had several causes: These factors led to a decline in agricultural production. In response, feudal lords sought to expand agricultural production by expanding their domains through warfare; they therefore demanded more tribute from their serfs to pay for military expenses. In England, many serfs rebelled. Some moved to towns, some purchased land, and some entered into favorable contracts to rent lands from lords who needed to repopulate their estates. Lords who did not want to rely on renters could buy out or evict tenant farmers, but then had to hire free labor to work their estates, giving them an incentive to invest in two very different kinds of commodity owners: The free workers were "free workers" in the double sense that they neither formed part of the means of production nor did they own the means of production that transformed Page 6

7 land and even money into what we now call "capital". Feudalism was mostly confined to Europe[ citation needed ] and lasted from the medieval period through the sixteenth century. Feudal manors were almost entirely self-sufficient, and therefore limited the role of the market. This stifled any incipient tendency towards capitalism. However, the relatively sudden emergence of new technologies and discoveries, particularly in agriculture [68] and exploration, facilitated the growth of capitalism. The most important development at the end of feudalism[ citation needed ] was the emergence of what Robert Degan calls "the dichotomy between wage earners and capitalist merchants". Enclosure Decaying hedges mark the lines of the straight field boundaries created by a Parliamentary Act of Enclosure. England in the 16th century was already a centralized state, in which much of the feudal order of Medieval Europe had been swept away. This centralization was strengthened by a good system of roads and a disproportionately large capital city, London. The economic foundations of the agricultural system were also beginning to diverge substantially; the manorial system had broken down by this time, and land began to be concentrated in the hands of fewer landlords with increasingly large estates. The system put pressure on both the landlords and the tenants to increase agricultural productivity to create profit; the weakened coercive power of the aristocracy to extract peasant surpluses encouraged them to try out better methods, and the tenants also had an incentive to improve their methods, in order to succeed in an increasingly competitive labour market. Land rents had moved away from the previous stagnant system of custom and feudal obligation, and were becoming directly subject to economic market forces. An important aspect of this process of change was the enclosure [71] of the common land previously held in the open field system where peasants had traditional rights, such as mowing meadows for hay and grazing livestock. Once enclosed, these uses of the land became restricted to the owner, and it ceased to be land for commons. The process of enclosure began to be a widespread feature of the English agricultural landscape during the 16th century. By the 19th century, unenclosed commons had become largely restricted to rough pasture in mountainous areas and to relatively small parts of the lowlands. Marxist and neo-marxist historians argue that rich landowners used their control of state processes to appropriate public land for their private benefit. This created a landless working class that provided the labour required in the new industries developing in the north of England. The earliest recorded activity of long-distance profit-seeking merchants can be traced back to the Old Assyrian merchants active in the 2nd millennium BCE. However, while trade has existed since early in human history, it was not capitalism. The city republics maintained their political independence from Empire and Church, traded with North Africa, the Middle East and Asia, and introduced Eastern practices. They were also considerably different from the absolutist monarchies of Spain and France, and were strongly attached to civic liberty. Painting attributed to John Riley. England began a large-scale and integrative approach to mercantilism during the Elizabethan Era. An early statement on national balance of trade appeared in Discourse of the Common Weal of this Realm of England, Queen Elizabeth promoted the Trade and Navigation Acts in Parliament and issued orders to her navy for the protection and promotion of English shipping. These efforts organized national resources sufficiently in the defense of England against the far larger and more powerful Spanish Empire, and in turn paved the foundation for establishing a global empire in the 19th century. It was written in the s and published in Numerous French authors helped to cement French policy around mercantilism in the 17th century. French mercantilism was best articulated by Jean-Baptiste Colbert in office, â, although his policies were greatly liberalised under Napoleon. Doctrines[ edit ] Under mercantilism, European merchants, backed by state controls, subsidies, and monopolies, made most of their profits from the buying and selling of goods. In the words of Francis Bacon, the purpose of mercantilism was "the opening and well-balancing of trade; the cherishing of manufacturers; the banishing of idleness; the repressing of waste and excess by sumptuary laws; the improvement and husbanding of the soil; the regulation of prices However, under mercantilism, given the contemporaneous rise of absolutism, the state superseded the local guilds as the regulator of the economy. Page 7

8 Chapter 4 : The Dutch Empire Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. Van Ark and De Jong, Accounting for economic growth,, p. In the Netherlands the service sector became more important as a source of employment than manufacturing. Flexibility became the new catchword. This underlines the constantly changing fortunes for businesses and their leaders. National income growth accelerated in many regions and most countries. Colonialism reached its highest point with Western countries scrambling for the last regions in Africa and Asia. Multinational trading companies and multinational banking increased their activities, international oil companies arose and multinational manufacturing developed in a wide range of products. The whole world would be revolutionised through technical inventions. Others, such as those in the chemical industry with its chemical fertilisers and dyes, were hidden within industry. The same goes for the opportunities created by the availability of cheap steel in the production of ships and later on in armaments, bicycles and cars. While inventors, producers and users shaped the new technologies, their own lives were in turn changed by them in an intricate process of reciprocity. All these technological innovations, coming together at the end of the nineteenth century, have been understood as the Second Industrial Revolution. Other economic historians see this period as the upswing period of the Third Kondratieff wave, boosted by electrical and heavy engineering with cheap steel as the key-factor. The last decades of the nineteenth century saw the rise of big business in manufacturing in the US, and to a lesser extent in Britain, Germany and France. As mentioned in the Introduction, the fascinating phenomenon of the rise of big business has been extensively analysed by the American business historian Alfred Chandler. They had been rural, agrarian and commercial and subsequently became industrial and urban. That transformation brought the most rapid economic growth in the history of mankind. The revolution in transport and communications made possible larger, faster and more regular movements of goods and raw materials. A new group of entrepreneurs moved quickly to exploit these market opportunities, using the new technologies of the Second Industrial Revolution to achieve economies of scale and scope. This led to a process of horizontal and vertical integration, either by internal growth or mergers. The real challenge for these companies came when faced with the problem of their internal organisation. Here the experiences in administrating national railway systems helped entrepreneurs to develop their own model. At the same time, ownership and control became more and more separated. Essential in creating the large manufacturing company in the new sectors of the Second Industrial Revolution were therefore, according to Chandler, the three-pronged investments in production, distribution and management. The result was the rise of mass production and mass consumption. Therefore, many of the big companies that arose after the s were still at the core of their national economies at the end of the twentieth century. The discussion on failure concentrated 20 Family-based management, â on the performance of Britain compared with the US and Germany. In particular, developments in the UK were compared negatively with those with the US. In his study of European big business, Youssef Cassis therefore broadened the analysis of Chandler by including big business outside the manufacturing industry in banking, insurance, transport and trading, in which sectors British companies did relatively well. Even in the US itself, a large sector of the economy was based on speciality manufacturing. In these favourable surroundings, the Dutch economy experienced a period of sustained growth. All sectors in the Dutch economy, agriculture, services and manufacturing, contributed equally. The Dutch felt as though they were at long last reconnecting with the major economic developments in Europe, taking their rightful place amongst their peers. Within Europe, the Netherlands belonged to the group of smaller countries, but because of its colonial empire it still considered itself one of the middle-ranking political powers. Around the Dutch were very much aware of their status as colonial power and their tradition in trading, dating back to their Golden Age of the seventeenth century. Their art and architecture demonstrated clear references to this period of glory. Gerard Philips and his father Frederik founded the Philips company as a family partnership in Gerard had studied mechanical Page 8

9 engineering at Delft University before taking up a job at a shipyard in Glasgow. There he developed an interest in electrical engineering Family-based management, â 21 and studied at Glasgow University. Together they chose a convenient production site in the south of the Netherlands, in the small town of Eindhoven, with good communications and cheap labour. In a small country like the Netherlands, with a modest home market, mass production also implied producing for foreign markets. Anton was learning the business at a stockbroker in London. Anton delighted in international travel, including a successful trip to Russia. Soon the exports surpassed the home sales. Petersburg, Yokohama, Surabaya and Buenos Aires, and employed about people, of which two-thirds were young women. In Philips introduced the The Philips brothers were in contact with a group of forward-looking employers in the Netherlands, who studied best practices in organising social funds such as sick funds and pension funds. The rising number of workers in the small town of Eindhoven demanded from the employers an active policy in housing and recreation. Philips and others could start up their business and experiment without having to pay huge licence fees or be involved with patent litigation. But, as mentioned, for a mass product such as light bulbs the Dutch home market was not large enough. In England and the US the patents would soon expire. Philips could therefore enter the foreign markets without the threat of litigation. In particular, the German company AEG tried to squeeze competitors out of the market through low prices. The Dutch producers, therefore, started 22 Family-based management, â negotiations with the German light bulb manufacturers in to reach a European-wide cartel agreement. It took two years to work out an agreement between the major European bulb manufacturers. In fact, it became predominantly a German cartel because the French and English producers backed off, afraid as they were of German domination. The participation in the cartel made the name of Philips known to customers and colleagues far outside its home market. The secure level of production enabled Philips to rationalise its production units and thus lower production costs. Because of the lack of patent protection in the Netherlands, Philips could once again experiment freely at home, but by exporting its products the company ran the risk of infringing existing patents and indeed became deeply involved in patent wrangles in Germany, England and the US. Though Philips disputed the various claims, in most cases it preferred to reach agreements in order to avoid long-lasting legal battles. Philips had to withdraw from the British market, but could continue to sell in the British colonies. In the US, General Electric and Philips agreed to wait for the outcome of the legal process, while in the meantime imports of Philips lamps into the US could go ahead. The company already had a chemical laboratory, but in a physics laboratory was added with the double task of doing practical as well as fundamental research. Philips considered following the example of the margarine producer Henry van den Bergh, who had turned to the London capital market, but in the end decided to remain a Dutch company. With a nominal share capital of six million guilders and about 2, employees Philips was small compared with its main foreign competitors, such as General Electric, Siemens and AEG. In the Dutch context it belonged to the top twenty largest manufacturing companies. It also represented the successful entrance of a Dutch company into one of the industries of the Second Industrial Revolution as a second mover. According to Van Zanden and Van Riel, the rise of the modern manufacturing industry took place from the mids onwards with a short interruption around Investment in machinery showed a marked growth after The manufacturers were stimulated to mechanise their production, because of the relatively high wages in comparison to the costs of coal and machinery. High real wages at the same time provided a growing market for consumer goods and stimulated the manufacturers to further increase production. The spread of the electric motor was remarkably fast in the Netherlands. In this dynamic context the manufacturing industry began to thrive. Between and the number of people employed in manufacturing rose 44 per cent. How balanced the economic growth in the Netherlands was during that period becomes clear when we compare the structure of employment. The division of the labour force over the three main sectors, agriculture, industry and services, remained by and large the same with roughly a third for each sector, though the general trend was already visible: Factories with a few hundred employees were no longer an exception. Dutch entrepreneurs took on new products such as bicycles and light bulbs. The joint stock company became more frequently used, even by manufacturing companies. Between and Dutch manufacturing clearly displayed growth and modernisation. Yet, all this was a far cry from the rise of the large managerial companies that took place elsewhere, particularly in the US. Page 9

10 Chandler gives no indication of size measured in workforce for his selection of big companies. His focus is more on the way the business enterprise is organised: Naturally these characteristics suggest a certain size, otherwise they would make no sense. Youssef Cassis, writing on Big Business in Europe, is more explicit. He gives two criteria for size: By far the largest companies both in terms of workforce and capital were in fact not manufacturing companies but the two major railway companies, Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatsspoorwegen and the Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg Maatschappij, with respectively 18, and 11, employees. This fact demonstrates that the transport revolution had taken place in the Netherlands. Equally large in workforce 18, was the government-owned postal and telegraph service PTT: All the other Dutch companies in employed less than 2, people, most of them far less than 1, As we saw, Philips had about employees in In this survey, the companies working in the Dutch colonies are not included. Public service companies, such as the municipal tramways and gasworks in Amsterdam, and a combination of municipal works in Rotterdam employed between 1, and 2, people. About twelve manufacturing companies had a similar size. These companies were to be found in the textile industry, the metal industry, especially shipbuilding, and glass and pottery Family-based management, â 25 industry. The dominant manufacturing industries at the turn of the century were textiles and metals shipbuilding, that is to say representatives of the First Industrial Revolution. Ten years later, at the outbreak of the First World War, the picture of company size was somewhat different. This points to a growth in company size. It is also a clear sign of the general growth of industry in the early twentieth century. Page 10

11 Chapter 5 : Dutch Enterprise in the 20th Century : Keetie E. Sluyterman : This is the first book to summarise the twentieth century economic history of the Netherlands from a business history perspective. It has a broad historical coverage of Dutch business development including in particular the major multinationals such as Philips, Shell, and Unilever. Although focused. Edited by staff members of the Roosevelt Study Center Middelburg, the Netherlands, Four Centuries is at once highly readable history as well as a treasure trove for professional and amateur historians alike. In the 17th and 18th centuries, US-Dutch relations were, to a large extent, shaped by Dutch-English rivalries; in the 19th century, Dutch immigration and bilateral trade and commerce dominated governmental relations; in the 20th century, Dutch-American relations became embedded within the transatlantic partnership. How unique was the relationship? Prior to, both countries â each in its own wayâ embraced and perfected democratic principles and institutions at home. During the 20th century, American and Dutch self-interests led them to promote liberal democratic ideas across their borders. Many trends and government policies in both countries â especially in the areas of trade, commerce and capital flows, human rights and security policyâ converged. Being the biggest amongst the smallest gave the Netherlands a voice. But it was Dutch loyality towards the U. Along with other Dutch and American sponsors, the NAF provided monetary support toward the publication of Four Centuries which was published coincident with the NY celebrations in September Carl Pegels professor emeritus at the University of Buffalo business school wrote a page volume on entrepreneurs either Dutch-born or of Dutch descent who started a number of major American businesses that now are often industry leaders. Harry Koch Koch Industries founded what is now the largest privately held energy firm. The entrepreneurs seized growth opportunities prevalent during their days and often kept ownership within their families. Virtually all of them also left their mark on their communities through significant charitable giving. No single volume can adequately capture the feats of these entrepreneurs. What did the Atlantic Community mean for the nations of North America and Western Europe during the s and early s? The book, spanning the period from Presidents Kennedy to Nixon, offers a wide-ranging set of views on this topic by European and American scholars. National perspectives from the main protagonistsâ the United States, Britain, France and West-Germany-are complemented by studies on the role of non-state institutions and public diplomacy in maintaining close transatlantic relations. The book moves from the high optimism of the Kennedy years, with the attempt to reframe transatlantic relations around two more equal poles in the United States and a uniting Europe, to the series of disagreements and disputes that energized transatlantic diplomacy during the Nixon years. In doing so, the book provides a unique overview of the main trends and troubles of the transatlantic relationship during a critical period and shows how various channelsâ both diplomatic and non-diplomaticâ were used to overcome them and maintain a strong alliance. Introduced with a sketch of the foundation and organization of U. First-hand stories of men and women who emigrated from the Netherlands to the United States, Canada, South Africa, etc. The Conflict of Civilizations,, Alfred A. Colonial and Revolutionary-era history. In his most influential work, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution, he sketches how distrust of power and government became part of the American culture. The success of the initial commercial ventures in Jamestown and New Amsterdam was limited; suppression of religious freedoms was rampant; and wars with the native Indians were just as, if not more, brutal as the religious wars many settlers had escaped in Europe. The definitive work on the enterprising, mostly Calvinist immigrants in the Chicago area. About 38, British, American and Polish paratroopers landed in three locations â east of Arnhem, near Nijmegen and near Eindhovenâ with the objective to build a bridgehead over the Rhine near Arnhem for a push into Northern Germany. It was a highly risky endeavor that ultimately failed. Losses dead and wounded exceeded 15, The British 1st Airborne division was decimated. Market Garden failed; towards the end of November, the Allies withdrew. Altogether, superb military history. McManus is a military historian at the University of Tennessee where he directs a project collecting first-hand experiences of WWII veterans. On September 14th,, Maastricht was the first major Dutch city liberated by the U. In November, a temporary American cemetery was established in the small village of Margraten 10 kilometers Page 11

12 east of Maastricht. In a tribute to their liberators, Dutch citizens had assisted the African-American grave diggers when the sheer number of fallen soldiers had overwhelmed them. On Memorial Day, General William Simpson, accompanied by 16 division and corps commanders and surrounded by 30, Dutch civilians, spoke at Margraten and laid a wreath on the grave on an unknown soldier. By the end of, Dutch citizens had adopted each grave and each of the missing. And every year thereafter, Dutch families â nowadays often children and grandchildren of those who were liberatedâ have tended to and placed flowers on the graves on Memorial Day. They have visited the families of the dead and missing, welcomed them to the Netherlands and continue to search for families of the dead and missing. Some seventy years after the war, the adoption waiting list is growing. For more information www. Each year, more than, visit Margraten. Bush came to honor 10, of his fallen countrymen. After first reaching a secret agreement with the Germans to supply millions of starving Dutch citizens, some, Germans finally surrendered to Canadian General Foulkes on May 5, Lieutenant-Colonel later Brigadier-General Denis Whitaker participated in liberating the shores along the Scheldt river and the isles of Walcheren and South-Beveland. After the war, he went back and interviewed hundreds of Dutch people before he wrote a moving personal account. A compelling account, including three chapters on the battle in the Netherlands, co-authored by a distinguished airborne combat leader, who retired as a colonel in Averell Harrimanâ who devised and implemented the Planâ â. Page 12

13 Chapter 6 : 20th Century Art Movements with Timeline Owlcation Read "Dutch Enterprise in the 20th Century Business Strategies in Small Open Country" by Keetie E. Sluyterman with Rakuten Kobo. This is the first book to summarise the twentieth century economic history of the Netherlands from a business history pe. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Lars Heide Keetie E. Dutch Enterprise in the Twentieth Century: Business strategies in a Small Open Economy. London and New York: Sluyterman demonstrates how business history can add the essential elements to our understanding. Sluyterman organizes the book chronologically in four periods. The first period covers the years from to, where the world economy expanded greatly. Dutch enterprises were very internationally oriented and were able to withstand international competition on the unprotected Dutch market. Philips, Royal Dutch Petroleum Company, and a few additional large enterprises emerged, but they remained managed by their owner families. Their international involvement was stimulated by business opportunities in the Dutch East Asian colony, now Indonesia. The second period encompasses the economically volatile years from to This period started with a war, where the Netherlands managed to stay neutral, but the government came to regulate foreign trade. Dutch enterprises answered the situation by seeking state protection and closer corroboration with the government, workers and colleague enterprises. An outcome was vertical and horizontal integration of enterprises, and in the s, large scale became a prominent feature in manufacturing industry. The collaboration between the government and enterprises became more distanced in the s and competition became more prominent. From to, Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands and Dutch business became a cog in the German war machine, while the whole population became impoverished. The Netherlands had a managed economy and Dutch enterprises continued their close and constructive relationship with the government, carried on their cartel agreements as far as possible, avoided conflict in labor relations, and used protective corporate governance structures. Dutch companies became larger and were managed more systematically. The United States was the main inspiration for ideas on management and business strategies. Though the Netherlands lost its main colony just after the war, Dutch enterprises resumed their place in the international economy and profited from the expansion of world trade through exports and foreign direct investment. The period started with an economic decline that the government had hoped could be [End Page ] avoided through management. As a consequence, managed economy lost its attraction, a spirit of free enterprise returned in full force and markets became increasingly global. Parts of the service sector also developed into large integrated and internationally operating companies. In manufacturing, however, the trend was the reverse with less integration, more alliances, and outsourcing. Both large and smaller companies participated in regional and national, as well as, international networks. The shaping of business in this period found international inspiration, particularly from the United States, though Dutch collaborative traditions remained strong in the field of labor relations. Throughout the sections, spanning the twentieth century, Sluyterman addresses central themes in current business history discourse, such as the rise of the managerial company, the survival of family firms, the success and failure of mergers, tensions in labor relations, businessâ government relations, and globalization of industry. Her application of these themes and concepts on the development of Dutch enterprise contributes to our understanding of their potentials. Furthermore, this comprehensive history of Dutch enterprises complements comparable histories on enterprises in the large Western countries published in English, French, or German. We need more books like this on the histories of business in the smaller countries to improve understanding of the transformation of enterprises and society in the twentieth century. You are not currently authenticated. View freely available titles: Chapter 7 : Project MUSE - Corporate Social Responsibility of Dutch Entrepreneurs in the Twentieth Centu Dutch Enterprise in the 20th Century: Business Strategies in Small Open Country - CRC Press Book This is the first book to summarise the twentieth century economic history of the Netherlands from a business history perspective. Page 13